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Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195268 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-526-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Antibiotics represent one of the most successful forms of therapy in medicine. But the efficiency of antibiotics is compromised by the growing number of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Antibiotic resistance, which is implicated in elevated morbidity and mortality rates as well as in the increased treatment costs, is considered to be one of the major global public health threats (www.who.int/drugresistance/en/) and the magnitude of the problem recently prompted a number of international and national bodies to take actions to protect the public (http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/health_consumer/docs/road-map-amr_en.pdf: http://www.who.int/drugresistance/amr_global_action_plan/en/; http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/docs/carb_national_strategy.pdf). Understanding the mechanisms by which bacteria successfully defend themselves against the antibiotic assault represent the main theme of this eBook published as a Research Topic in Frontiers in Microbiology, section of Antimicrobials, Resistance, and Chemotherapy. The articles in the eBook update the reader on various aspects and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. A better understanding of these mechanisms should facilitate the development of means to potentiate the efficacy and increase the lifespan of antibiotics while minimizing the emergence of antibiotic resistance among pathogens.

The Global Challenge Posed by the Multiresistant International Clones of Bacterial Pathogens

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452170 Year: Pages: 291 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-217-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Multiresistant bacterial pathogens pose a serious problem worldwide making the appropriate treatment of patients with healthcare-associated infections a challenge. The spread of antibiotic resistance is either mediated by mobile genetic elements (MGEs) or the dissemination of genetically-related groups of pathogens, “high-risk clonal complexes”. Interestingly most multiresistant healthcare-associated bacteria command just a few dominant international clonal complexes causing infections in various geographical areas. It is of utmost importance to identify the determinants associated with and promoting the spread of antibiotic resistance and the dissemination of these multiresistant pathogens. The Topic comprises mostly of population and epidemiological studies investigating antibiotic resistance mechanisms, MGEs and the impact of antibiotic resistance, and the production of virulence factors on the clonal dynamics of a diverse range of bacterial species. Though, the exploration of the mechanisms governing clonal dynamics and the dissemination of antibiotic resistance will remain a salient issue for a considerable time to come we believe that the papers published in the Topic have usefully contributed to the better understanding of some of the processes involved and supplement papers investigating the “non-bacterial” constituents of clonal mobility, like proper medical practice and compliance with hygienic standards.

Advances and Applications of Nano-antimicrobial Treatments

ISBN: 9783038423805 9783038423812 Year: Pages: 150 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-04-13 12:58:27
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Nowadays, great concerns are associated with the resistance demonstrated by many microorganisms towards the conventional antibiotic therapies. The failure of traditional antimicrobials, and the increasing healthcare costs, have encouraged scientific research and the development of novel antimicrobial agents. Particularly, there is a great deal of interest in nanotechnologies and in antibacterial products obtained through the incorporation of antibacterial agents or the deposition of antibacterial coatings for prevention of biofilm-associated infections.The main focus of the forthcoming Special Issue is, therefore, to present the most recent efforts in scientific research in the development of advanced antimicrobial materials, with special attention to nature-inspired antimicrobial agents and antimicrobials nanomaterials and nanocoatings. For this purpose, we intend to collect original research articles and reviews on the synthesis and characterization of antimicrobial agents, as well as on the development of antimicrobial products for different applications.

Role and prevalence of antibiosis and the related resistance genes in the environment

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195213 Year: Pages: 126 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-521-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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It becomes increasingly clear that the basis of antibiotic resistance problem among bacterial pathogens is not confined to the borders of clinical microbiology but has broader ecological and evolutionary associations. This Research Topic “Role and prevalence of antibiosis and the related resistance genes in the environment” in Frontiers in Microbiology, section Antimicrobials, Resistance and Chemotherapy, presents the examples of occurrence and diversity of antibiotic resistance genes in the wide range of environments, from the grasslands of the Colombian Andes, to the dairy farms and small animal veterinary hospitals in the United Stated, and to the various environments of Continental Europe and Indochina. Besides, various genetic mechanisms and selection/co-selection factors contributing to the dissemination and maintenance of antibiotic resistance genes are presented. The topic is finalized by the mathematical modeling approach to access the probability of rare horizontal gene transfer events in bacterial populations.

Anthropogenic Impacts on the Microbial Ecology and Function of Aquatic Environments

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199396 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-939-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Aquatic ecosystems are currently experiencing unprecedented levels of impact from human activities including over-exploitation of resources, habitat destruction, pollution and the influence of climate change. The impacts of these activities on the microbial ecology of aquatic environments are only now beginning to be defined. One of the many implications of environmental degradation and climate change is the geographical expansion of disease- causing microbes such as those from the Vibrio genus. Elevating sea surface temperatures correlate with increasing Vibrio numbers and disease in marine animals (e.g. corals) and humans. Contamination of aquatic environments with heavy metals and other pollutants affects microbial ecology with downstream effects on biogeochemical cycles and nutrient turnover. Also of importance is the pollution of aquatic environments with antibiotics, resistance genes and the mobile genetic elements that house resistance genes from human and animal waste. Such contaminated environments act as a source of resistance genes long after an antibiotic has ceased being used in the community. Environments contaminated with mobile genetic elements that are adapted to human commensals and pathogens function to capture new resistance genes for potential reintroduction back into clinical environments. This research topic encompasses these diverse topics and describes the affect(s) of human activity on the microbial ecology and function in aquatic environments and, describes methods of restoration and for modelling disturbances.

A Multidisciplinary Look at Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: An Emerging Multi-Drug-Resistant Global Opportunistic Pathogen

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453535 Year: Pages: 133 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-353-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a Gram-negative bacterium found in water, plant rhizospheres, animals, and foods. It is associated with a variety of infections in humans, involving respiratory tract (most common), soft tissue and bone, blood, eye, heart, and brain. This opportunistic pathogen is of serious concern to the immunocompromised patient population, and it is also being isolated with increasing frequency from the respiratory tract of individuals with cystic fibrosis. The observed increase worldwide in antibiotic resistance and the ability of this organism to make biofilms on epithelial cells and medical devices make it difficult for health-care personnel to treat infections caused by this pathogen. Recently, several genomes of S. maltophilia have been sequenced, revealing high genetic diversity among isolates. This pathogen uses a variety of molecular mechanisms to acquire and demonstrate resistance to an impressive array of antimicrobial drugs. Research has also focused on the pathogenesis of S. maltophilia in animal models and the resulting host immune response. S. maltophilia is recognized as an important organism in the plant microbiome. This environmental bacterium uses a diffusible signal mechanism for controlling its colonization and interaction with other bacteria and plants. S. maltophilia has also gained considerable research interest for its biotechnological applications, with recent studies on enzyme production, anti-biofilm strategies, biodegradation, and bioremediation. This e-book focuses on the latest developments in the areas of physiology, genomics, infection and immunity, host-pathogen interaction, pathogenesis, antimicrobial resistance and therapy, molecular epidemiology, applied and environmental microbiology, bioremediation and biotechnology.

Antimicrobial Resistance in Environmental Waters

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038976080 9783038976097 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-609-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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This Special Issue on Antimicrobial Resistance in Environmental Waters features 11 articles on the monitoring and surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in natural aquatic systems (i.e., reservoirs, rivers), and effluent discharge from water treatment plants to assess the effectiveness of AMR removal and resulting loads in treated waters.&nbsp;Some of the key elements of AMR studies presented in this Special Issue highlight the underlying drivers of AMR contamination in the environment and the evaluation of the hazard imposed on aquatic organisms in receiving environments through ecological risk assessments. As described in this Issue, screening antimicrobial peptide (AMP) libraries for biofilm disruption and antimicrobial candidates are promising avenues for the development of new treatment options to eradicate resistance.

Bad Bugs in the XXIst Century: Resistance Mediated by Multi-Drug Efflux Pumps in Gram-Negative Bacteria

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199310 Year: Pages: 193 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-931-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The discovery of antibiotics represented a key milestone in the history of medicine. However, with the rise of these life-saving drugs came the awareness that bacteria deploy defence mechanisms to resist these antibiotics, and they are good at it. Today, we appear at a crossroads between discovery of new potent drugs and omni-resistant superbugs. Moreover, the misuse of antibiotics in different industries has increased the rate of resistance development by providing permanent selective pressure and, subsequently, enrichment of multidrug resistant pathogens. As a result, antimicrobial resistance has now become an urgent threat to public health worldwide (http://www.who.int/drugresistance/documents/surveillancereport/en/). The development of multidrug resistance (MDR) in an increasing number of pathogens, including Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Burkholderia, and other Gram-negative bacteria is a most severe issue. Membrane efflux pump complexes of the Resistance-Nodulation-cell Division (RND) superfamily play a key role in the development of MDR in these bacteria. RND pumps, together with other transporters, contribute to intrinsic and acquired resistance to most, if not all, of the antimicrobial compounds available in our drug arsenal. Given the enormous drug polyspecificity of MDR efflux pumps, studies on their mechanism of action are extremely challenging, and this has negatively impacted both the development of new antibiotics that are able to evade these efflux pumps as well as the design of pump inhibitors. The collection of articles in this eBook, published as a Research Topic in Frontiers in Microbiology, section of Antimicrobials, Resistance, and Chemotherapy, aims to update the reader about the latest advances on the structure and function of RND efflux transporters, their roles in the overall multidrug resistance phenotype of Gram-negative pathogens, and on strategies to inhibit their activities. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms by which RND efflux pumps, alone or synergistically with other efflux pumps, are able to limit the concentration of antimicrobial compounds inside the bacterial cell, may pave the way for new, more directed, inhibitor and antibiotic design to ultimately overcome antimicrobial resistance by Gram-negatives.

Identification and Characterization of Antimicrobial Peptides with Therapeutic Potential

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ISBN: 9783038424628 9783038424635 Year: Pages: X, 280 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-27 08:54:14
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Antimicrobial peptides are key defense molecules adopted by all life forms to prevent infection. They also have other beneficial effects such as boosting immune response, anticancer, and wound healing. The antiviral effects of antimicrobial peptides have laid the foundations for developing new agents to combat seasonal Flu, HIV-1, RSV, Zika, and Ebola. This eBook is constructed to systematically deal with antimicrobial peptides from a variety of natural sources, including fungi, plants, and animals (insects, fish, amphibians, birds, and reptiles). It covers peptide discovery, antimicrobial activity, 3D structure, mechanisms of action and potential applications. Naturally Occurring Antimicrobial Peptides, an eBook published by the journal Pharmaceuticals, provides a helpful introduction to newcomers and refreshes the minds of veterans.

Biofilm-Based Nosocomial Infections

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ISBN: 9783038421351 9783038421368 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-136-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-12 12:14:31
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Microbial biofilms have been implicated in a large number of acute and chronic infections, as well as in the failure of antibiotic treatment, particularly in hospitalized patients. In fact, the well-known persistence in the nosocomial environment of multidrug resistant microorganisms is believed to be highly promoted by the ability of the great majority of the involved bacterial and fungal species to adhere on living or abiotic surfaces, and to grow in sessile mode, to form single- or multi-species biofilms. In these communities, microbes grow encased in a hydrated matrix of extracellular polymeric substances produced by themselves and are well protected from the host immune response and the attack of antimicrobial molecules. Thus, the establishment of microbial biofilm communities on the mucosal and soft tissues of hospitalized patients, as well as on the surfaces of indwelling devices and medical instruments, is expected to have a great influence on the success of the antibiotic therapies against most of the bugs involved in nosocomial infections, being biofilm-growing bacteria and fungi much less susceptible to antibiotics.

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