Search results: Found 4

Listing 1 - 4 of 4
Sort by
Molecular basis of fruit development

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194605 Year: Pages: 139 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-460-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The fruit is an important plant structure. Not only does it provide a suitable environment for seeds to develop and serve as a vehicle for seed disposal, but it is also an indispensable part of the human diet. Despite its agronomic and nutritional value and centuries of intensive genetic selection, little is known about the molecular mechanism of its development or the evolution of its diverse forms. The last few years have witnessed a surge of investigations on the early stages of fruit development propelled by the advancement of high throughput sequencing technology, genome sequencing of fruit bearing species, and detailed molecular insights based on studies of model organisms. This research topic is focused on early stage fruit development that ranges from pre-fertilization patterning of the female ovary through post-fertilization fruit initiation and growth. Provided by the renowned experts in the field, these papers are intended to highlight recent progress and shed light on different aspects of fruit development from structure, function, to molecular genetics, and evolution.

ROS Regulation during Plant Abiotic Stress Responses

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450541 Year: Pages: 306 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-054-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Plants are continuously exposed to a wide range of environmental conditions, including cold, drought, salt, heat, which have major impact on plant growth and development. To survive, plants have evolved complex physiological and biochemical adaptations to cope with a variety of adverse environmental stresses. Among them, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key regulators and play pivotal roles during plant stress responses, which are thought to function as early signals during plant abiotic stress responses. ROS were long regarded as unwanted and toxic by-products of physiological metabolism. However, ROS are now recognized as central players in the complex signaling network of cells. Therefore, a fine-tuning control between ROS production and scavenging pathways is essential to maintain non-toxic levels in planta under stressful conditions through enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems. We focus on the roles of ROS during plant abiotic stress responses in this Research Topic. Plant responses to multiple abiotic stresses and effects of hormones and chemicals on plant stress responses have been carefully studies. Although functions of several stress responsive genes have been characterized and possible interactions between hormones and ROS are discussed, future researches are needed to functionally characterize ROS regulatory and signaling transduction pathways.Plants are continuously exposed to a wide range of environmental conditions, including cold, drought, salt, heat, which have major impact on plant growth and development. To survive, plants have evolved complex physiological and biochemical adaptations to cope with a variety of adverse environmental stresses. Among them, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key regulators and play pivotal roles during plant stress responses, which are thought to function as early signals during plant abiotic stress responses. ROS were long regarded as unwanted and toxic by-products of physiological metabolism. However, ROS are now recognized as central players in the complex signaling network of cells. Therefore, a fine-tuning control between ROS production and scavenging pathways is essential to maintain non-toxic levels in planta under stressful conditions through enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems. We focus on the roles of ROS during plant abiotic stress responses in this Research Topic. Plant responses to multiple abiotic stresses and effects of hormones and chemicals on plant stress responses have been carefully studies. Although functions of several stress responsive genes have been characterized and possible interactions between hormones and ROS are discussed, future researches are needed to functionally characterize ROS regulatory and signaling transduction pathways.

Plant Organ Abscission: From Models to Crops

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453283 Year: Pages: 271 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-328-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Plant organ abscission is a developmental process regulated by the environment, stress, pathogens and the physiological status of the plant. In particular, seed and fruit abscission play an important role in seed dispersion and plant reproductive success and are common domestication traits with important agronomic consequences for many crop species. Indeed, in natural populations, shedding of the seed or fruit at the correct time is essential for reproductive success, while for crop species the premature or lack of abscission may be either beneficial or detrimental to crop productivity. The use of model plants, in particular Arabidopsis and tomato, have led to major advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying organ abscission, and now many workers pursue the translation of these advances to crop species. Organ abscission involves specialized cell layers called the abscission zone (AZ), where abscission signals are perceived and cell separation takes place for the organ to be shed. A general model for plant organ abscission includes (1) the differentiation of the AZ, (2) the acquisition of AZ cells to become competent to respond to various abscission signals, (3) response to signals and the activation of the molecular and cellular processes that lead to cell separation in the AZ and (4) the post-abscission events related to protection of exposed cells after the organ has been shed. While this simple four-phase framework is helpful to describe the abscission process, the exact mechanisms of each stage, the differences between organ types and amongst diverse species, and in response to different abscission inducing signals are far from elucidated. For an organ to be shed, AZ cells must transduce a multitude of both endogenous and exogenous signals that lead to transcriptional and cellular and ultimately cell wall modifications necessary for adjacent cells to separate. How these key processes have been adapted during evolution to allow for organ abscission to take place in different locations and under different conditions is unknown. The aim of the current collection of articles is to present and be able to compare recent results on our understanding of organ abscission from model and crop species, and to provide a basis to understand both the evolution of abscission in plants and the translation of advances with model plants for applications in crop species.

Root Systems Biology

Author:
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192755 Year: Pages: 130 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-275-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany --- General and Civil Engineering --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The understanding of biological complexity has been greatly facilitated by cross-disciplinary, holistic approaches that allow insights into the function and regulation of biological processes that cannot be captured by dissecting them into their individual components. In addition, the development of novel tools has dramatically increased our ability to interrogate information at the nucleic acid, protein and metabolite level. The integration and interpretation of disparate data sets, however, still remain a major challenge in systems biology. Roots provide an excellent model for studying physiological, developmental, and metabolic processes. The availability of genetic resources, along with sequenced genomes has allowed important discoveries in root biochemistry, development and function. Roots are transparent, allowing optical investigation of gene activity in individual cells and experimental manipulation. In addition, the predictable fate of cells emerging from the root meristem and the continuous development of roots throughout the life of the plant, which permits simultaneous observation of different developmental stages, provide ideal premises for the analysis of growth and differentiation. Moreover, a genetically fixed cellular organization allows for studying the utilization of positional information and other non-cell-autonomous phenomena, which are of utmost importance in plant development. Although their ontogeny is largely invariant under standardized experimental conditions, roots possess an extraordinary capacity to respond to a plethora of environmental signals, resulting in distinct phenotypic readouts. This high phenotypic plasticity allows research into acclimative and adaptive strategies, the understanding of which is crucial for germplasm enhancement and crop improvement. With the aim of providing a current snapshot on the function and development of roots at the systems level, this Research Topic collated original research articles, methods articles, reviews, mini reviews and perspective, opinion and hypotheses articles that communicate breakthroughs in root biology, as well as recent advances in research technologies and data analysis.

Listing 1 - 4 of 4
Sort by
Narrow your search

Publisher

Frontiers Media SA (4)


License

CC by (4)


Language

english (4)


Year
From To Submit

2017 (2)

2014 (2)