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Groundwater Resources and Salt Water Intrusion in a Changing Environment

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ISBN: 9783039211975 9783039211982 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-198-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This Special Issue presents the work of 30 scientists from 11 countries. It confirms that the impacts of global change, resulting from both climate change and increasing anthropogenic pressure, are huge on worldwide coastal areas (and critically so on some islands in the Pacific Ocean), with highly negative effects on coastal groundwater resources, which are widely affected by seawater intrusion. Some improved research methods are proposed in the contributions: using innovative hydrogeological, geophysical, and geochemical monitoring; assessing impacts of the changing environment on the coastal groundwater resources in terms of quantity and quality; and using modelling, especially to improve management approaches. The scientific research needed to face these challenges must continue to be deployed by different approaches based on the monitoring, modelling and management of groundwater resources. Novel and more efficient methods must be developed to keep up with the accelerating pace of global change.

Environmental Tracers

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ISBN: 9783906980911 9783906980928 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-906980-92-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 06:33:29
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Aquifer resources continue to be overexploited, leaving the world's most impoverished (or vulnerable) populations and/or the aquatic environment at an ever increasing risk from climate change. Adaptation strategies demand detailed evaluation and management of water as a resource, requiring an understanding of the chemical, geological (hydrogeological/geohydrological) and biological interactions that waters effect or undergo in the hydrologic cycle. Environmental tracers are ambient natural or man-made compounds widely distributed in the Earth’s near-surface. They may be injected into the hydrological system from the atmosphere at recharge and/or are added/lost/exchanged inherently as waters flow over and through materials. Variations in their chemical abundances and isotopic compositions can be used as tracers to determine sources (provenance), pathways (of reaction or interaction) and also timescales (dating) of environmental processes. Water dating may invoke their characteristic decay or accumulation functions, (cf. radioactive and radiogenic compounds and isotopes) in a system or the characteristic injection of sources. Environmental tracers in groundwater systems can give information both on current and past flow conditions independently of hydraulic analyses and modelling. Thus, environmental tracers generically are important tools for developing sustainable management policies for the protection of water resources and the aquatic environment.Recent overviews have highlighted how most environmental tracer systematics have become well-established through proof-of-concept studies in geochemically and hydraulically simple aquifers. The challenge now lies in enhancing the way they are put to use by the hydrologic community and water resource managers in more complex systems (e.g. inter- and intra-aquifer mixing; aquifers as distributed water systems – water coming in at one point is going somewhere, and pumping of water represents an interception) and how they may be used to address issues of vulnerability, sustainability, and uncertainty in water resource systems (including resource, flooding, drought, climate justice, water and food security, water footprints, etc.).

Water Resources Assessment and Management in Drylands

ISBN: 9783038422471 9783038422488 Year: Pages: XXII, 302 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-15 12:12:28
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Drylands are fragile environments and, therefore, highly susceptible to environmental changes. They cover nearly 50% of the world’s land surface and are increasingly being reclaimed by a growing population for food production and urbanization. This makes water resources management in drylands an extremely important issue. The unplanned water resources development may result in aquifer depletion, soil and/or water salinization, loss of water through evapotranspiration due to inadequate irrigation systems, and land degradation (e.g., soil erosion, soil crusting, and sand encroachment).

Melt Water Retention Processes in Snow and Firn on Ice Sheets and Glaciers: Observations and Modeling

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456192 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-619-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Melt takes place where the surface of glaciers or ice sheets interacts with the atmosphere. While the processes governing surface melt are fairly well understood, the pathways of the meltwater, from its origin to the moment it leaves a glacier system, remain enigmatic. It is not even guaranteed that meltwater leaves a glacier or ice sheet. On Greenland, for example, only slightly more than 50% of the meltwater runs off. The remainder mostly refreezes within the so-called firn cover of the ice sheet. This eBook contains 11 studies which tackle the challenge of understanding meltwater retention in snow and firn from various angles. The studies focus both on mountain glaciers and on the Greenland ice sheet and address challenges such as measuring firn properties, quantifying their influence on meltwater retention, modelling firn processes and meltwater refreezing as well as unravelling the mechanisms within the recently discovered Greenland firn aquifers.

Environmental Fate of Emerging Organic Micro-Contaminants

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ISBN: 9783039213672 9783039213689 Year: Pages: 128 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-368-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The toxicity and fate of pharmaceuticals and other emerging micro-organic contaminants in the natural and built environments have been the focus of much research over the last twenty years. Particular focus has recently centred on the fate of antimicrobial chemicals, including antibiotics and antifungals. The occurrence of such chemicals in the environment is thought to contribute to the selection of resistance in exposed microorganisms.This Special Issue (SI) brings together a broad range of recent advances in the field of emerging micro-organic contaminants, ranging from medicinal contaminants to industrial chemicals in the environment. Notably, these range from chemical extraction and large-scale analysis to adverse effects on non-target aquatic organisms and potential risk to humans via contaminated foodstuffs. Additionally, this Special Issue also presents novel contaminant treatment/degradation methods of both physical and biological nature.

Progress in Water Footprint Assessment

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039210381 9783039210398 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-039-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Water Footprint Assessment is a young research field that considers how freshwater use, scarcity, and pollution relate to consumption, production, and trade patterns. This book presents a wide range of studies within this new field. It is argued that collective and coordinated action - at different scale levels and along all stages of commodity supply chains - is necessary to bring about more sustainable, efficient, and equitable water use. The presented studies range from farm to catchment and country level, and show how different actors along the supply chain of final commodities can contribute to more sustainable water use in the chain.

Removal of Organic Pollution in Water Environment

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ISBN: 9783039218400 9783039218417 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-841-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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The development of civilization entails a growing demand for consumer goods. A side effect of the production and use of these materials is the production of solid waste and wastewater. Municipal and industrial wastewater usually contains a large amount of various organic compounds and is the main source of pollution of the aquatic environment. Therefore, the search for effective methods of wastewater and other polluted water treatment is an important element of caring for the natural environment. This book presents research on the determination and removal of environmentally hazardous organic compounds from aqueous samples. The articles included in this book describe the results of examinations, at the laboratory scale, of the efficiency of chemical as well as physical processes for the removal or degradation of selected model pollutants. Environmental studies, especially those concerning the determination of trace impurities, require effective isolation and concentration procedures. The methods used for this purpose should meet the requirements of green chemistry. The liquid phase microextraction procedures and use of electrochemical methods described in this book seem to be proper for environmental studies, as they are effective and environmentally friendly.

Clean Energy and Fuel (Hydrogen) Storage

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ISBN: 9783039216307 9783039216314 Year: Pages: 278 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-631-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Clean energy and fuel storage are often required for both stationary and automotive applications. Some of these clean energy and fuel storage technologies currently under extensive research and development include hydrogen storage, direct electric storage, mechanical energy storage, solar–thermal energy storage, electrochemical (batteries and supercapacitors), and thermochemical storage. The gravimetric and volumetric storage capacity, energy storage density, power output, operating temperature and pressure, cycle life, recyclability, and cost of clean energy or fuel storage are some of the factors that govern efficient energy and fuel storage technologies for potential deployment in energy harvesting (solar and wind farms) stations and onboard vehicular transportation. This Special Issue thus serves the need for promoting exploratory research and development on clean energy and fuel storage technologies while addressing their challenges to practical and sustainable infrastructures.

Keywords

dye-sensitized solar cells --- carbon materials --- Ag nanoparticles --- freestanding TiO2 nanotube arrays --- gas turbine engine --- lean direct injection --- four-point --- low emissions combustion --- carbonate gas reservoirs --- water invasion --- recovery factor --- aquifer size --- production rate --- hydrogen storage --- complex hydrides --- nanocatalyst --- LiNH2 --- MgH2 --- ball milling --- Li-ion batteries --- nanocomposite materials --- cathode --- anode --- binder --- separator --- ionic liquid --- vertically oriented graphene --- electrical double layers --- charge density --- capacitance --- gas storage --- material science --- rock permeability --- synthetic rock salt testing --- Klinkenberg method --- hydrogen storage systems --- hydrogen absorption --- thermochemical energy storage --- metal hydride --- magnetism --- heat transfer enhancement --- Power to Liquid --- Fischer–Tropsch --- dynamic modeling --- lab-scale --- lithium-ion batteries --- simplified electrochemical model --- state of charge estimator --- extended kalman filter --- hot summer and cold winter area --- PCM roof --- comprehensive incremental benefit --- conjugate phase change heat transfer --- lattice Boltzmann method --- large-scale wind farm --- auxiliary services compensation --- battery energy storage system --- optimal capacity --- equivalent loss of cycle life --- hydrogen storage --- porous media --- bacterial sulfate reduction --- methanogenesis --- gas loss --- diffusion --- reactive transport modeling --- PHREEQC --- energy discharge --- bubbles burst --- bubbles transportation --- crystal growth rates --- undercooling --- salt cavern --- leaching tubing --- flutter instability --- flow-induced vibration --- internal and reverse external axial flows --- thermal energy storage (TES) --- slag --- regenerator --- concentrated solar power (CSP) --- quality function deployment (QFD) --- failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) --- thermal energy storage --- electrochemical energy storage --- hydrogen energy storage --- salt cavern energy storage

Virus Bioinformatics

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039218820 9783039218837 Year: Pages: 330 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-883-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Virus bioinformatics is evolving and succeeding as an area of research in its own right, representing the interface of virology and computer science. Bioinformatic approaches to investigate viral infections and outbreaks have become central to virology research, and have been successfully used to detect, control, and treat infections of humans and animals. As part of the Third Annual Meeting of the European Virus Bioinformatics Center (EVBC), we have published this Special Issue on Virus Bioinformatics.

Keywords

bioinformatics --- virus --- comparative genomics --- software --- Base-By-Base --- BBB --- poxvirus --- ASFV --- MSA --- foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) --- bovine soft palate --- nasopharynx --- transcriptomics --- proteomics --- bioinformatics --- virus-host interaction --- innate immune system --- interferon-stimulated genes (ISG) --- cellular immunity --- codon frequency distribution --- HPV58 --- minor capsid protein --- TLR agonist --- prophylaxis --- virus --- infection --- fluorescent reporter protein --- image quantification --- Hepatitis C virus --- Yellow Fever Virus --- polyomavirus --- Coxsackievirus B4 --- bivalve --- virome --- RNA-seq --- RNA viruses --- sncRNA --- ADAR --- RNAi --- Marek’s disease virus (MDV) --- RNA-seq --- transcriptome --- splicing --- polycistronic viral transcripts --- primary B cells --- RB1B --- CVI988/Rispens --- ICP0 --- DNA replication --- ori --- mitochondria --- Rickettsia --- gram-positive bacteria --- APMV --- Mimivirus --- giant virus --- eukaryogenesis --- flavivirus --- non-coding RNA --- secondary structure --- endogenous viral elements --- bioinformatics --- horizontal gene transfer --- virus-to-host gene transfer --- HMM --- tobacco mosaic virus --- Drosophila --- capsid protein --- deep sequencing --- virus genomics --- hepatitis C virus --- variant calling --- sequence interpretation --- drug resistance --- bioinformatics --- alignment --- assembly --- taxonomic classification --- time series --- data transformation --- DWT --- DFT --- PAA --- data compression --- compressive genomics --- RNAseq --- honey bees --- deformed wing virus --- quasispecies --- apiary pests --- recombination --- mRNA structure --- structure database --- secondary structure --- viral mRNA --- subVOG --- structurally related --- RNA structure --- structurally homogenous --- structurally related --- mRNA families --- Amebae viruses --- viral evolution --- protein domains --- mimivirus --- dsdna viruses --- translation machinery --- pandoravirus --- NCLDV --- virology --- virus bioinformatics --- software --- systems virology --- metagenomics --- virome --- viral taxonomy --- virus classification --- genome evolution --- bacteriophage --- virosphere --- chemical organization theory --- influenza A --- virus dynamics modeling --- complex networks analysis --- viral metagenome --- groundwater --- aquifer --- AquaDiva --- sequencing library preparation --- virus proteomics --- mass spectrometry --- virus diagnostics --- data analysis --- targeted proteomics --- peptide selection --- parallel reaction monitoring

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