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Ecological Monitoring, Assessment, and Management in Freshwater Systems

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ISBN: 9783038422662 9783038422679 Year: Pages: XVI, 422 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-267-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-11-04 10:16:09
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Today, sustainability of a healthy freshwater ecosystem and its associated ecosystem services are hot issues with ever-growing attention placed upon them. We are increasingly recognizing that they are crucial for the survival of the aquatic biota and human beings on our planet.The efficient monitoring of water resources is fundamental for effective management of water quality and aquatic ecosystems. The first stage in sustainable ecosystem management is the evaluation of the current status of target ecosystems. Traditionally, and even today, physico-chemical parameters have mainly been used to evaluate the quality of water resources. However, they have a large limit to grab the wholeness of water system, particularly in the sense of ecosystem health and integrity, for which ecological monitoring should be based on biological factors. Various approaches are applicable to ecosystem health assessment at different levels of the biological hierarchy, from genes to ecosystems.This Special Issue is designed to improve scientific understanding and strategies for sound aquatic ecosystem management and services for researchers, decision makers, and stakeholders.

Antibiotic Resistance in Aquatic Systems

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451319 Year: Pages: 107 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-131-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Rivers, lakes and the ocean receive antibiotic resistance genes from human environments. The aquatic environments are a huge reservoir and exchange stage of antibiotic resistance genes.

Marine Carbon Biogeochemistry

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Book Series: SpringerBriefs in Earth System Sciences ISBN: 9783030108229 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-10822-9 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Geography --- Geology --- Earth Sciences --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-04 11:21:11
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This open access book discusses biogeochemical processes relevant to carbon and aims to provide readers, graduate students and researchers, with insight into the functioning of marine ecosystems. A carbon centric approach has been adopted, but other elements are included where relevant or needed. The book focuses on concepts and quantitative understanding of primary production, organic matter mineralization and sediment biogeochemistry. The impact of biogeochemical processes on inorganic carbon dynamics and organic matter transformation are also discussed.

Ecological Risk Assessment for Chlorpyrifos in Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems in North America

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Book Series: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology ISSN: 21976554 ISBN: 9783319038643 9783319038650 Year: Volume: 231 Pages: 282 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-03865-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Biotechnology --- Environmental Sciences --- Manufactures --- Pharmacy and materia medica
Added to DOAB on : 2014-07-25 15:51:35
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This book attempts to provide concise, critical reviews of timely advances, philosophy and significant areas of accomplished or needed endeavor in the total field of xenobiotics, in any segment of the environment, as well as toxicological implications.

The Microbial Regulation of Global Biogeochemical Cycles

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192977 Year: Pages: 241 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-297-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Geography --- Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:07
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Global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nutrients are increasingly affected by human activities. So far, modeling has been central for our understanding of how this will affect ecosystem functioning and the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients. These models have been forced to adopt a reductive approach built on the flow of carbon and nutrients between pools that are difficult or even impossible to verify with empirical evidence. Furthermore, while some of these models include the response in physiology, ecology and biogeography of primary producers to environmental change, the microbial part of the ecosystem is generally poorly represented or lacking altogether. The principal pool of carbon and nutrients in soil is the organic matter. The turnover of this reservoir is governed by microorganisms that act as catalytic converters of environmental conditions into biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients. The dependency of this conversion activity on individual environmental conditions such as pH, moisture and temperature has been frequently studied. On the contrary, only rarely have the microorganisms involved in carrying out the processes been identified, and one of the biggest challenges for advancing our understanding of biogeochemical processes is to identify the microorganisms carrying out a specific set of metabolic processes and how they partition their carbon and nutrient use. We also need to identify the factors governing these activities and if they result in feedback mechanisms that alter the growth, activity and interaction between primary producers and microorganisms. By determining how different groups of microorganisms respond to individual environmental conditions by allocating carbon and nutrients to production of biomass, CO2 and other products, a mechanistic as well as quantitative understanding of formation and decomposition of organic matter, and the production and consumption of greenhouse gases, can be achieved. In this Research Topic, supported by the Swedish research councils' programme "Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in a Changing Landscape" (BECC), we intend to promote this alternative framework to address how cycling of carbon and nutrients will be altered in a changing environment from the first-principle mechanisms that drive them – namely the ecology, physiology and biogeography of microorganisms – and on up to emerging global biogeochemical patterns. This novel and unconventional approach has the potential to generate fresh insights that can open up new horizons and stimulate rapid conceptual development in our basic understanding of the regulating factors for global biogeochemical cycles. The vision for the research topic is to facilitate such progress by bringing together leading scientists as proponents of several disciplines. By bridging Microbial Ecology and Biogeochemistry, connecting microbial activities at the micro-scale to carbon fluxes at the ecosystem-scale, and linking above- and belowground ecosystem functioning, we can leap forward from the current understanding of the global biogeochemical cycles.

Anthropogenic Impacts on the Microbial Ecology and Function of Aquatic Environments

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199396 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-939-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Aquatic ecosystems are currently experiencing unprecedented levels of impact from human activities including over-exploitation of resources, habitat destruction, pollution and the influence of climate change. The impacts of these activities on the microbial ecology of aquatic environments are only now beginning to be defined. One of the many implications of environmental degradation and climate change is the geographical expansion of disease- causing microbes such as those from the Vibrio genus. Elevating sea surface temperatures correlate with increasing Vibrio numbers and disease in marine animals (e.g. corals) and humans. Contamination of aquatic environments with heavy metals and other pollutants affects microbial ecology with downstream effects on biogeochemical cycles and nutrient turnover. Also of importance is the pollution of aquatic environments with antibiotics, resistance genes and the mobile genetic elements that house resistance genes from human and animal waste. Such contaminated environments act as a source of resistance genes long after an antibiotic has ceased being used in the community. Environments contaminated with mobile genetic elements that are adapted to human commensals and pathogens function to capture new resistance genes for potential reintroduction back into clinical environments. This research topic encompasses these diverse topics and describes the affect(s) of human activity on the microbial ecology and function in aquatic environments and, describes methods of restoration and for modelling disturbances.

Virus Ecology and Disturbances: Impact of Environmental Disruption on the Viruses of Microorganisms

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194483 Year: Pages: 94 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-448-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Viruses infect numerous microorganisms including, predominantly, Bacteria (bacteriophages or phages) but also Archaea, Protists, and Fungi. They are the most abundant and ubiquitous biological entities on Earth and are important drivers of ecosystem functioning. Little is known, however, about the vast majority of these viruses of microorganisms, or VoMs. Modern techniques such as metagenomics have enabled the discovery and description of more presumptive VoMs than ever before, but also have exposed gaps in our understanding of VoM ecology. Exploring the ecology of these viruses – which is how they interact with host organisms, the abiotic environment, larger organisms, and even other viruses across a variety of environments and conditions – is the next frontier. Integration of a growing molecular understanding of VoMs with ecological studies will expand our knowledge of ecosystem dynamics. Ecology can be studied at multiple levels including individual organisms, populations, communities, whole ecosystems, and the entire biosphere. Ecology additionally can consider normal, equilibrium conditions or instead perturbations. Perturbations are of particular interest because measuring the effect of disturbances on VoM-associated communities provides important windows into how VoMs contribute to ecosystem dynamics. These disturbances in turn can be studied through in vitro, in vivo, and in situ experimentation, measuring responses by VoM-associated communities to changes in nutrient availability, stress, physical disruption, seasonality, etc., and could apply to studies at all ecological levels. These are considered here across diverse systems and environments.

Roles and mechanisms of parasitism in aquatic microbial communities

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195886 Year: Pages: 153 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-588-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Next Generation Sequencing technologies are increasingly revealing that microbial taxa likely to be parasites or symbionts are probably much more prevalent and diverse than previously thought. Every well studied free-living species has parasites; parasites themselves can be parasitized. As a rule of thumb, there is an estimated 4 parasitic species for any given host, and the better a host is studied the more parasites are known to infect it. Therefore, parasites and other symbionts should represent a very large number of species and may far outnumber those with 'free-living' lifestyles. Paradoxically, free-living hosts, which form the bulk of our knowledge of biology, may be a minority! Microbial parasites typically are characterized by their small size, short generation time, and high rates of reproduction, with simple life cycle occurring generally within a single host. They are diverse and ubiquitous in the environment, comprising viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes. This Frontiers Research Topic sought to provide a broad overview but concise, comprehensive, well referenced and up-to-date state of the art for everyone involved with microbial parasites in aquatic microbial ecology.

Water Resource Systems Planning and Management: An Introduction to Methods, Models, and Applications

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ISBN: 9783319442327 9783319442341 Year: Pages: 624 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-44234-1 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-04-11 12:26:06
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This revised, updated textbook presents a systems approach to the planning, management, and operation of water resources infrastructure in the environment. Previously published in 2005 by UNESCO and Deltares (Delft Hydraulics at the time), this new edition, written again with contributions from Jery R. Stedinger, Jozef P. M. Dijkman, and Monique T. Villars, is aimed equally at students and professionals. It introduces readers to the concept of viewing issues involving water resources as a system of multiple interacting components and scales. It offers guidelines for initiating and carrying out water resource system planning and management projects. It introduces alternative optimization, simulation, and statistical methods useful for project identification, design, siting, operation and evaluation and for studying post-planning issues. The authors cover both basin-wide and urban water issues and present ways of identifying and evaluating alternatives for addressing multiple-purpose and multi-objective water quantity and quality management challenges. Reinforced with cases studies, exercises, and media supplements throughout, the text is ideal for upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses in water resource planning and management as well as for practicing planners and engineers in the field.

Riverine Ecosystem Management: Science for Governing Towards a Sustainable Future

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Book Series: Aquatic Ecology Series ISBN: 9783319732497 9783319732503 Year: Volume: 8 Pages: 571 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73250-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: Universität für Bodenkultur Wien
Subject: Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-02 11:38:32
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This open access book surveys the frontier of scientific river research and provides examples to guide management towards a sustainable future of riverine ecosystems. Principal structures and functions of the biogeosphere of rivers are explained; key threats are identified, and effective solutions for restoration and mitigation are provided.Rivers are among the most threatened ecosystems of the world. They increasingly suffer from pollution, water abstraction, river channelisation and damming. Fundamental knowledge of ecosystem structure and function is necessary to understand how human acitivities interfere with natural processes and which interventions are feasible to rectify this.Modern water legislation strives for sustainable water resource management and protection of important habitats and species. However, decision makers would benefit from more profound understanding of ecosystem degradation processes and of innovative methodologies and tools for efficient mitigation and restoration. The book provides best-practice examples of sustainable river management from on-site studies, European-wide analyses and case studies from other parts of the world. This book will be of interest to researchers in the field of aquatic ecology, river system functioning, conservation and restoration, to postgraduate students, to institutions involved in water management, and to water related industries.

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