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Pathophysiology and epidemiology of virus-induced asthma

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194100 Year: Pages: 99 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-410-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Virus-caused asthma, we now call a phenotype of asthma. Regardless of the significance and popularity of this disease, the etiology of the virus-induced asthma have not well understood. In addition, a few effective vaccines have been applied to prevent respiratory virus infection. To solve the issues, it is essential to clarify and delineate both aspects of the virus and host defense systems including acute/chronic inflammation and airway tissue remodeling. To deeply review and discuss pathophysiology and epidemiology of virus-induced asthma, this topics includes new findings of the host immunity, pathology, epidemiology, and virology of asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We believe that these works are well summarized and informative to glimpse the field of virus- associated asthma and COPD, and may help understanding the basic and clinical aspects of the diseases.

Chronic inflammation in conditions associated with a deficient clearance of dying and dead cells, their remnants, and intracellular constituents

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196012 Year: Pages: 73 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-601-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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In multicellular organisms, states with a high degree of tissue turnover like embryogenesis, development, and adult tissue homeostasis need an instantaneous, tightly regulated and immunologically silent clearance of these dying cells to ensure appropriate development of the embryo and adult tissue remodelling. The proper and swift clearance of apoptotic cells is essential to prevent cellular leakage of damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) which would lead to the stimulation of inflammatory cytokine responses. In addition to the clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis), backup mechanisms are required to cope with DAMPs (HMGB-1, DNA, RNA, S100 molecules, ATP and adenosine) and other intracellular material (uric acid, intracellular proteins and their aggregates) released from cells, that were not properly cleared and have entered the stage of secondary necrosis. Furthermore, under certain pathologic conditions (e.g. gout, cancer, diabetes) non-apoptotic cell death may transiently occur (NETosis, necroptosis, pyroptosis) which generates material that also has to be cleared to avoid overloading tissues with non-functional cellular waste. Efficient efferocytosis is therefore indispensable for normal tissue turnover and homeostasis. The characterization of various signalling pathways that regulate this complex and evolutionary conserved process has shed light on new pathogenetic mechanisms of many diseases. Impaired clearance promotes initiation of autoimmunity as well as the perpetuation of chronic inflammation, but may also foster anti-tumor immunity under certain microenvironmental conditions. Immunological tolerance is continuously being challenged by the presence of post-apoptotic remnants in peripheral lymphoid tissues. Besides the autoimmune phenotype of chronic inflammatory rheumatoid disorders a plethora of pathologies have been associated with defects in genes involved in clearance, e.g. atherosclerosis, cancer, gout, diabetes, some forms of blindness, neuropathy, schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease. The main goal of this research topic is to collect contributions from various disciplines committed to studying pathogenetic mechanisms of the aforementioned disorders and dealing with alterations in the clearance of dying and dead cells, their remnants, and their constituents that leak out after membrane rupture. Integrating the combined collection of knowledge on efferocytosis and clearance of dead cells and their derived waste from different fields of research in physiology and pathophysiology could improve the molecular understanding of these increasingly prevalent diseases and may ultimately result in new therapeutic strategies.

Brain-immune interactions in health and disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195145 Year: Pages: 109 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-514-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General) --- Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Brain-immune interactions are essential to maintain health and their dysfunction contributes to diverse human diseases. Recent data show that haematopoietic processes and immune organs are under central autonomic control. Deficient regulation of inflammatory events contributes to brain diseases, whereas acute or chronic brain injury is linked with the development of systemic inflammatory conditions or immunosuppression. At present, common disorders with high socio-economic burden such as cancer, cardiovascular-, neuroinflammatory- and neurodegenerative diseases, asthma, allergies, autism, psychiatric conditions and sepsis are believed to be influenced, at least in part, by the dysfunction of brain-immune communication. Since the median age of the world's population is increasing rapidly, it is expected that the burden of common non-communicable diseases will further increase, which represents a huge challenge to the health care systems worldwide. Thus, there is an increasing demand to understand and treat complex diseases, many of which are age-related, and this is not possible unless the fine-tuned communication between large systems -such as the nervous and the immune system- is comprehensively understood. Although it is impossible to cover all areas of relevant research in this field, papers in this eBook give some insight to a few important aspects of brain-immune interactions and their contribution to disease. We hope that this collection could stimulate further relevant research and facilitate discussions to support the understanding of the highly complex interactions between the immune system and the brain in health and disease.

The Parallel March of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood: A Multi-Perspective Approach

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455294 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-529-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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It has not been yet clarified whether allergy and asthma are part of the same condition or they follow a parallel path. This Research Topic aims to try and put some light in this parallel march going through crucial topics: from prenatal events to later risk factors such as obesity; and from basic immunology to immunotherapy, both subcutaneous and sublingual. We hope the readers can infer their own conclusions as what is first: egg or chicken.

Pathogenic Advances and Therapeutic Perspectives for Eosinophilic Inflammation

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456246 Year: Pages: 279 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-624-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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With the recent approval of the first eosinophil-depleting therapeutic agents targeting the IL-5 pathway for treatment of severe eosinophilic asthma, eosinophils and eosinophilic disorders are in the limelight. Indeed, setbacks during clinical development of these compounds have revealed how much remains to be known about eosinophil biology in vivo, and have nurtured profuse research both on basic eosinophil biology and on pathogenic disease mechanisms, in order to better delineate the most meaningful targets for innovative therapeutic strategies. On one hand, variable degrees of eosinophil depletion observed in some compartments during IL-5-targeted treatment indicate that certain eosinophil subsets may not rely on this cytokine and/or that other important pro-eosinophilic mediators and signaling pathways are operative in vivo. On the other hand, it is increasingly clear that disorders involving eosinophils such as asthma are the final outcome of complex interactions between diverse cell types and mediators, beyond eosinophils and IL-5. These include type 2 helper T (Th2) cells and innate lymphoid cells, mast cells, and a variety of factors that either activate eosinophils or are released by them. Although a considerable amount of research has focused on asthma because it is a common condition and because management of severe asthma remains a major challenge, several rare eosinophilic disorders with more homogenous features have proven to be extremely useful models to reach a better understanding of the involvement of eosinophils in tissue damage and dysfunction, and of the micro-environmental interactions operating within the complex network of eosinophilic inflammation. Unraveling this interplay has resulted in advances in the development of molecular tools to detect disease subsets and to monitor therapeutic responses, and in identification of promising new therapeutic targets. This Research Topic dedicated to eosinophilic conditions covers aspects of the biology of eosinophils and closely related cells of particular relevance for drug development, reports on translational research investigating pathogenic mechanisms of specific eosinophilic disorders in humans that will likely result in significant changes in the way patients are managed, and presents an overview of the current advancement of targeted drug development for these conditions, with a special focus on asthma.

Histamine H4 receptor. A Novel Drug Target For Immunoregulation and Inflammation

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ISBN: 9788376560564 Year: Pages: 368 DOI: 10.2478/9788376560564 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2014-03-05 13:31:51
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H4R is the newest member of the histamine receptor family, which was discovered about twelve years ago. It is considered a very promising drug target. The effort to improve the pharmacokinetic properties of the currently available H4R ligands is reflected in a steadily growing number of scientific publications and patent applications. Preclinical data strongly confirms the need for novel potent H4R ligands to explore their therapeutic value in allergy, inflammation, autoimmune disorders, and possibly, cancer. Readers will be provided with extensive knowledge on histamine metabolism, as well as cellular histamine transport, storage and release, effects of histamine and histamine receptor ligands, with particular attention to the H4R, on inflammatory cells including mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, and T cells. The present knowledge on the regulatory role of histamine and the therapeutic exploitation of histamine receptor ligands in atopic diseases, with emphasis on human and animal models of asthma, allergic dermatitis and pruritus are discussed.

Probiotics and Prebiotics in Pediatrics

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ISBN: 9783038979500 / 9783038979517 Year: Pages: 258 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-951-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The goal of this Special Issue, “Probiotics and Prebiotics in Pediatrics”, is to focus on the importance of pediatric nutrition with probiotics and prebiotics to improve gastrointestinal health in newborn, infants, and children.Specifically, the aim is to clarify if probiotics and prebiotics can influence gut microbiota composition and host-interaction favoring human health and preventing diseases.This new information will provide health care professionals with a widespread, clear and update evidence on probiotics and prebiotics and intestinal gut microbiota in pediatric care.

Keywords

acute diarrhea --- children --- Bacillus clausii --- efficacy --- randomized controlled trials --- breast feeding --- formula feeding --- human milk oligosaccharide --- 2?-fucosyllactose --- Lacto-N-neotetraose --- microbiota --- bifidobacteria --- acute gastroenteritis --- children --- Lactobacillus reuteri --- oral rehydration solution --- probiotics --- zinc --- probiotics --- allergy --- infants --- pediatrics --- human milk oligosaccharides --- human milk --- infant formula --- necrotizing enterocolitis --- preterm infant --- preterm infant --- probiotic --- human milk --- probiotic strain --- safety --- fecal microbiota --- protein hydrolyzed formulas --- cow’s milk protein --- tolerance acquisition --- non-IgE mediated allergy --- microbiome --- intestinal microbiota --- microbial programming --- nutritional programming --- allergy --- prevention --- neonatal --- preterm --- breast milk --- oligosaccharides --- diversity --- necrotizing enterocolitis --- sepsis --- growth --- constipation --- prebiotic --- intestinal transit time --- infant --- Bifidobacterium --- Lactobacillus --- probiotics --- asthma --- Childhood Asthma Control Test --- peak expiratory flow rate --- immunoglobulin E --- “Probiotics”[Mesh] --- “Pregnancy”[Mesh] --- “Infant, Newborn”[Mesh] --- Bifidobacterium breve --- probiotics --- paediatrics --- therapeutic microbiology --- celiac disease --- iron deficiency anemia --- gluten-free diet --- inulin --- prebiotics --- iron absorption --- hepcidin --- probiotics --- microbiota --- celiac disease --- gluten free diet --- probiotics --- functional gastrointestinal disorders --- functional abdominal pain disorders --- functional constipation --- infantile colic --- infant --- colic --- lactobacilli --- n/a --- fecal microbiota --- protein hydrolyzed formulas --- cow’s milk protein --- tolerance acquisition --- non-IgE mediated allergy --- n/a

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