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A Multidisciplinary Look at Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: An Emerging Multi-Drug-Resistant Global Opportunistic Pathogen

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453535 Year: Pages: 133 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-353-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a Gram-negative bacterium found in water, plant rhizospheres, animals, and foods. It is associated with a variety of infections in humans, involving respiratory tract (most common), soft tissue and bone, blood, eye, heart, and brain. This opportunistic pathogen is of serious concern to the immunocompromised patient population, and it is also being isolated with increasing frequency from the respiratory tract of individuals with cystic fibrosis. The observed increase worldwide in antibiotic resistance and the ability of this organism to make biofilms on epithelial cells and medical devices make it difficult for health-care personnel to treat infections caused by this pathogen. Recently, several genomes of S. maltophilia have been sequenced, revealing high genetic diversity among isolates. This pathogen uses a variety of molecular mechanisms to acquire and demonstrate resistance to an impressive array of antimicrobial drugs. Research has also focused on the pathogenesis of S. maltophilia in animal models and the resulting host immune response. S. maltophilia is recognized as an important organism in the plant microbiome. This environmental bacterium uses a diffusible signal mechanism for controlling its colonization and interaction with other bacteria and plants. S. maltophilia has also gained considerable research interest for its biotechnological applications, with recent studies on enzyme production, anti-biofilm strategies, biodegradation, and bioremediation. This e-book focuses on the latest developments in the areas of physiology, genomics, infection and immunity, host-pathogen interaction, pathogenesis, antimicrobial resistance and therapy, molecular epidemiology, applied and environmental microbiology, bioremediation and biotechnology.

Plasma Technology for Biomedical Applications

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ISBN: 9783039287369 / 9783039287376 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-737-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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There is growing interest in the use of physical plasmas (ionized gases) for biomedical applications, especially in the framework of so-called “plasma medicine”, which exploits the action of low-power, atmospheric pressure plasmas for therapeutic purposes. Such plasmas are “cold plasmas”, in the sense that only electrons have a high temperature, whereas ions and the neutral gas particles are at or near room temperature. As a consequence, the “plasma flame” can be directly applied to living matter without appreciable thermal load. Reactive chemical species, charged particles, visible and UV radiation, and electric fields are interaction channels of the plasma with pathogens, cells, and tissues, which can trigger a variety of different responses. Possible applications include disinfection, wound healing, cancer treatment, non-thermal blood coagulation, just to mention some. The understanding of the mechanisms of plasma action on living matter requires a strongly interdisciplinary approach, with competencies ranging from plasma physics and technology to chemistry, to biology and finally to medicine. This book is a collection of work that explores recent advances in this field.

Biological Activities of Alkaloids: From Toxicology to Pharmacology

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ISBN: 9783039289271 / 9783039289288 Year: Pages: 270 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-928-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Natural products are increasingly attracting attention from both basic and applied science. Plant secondary metabolites, especially alkaloids, are receiving interest from a wide range of researchers due to their biological activity. They are produced to protect plants from diseases and herbivores. Therefore, they reveal a toxic activity that affects organisms at various levels of biological organization. A growing amount of research is proving their antimicrobial, antifungal, insecticidal, and anticancer activities. That makes them applicable in various fields from medicine, to pharmacology, veterinary, and toxicology, to crop protection. This Special Issue of Toxins, “Biological Activities of Alkaloids: From Toxicology to Pharmacology"", collects 15 manuscripts describing the ecological, biological, pharmacological, and toxicological effects as well as structural and analytical aspects of plant alkaloids, their mode of action, and possible application in veterinary, medicine, and plant protection. These studies prove the potential for alkaloid application in various areas of science.

Keywords

Arecoline --- lung cancer cells --- mAchR3 --- EGFR --- SRC --- FAK --- dehydrocrenatidine --- neuropathic pain --- voltage-gated sodium channels --- Solanum melongena L. --- malonylated form --- glycoalkaloids --- secondary metabolites --- solasonine --- solamargine --- malonyl-solamargine --- acetylcholinesterase --- antioxidant --- Ovarian cancer --- Rutidea parviflora --- Palmatine --- Apoptosis --- chanoclavine --- toxicology --- subchronic feeding study --- acute toxicity --- endophyte --- Epichloë --- plant secondary metabolites --- glycoalkaloids --- insect heart --- beetles --- insect --- Tenebrio molitor --- Radix Aconiti Lateralis preparations --- short-term and long-term usage --- di-ester diterpenoid alkaloids --- mono-ester diterpenoid alkaloids --- biodistribution --- ergot alkaloids --- livestock --- reproduction --- isoquinoline alkaloids --- antimicrobial activity --- Chelidonium majus --- cytotoxicity --- apoptosis --- sanguinarine --- berberine --- Chelidonium majus --- Berberis thunbergii --- leukemia --- anticancer --- natural products --- alkaloids --- plant secondary metabolites --- ?-carboline --- Staphylococcus aureus --- antimicrobial activity --- cytotoxicity --- acid-sensing ion channel subtype 1a --- bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid --- lindoldhamine --- nociception --- inflammation --- isoquinoline alkaloids --- HPLC-DAD --- cytotoxic activity --- Mahonia aquifolia --- Meconopsis cambrica --- Corydalis lutea --- Dicentra spectabilis --- Fumaria officinalis --- Macleaya cordata --- alkaloids --- natural sources --- anticancer --- antibacterial --- antiviral --- antifungal --- Curine --- alkaloid --- macrophage --- neutrophil --- lipopolysaccharide --- n/a

Foods of Plant Origin

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ISBN: 9783039285662 / 9783039285679 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-567-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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It is now well accepted that the consumption of plant-based foods is beneficial to human health. Fruits, vegetables, grains, and derived products can be excellent sources of minerals, vitamins, and fiber and usually have a favorable nutrient-to-energy ratio. Furthermore, plant foods are also a rich source of phytochemicals such as polyphenols, carotenoids, and betalains, with potential health benefits for humans. Many epidemiological studies have made a direct link between the consumption of plant foods and health. Human intervention studies have also shown that higher intake/consumption of plant foods can reduce the incidence of metabolic syndrome and other chronic diseases, especially in at-risk populations such as obese people. In addition to its health benefits, plant foods are also used as functional ingredients in food applications such as antioxidants, antimicrobials, and natural colorants. The Special Issue “Foods of Plant Origin” covers biodiscovery, functionality, the effect of different cooking/preparation methods on bioactive (plant food) ingredients, and strategies to improve the nutritional quality of plant foods by adding other food components using novel/alternative food sources or applying non-conventional preparation techniques.

Keywords

functional properties --- orange fleshed sweet potato --- vitamin A --- porridge --- skimmed milk --- durian --- esters --- thioacetals --- thioesters --- volatile compounds --- polyphenols --- propionate --- ‘Ma’afala’ --- Artocarpus altilis --- gluten-free pasta --- underutilized crop --- value-added product --- indigenous crop cultivar --- Cassava --- gari --- retention --- beta-carotene --- vitamin A intake --- Brassica --- stir-frying --- steaming --- boiling --- HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS --- UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS --- sulforaphane --- iberin --- Kakadu plum --- Terminalia ferdinandiana --- antioxidants --- antimicrobial activity --- food preservation --- phytochemicals --- polyphenols --- Australian grown garlic --- Allium sativum L. --- polyphenols --- organosulfur compounds --- antioxidant capacity --- antimicrobial activity --- photo technology --- shelf life --- Capsicum annuum L. --- postharvest quality --- bioactive compounds --- antioxidant activity --- folate --- tropical fruits --- subtropical fruits --- vegetables --- indigenous food --- stable isotope dilution assay --- LC-MS/MS --- Acca sellowiana --- feijoa fruit --- proximate composition --- polyphenols --- vitamins --- minerals --- antimicrobial activity --- Chenopodium quinoa --- bakery products --- DRIs/DRVs (Dietary Reference Intakes/Dietary Reference Values) and AI (Adequate Intake) --- FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) --- EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) --- protein quality --- polyunsaturated fatty acids --- dietary fibre --- mineral availability --- glycaemic index estimation --- Solanum tuberosum L. --- starch --- digestibility --- freeze-drying --- microwave vacuum drying --- conductive hydro-drying --- instant controlled pressure drop --- processing --- Brassica vegetables --- bioactive compounds --- postharvest processing --- kaempferol --- sinigrin --- plant food --- composition --- nutrients --- vitamins --- phytochemicals --- fibre --- processing --- preservation --- functional properties --- health

Silver Nano/microparticles: Modification and Applications

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ISBN: 9783039211777 9783039211784 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-178-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Nano/micro-size particles are widely applied in various fields. Among the various particles, silver particles are considered among the most prominent nanomaterials in the biomedical and industrial sectors because of their favorable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. Thus, numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate their properties and utilize them in various applications, such as diagnostics, anti-bacterial and anti-cancer therapeutics, and optoelectronics. The properties of silver particles are strongly influenced by their size, morphological shape, and surface characteristics, which can be modified by diverse synthetic methods, reducing agents, and stabilizers. This Special Issue provides a range of original contributions detailing the synthesis, modification, properties, and applications of silver materials. Nine outstanding papers describing examples of the most recent advances in silver nano/microparticles are included. Silver nano/micro-size particles have many potential advantages as next-generation materials in various areas, including nanomedicine. This Special Issue might be helpful to understand the value of silver particles in the biomedical and industrial fields

Genome Mining and Marine Microbial Natural Products

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ISBN: 9783039280902 9783039280919 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-091-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Microbiology --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Two review papers, eight research articles, and one brief report were published in this Special Issue. They showed the rich resources that are present within the genomes of marine microorganisms and discussed the use of recently developed tools and technologies to exploit this genetic richness. Examples include the rational supply of precursors according to the relevant biosynthetic pathway and stress driven discovery together with the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors to facilitate the discovery of new bioactive molecules with potential biopharmaceutical applications. We believe that the content of this Special Issue reflects the current state-of-the-art research in this area and highlights the interesting strategies that are being employed to uncover increasing numbers of exciting novel compounds for drug discovery from marine genetic resources.

Biological Potential and Medical Use of Secondary Metabolites

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ISBN: 9783039211876 9783039211883 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-188-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Many macro and micro species, from terrestrial and aquatic environments, produce structurally unique compounds and, in many countries, still are the primary sources of medicines. In fact, secondary metabolites are an important source of chemotherapeutic agents but are also lead compounds for synthetic modification and the optimization of biological activity. Therefore, the exploitation of secondary metabolites, or their inspired synthetic compounds, offers excellent opportunities for the pharmaceutical industry. This Medicines Special Issue focuses on the great potential of secondary metabolites for therapeutic application. The Special Issue contains 16 articles reporting relevant experimental results, and an overview of bioactive secondary metabolites, their biological effects, and new methodologies that improve and accelerate the process of obtained lead compounds with regard to new drug development. We would like to thank all 83 authors, from all over the world, for their valuable contributions to this Special Issue.

Keywords

Juniperus --- secondary metabolites --- diterpenes --- flavonoids --- lignans --- cytotoxic --- antitumor --- antibacterial --- amentoflavone --- deoxypodophyllotoxin --- frankincense --- Boswellia --- cembranoids --- cneorubenoids --- boswellic acids --- molecular docking --- Scabiosa --- flavonoids --- iridoids --- pentacyclic triterpenoids --- antioxidant --- anti-inflammatory --- antibacterial --- anticancer --- Cordyceps militaris --- xanthine oxidase --- antioxidant --- antibacterial --- cordycepin --- GC-MS --- Artemisia species --- Artemisia vachanica --- artemisinin --- HPLC-PAD --- Tajikistan --- Malus x domestica --- Tuscany --- ancient varieties --- nutraceutics --- antioxidants --- polyphenols --- sugars --- pectin --- defensins --- secondary metabolites --- plant defense --- antimicrobial and anticancer activity --- medicine --- innate immunity --- cannabis --- cannabinoids --- therapeutics --- toxicology --- analytical determination --- legalization --- natural products --- biosynthetic gene clusters --- secondary metabolites --- antiSMASH --- Mitragyna speciosa --- kratom --- secondary metabolites --- therapeutic uses --- toxicology --- analysis --- Maytenus chiapensis --- Celastraceae --- quinonemethide triterpenoids --- pristimerin --- tingenone --- HPLC-PDA --- Ocimum sanctum --- Lamiaceae --- (-)-rabdosiin --- cytotoxic activity --- triterpenoids --- phenolic derivatives --- nanoemulsion --- essential oils --- vector control --- infectious diseases --- TCM --- phytochemistry --- LC-MS/MS --- antioxidant activity --- ABTS --- DPPH --- FRAP --- ascorbic acid --- EGCG --- total phenolics --- antimicrobial activity --- sargaquinoic acid --- sarganaphthoquinoic acid --- antiplasmodial --- malaria --- PPAR-? --- sargahydroquinoic acid --- sarganaphthoquinoic acid --- sargachromenoic acid --- inflammation --- bowel diseases --- secondary metabolites --- biological activities --- medicinal applications --- plants --- seaweeds

The Close Linkage between Nutrition and Environment through Biodiversity and Sustainability: Local Foods, Traditional Recipes and Sustainable Diets

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ISBN: 9783039213832 9783039213849 Year: Pages: 216 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-384-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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The Close Linkage between Nutrition and Environment through Biodiversity and Sustainability: Local Foods, Traditional Recipes, and Sustainable Diets” is focused on the close correlation between the potential benefits and “functional role” of food and territory, and it includes papers on the characterization of local foods and traditional recipes as well as on the promotion of traditional dietary patterns and sustainable diets.

Keywords

Italian garlic --- carbohydrates --- fructans --- dietary fibre --- soluble sugars --- cultivar --- environmental conditions --- agave sap --- actinomycetes --- anticancer activity --- saponins --- metabolomics --- ecosystem goods and services --- environmental sustainability --- livelihood needs --- Schinziophyton rautanenii --- Southern Africa --- sustainable development goals --- sustainable diets --- alkaloids --- antimicrobial activity --- germplasm --- Klebsiella --- landraces --- lupanine --- Pseudomonas --- varieties --- traditional food --- antimicrobial --- bioassay --- PIRG --- fractions --- consumer culture theory --- post millennials --- cheese --- loyalty --- Cyprus --- traditional food --- traditional sausages --- conventional sausages --- traditional hams --- conventional hams --- traditional meat products --- pork --- fatty acids --- mountain --- sustainability --- altitude --- food --- health --- FTIR-ATR --- traditional Italian recipes --- chemometrics --- PCA --- Olea europaea L. --- olive oil --- geographical origin --- processing system --- harvesting time --- olive oil quality --- fatty acid composition --- sensorial evaluation --- consumer preferences --- agro-ecology biodiversity --- climate resilience --- health --- local foods --- bioactive components --- traditional recipes --- traditional dietary patterns --- edible plants --- Mediterranean --- innovative gastronomy --- tetraploid wheat --- metallomics --- macronutrients --- micronutrients --- plants adaptability --- Provolone del Monaco --- traditional foods --- biodiversity --- sustainability --- nutritional composition --- bioactive components --- typical/local foods --- environmental and socio-demographic factors --- traditional recipes --- sustainable diets --- traditional dietary patterns --- Food Composition Databases

Polyphenolic Antioxidants from Agri-Food Waste Biomass

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ISBN: 9783039286744 / 9783039286751 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-675-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The re-use of industrial food residues is essential in the general framework of rational waste handling and recycling, which aims at the minimizing environmental impact of food production and producing functional food ingredients. Agri-food processing waste has long been considered a valuable biomass with a significant polyphenol load and profile. Polyphenols, aside from being powerful antioxidants that confer inherent stability to a variety of foods, may possess versatile bioactivities including anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties. The valorization of agri-food waste as a prominent source of polyphenols stems from the enormous amount of food-related material discharged worldwide and the emerging eco-friendly technologies that allow high recovery, recycling, and sustainable use of these materials. This book addresses the concept of recovering natural polyphenolic antioxidants from waste biomass generated by agri-food and related industrial processes and presents state-of-the-art applications with prospect in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries.

Venom and Toxin as Targeted Therapy

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ISBN: 9783039211890 9783039211906 Year: Pages: 180 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-190-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Targeted therapy has developed significantly in the last one and half decades, prescribing specific medications for treatment of particular diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. One of the most exciting recent developments in targeted therapies was the isolation of disease-specific molecules from natural resources, such as animal venoms and plant metabolites/toxins, for use as templates for new drug motif designs. In addition, the study of venom proteins/peptides and toxins naturally targeted mammalian receptors and demonstrated high specificity and selectivity towards defined ion channels of cell membranes. Research has also focsed intensely on receptors. The focus of this Special Issue of Toxins addressed the most recent advances using animal venoms, such as frog secretions, bee/ant venoms and plant/fungi toxins, as medicinal therapy. Recent advances in venom/toxin/immunotoxins for targeted cancer therapy and immunotherapy, along with using novel disease-specific venom-based protein/peptide/toxin and currently available FDA-approved drugs for combinationtreatments will be discussed. Finally, we included an overview of select promising toad/snake venom-based peptides/toxins potentially able to address the forthcoming challenges in this field. Both research and review articles proposing novelties or overviews, respectively, were published in this Special Issue after rigorous evaluation and revision by expert peer reviewers.

Keywords

disintegrin --- blood vessel formation --- VEGF --- antioxidant enzymes --- oxidative stress biomarkers --- bicarinalin --- antimicrobial peptide --- Helicobacter pylori --- gastric cells --- bacterial adhesion --- SEM --- atopic dermatitis (AD) --- house dust mite extract (DFE) --- 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) --- bee venom phospholipase A2 (bvPLA2) --- skin inflammation --- CD206 --- mannose receptor --- immunotoxin --- Moxetumomab pasudotox --- targeted therapy --- CD22 --- B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma --- acute lymphoblastic leukemia --- mantle cell lymphoma --- ribosome-inactivating protein --- BLF1 --- eIF4A --- MYCN --- cancer --- neuroblastoma --- apoptosis --- antimicrobial peptide (AMP) --- dermaseptin --- anuran skin secretion --- drug design --- antimicrobial activity --- anticancer activity --- antiviral activity --- Bougainvillea --- bouganin --- cancer therapy --- immunotherapy --- immunotoxins --- ribosome-inactivating proteins --- rRNA N-glycosylase activity --- VB6-845 --- orellanine --- clearance --- fungal toxin --- half-life --- toad toxins --- Chansu --- Huachansu --- cane toad --- bufadienolides --- indolealkylamines --- inflammation --- cancer --- obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) --- snake venom --- cancer --- target therapy --- snake venom --- Malaysian cobras --- N. kaouthia --- N. sumatrana --- O. hannah --- anticancer --- Apis mellifera syriaca --- bee venom --- melittin --- LC-ESI-MS --- solid phase extraction --- in vitro effects --- frog --- mass spectrometry --- molecular cloning --- bombesin-related peptide --- smooth muscle --- Bee venom --- complement system --- decay accelerating factor --- atopic dermatitis --- complement dependent cytotoxicity --- membrane attack complex --- n/a

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