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Interoception, Contemplative Practice, and Health

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450947 Year: Pages: 316 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-094-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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There is an emergent movement of scientists and scholars working on somatic awareness, interoception and embodiment. This work cuts across studies of neurophysiology, somatic anthropology, contemplative practice, and mind-body medicine. Key questions include: How is body awareness cultivated? What role does interoception play for emotion and cognition in healthy adults and children as well as in different psychopathologies? What are the neurophysiological effects of this cultivation in practices such as Yoga, mindfulness meditation, Tai Chi and other embodied contemplative practices? What categories from other traditions might be useful as we explore embodiment? Does the cultivation of body awareness within contemplative practice offer a tool for coping with suffering from conditions, such as pain, addiction, and dysregulated emotion? This emergent field of research into somatic awareness and associated interoceptive processes, however, faces many obstacles. The principle obstacle lies in our 400-year Cartesian tradition that views sensory perception as epiphenomenal to cognition. The segregation of perception and cognition has enabled a broad program of cognitive science research, but may have also prevented researchers from developing paradigms for understanding how interoceptive awareness of sensations from inside the body influences cognition. The cognitive representation of interoceptive signals may play an active role in facilitating therapeutic transformation, e.g. by altering context in which cognitive appraisals of well-being occur. This topic has ramifications into disparate research fields: What is the role of interoceptive awareness in conscious presence? How do we distinguish between adaptive and maladaptive somatic awareness? How do we best measure somatic awareness? What are the consequences of dysregulated somatic/interoceptive awareness on cognition, emotion, and behavior? The complexity of these questions calls for the creative integration of perspectives and findings from related but often disparate research areas including clinical research, neuroscience, cognitive psychology, anthropology, religious/contemplative studies and philosophy.

Health Promotion at School. Pedagogical Aspects and Practical Implications

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ISBN: 9783110539592 9783110539646 Year: Pages: 162 DOI: 10.1515/9783110539592 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Education --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-19 13:49:38
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For decades the health of children and adolescents has been a topic of interest in all parts of Europe. And there is quite a consensus that schools are the most appropriate setting to promote health. Childhood and adolescence constitute key stages for learning and adopting a health-related and active lifestyle which includes physical activity and sports. The book describes a new approach to enhance students’ health awareness through experimental learning settings in P.E. class, cross-subject teaching, and project work.Teaching health topics requires a pedagogical and didactical framework based on the concept of health literacy and interdisciplinary research discussed by the authors. Teaching examples to improve students’ health knowledge, health competencies and skills as well as health behaviour and habits at school implicates a new teaching structure presented in the book.

Transitions Between Consciousness and Unconsciousness

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454310 Year: Pages: 219 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-431-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Over the last years, a large body of experimental data have been generated in the attempt to understand consciousness and its neural underpinnings. In this respect, particular interest has been paid to the attempt to distinguish between conscious experience and unconscious states which however may still be considered as mental states (e.g., in virtue of their representational nature). This is of course not without reason. A deep understanding of that which specifically characterizes conscious states, including neural correlates and cognitive functions, may crucially inform the ambition of understanding the relation between experience and the physical world. Nevertheless, the question has historically been challenged by the fact that consciousness is available in the first person only – not to other people, including scientists. Different methodological traditions and choices have led to quite different understandings of how conscious and unconscious states relate, and diverse empirical work has been inspired and guided by various cognitive and neurobiological theories of consciousness. The very diverse viewpoints include such different positions as the idea that unconscious states are associated with the very same functional characteristics as conscious states, and the idea that no informational state that is available for action can be completely unconscious. The Research Topic “Transitions between consciousness and unconsciousness” is therefore devoted to this particular question, how to understand the relation and transition between consciousness and unconsciousness. We hope that the reader will find the collected articles both informative and thought-provoking, and that this Research Topic will stimulate the scientific debate.

Kontrastiva studier i nederländska och svenska

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Book Series: Stockholm German and Dutch Studies ISBN: 9789176351000 9789176351031 9789176351017 9789176351024 Year: Pages: 100 DOI: 10.16993/baz Language: Swedish
Publisher: Stockholm University Press
Subject: Social Sciences --- Linguistics --- Arts in general
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-03 11:21:06
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This book deals with two research fields and brings them together: contrastive linguistics and third language acquisition. The book describes the following linguistic structures in Dutch and Swedish from a contrastive perspective: spatial adverbs, copula, impersonal passives, impersonal constructions and finally the posture verbs stand, zit and lie. Dutch and Swedish are usually acquired as a third language and not as a second language, which implies that learners already comprehend various other languages. When learning a language these multilingual learners have developed certain strategies which draw on their competence in earlier studied languages. In the process of learning a third language, metalinguistic and cross-linguistic awareness play an important role. Comparing linguistic structures in two closely related languages as Dutch and Swedish can enhance cross-linguistic awareness and therefore be used as a didactic tool.&#xD;

Awareness shaping or shaped by prediction and postdiction

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195329 Year: Pages: 155 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-532-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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We intuitively believe that we are aware of the external world as it is. Unfortunately, this is not entirely true. In fact, the capacity of our sensory system is too small to veridically perceive the world. To overcome this problem, the sensory system has to spatiotemporally integrate neural signals in order to interpret the external world. However, the spatiotemporal integration involves severe neural latencies. How does the sensory system keep up with the ever-changing external world? As later discussed, ‘prediction’ and ‘postdiction’ are essential keywords here. For example, the sensory system uses temporally preceding events to predict subsequent events (e.g., Nijhawan, 1994; Kerzel, 2003; Hubbard, 2005) even when the preceding event is subliminally presented (Schmidt, 2000). Moreover, internal prediction modulates the perception of action outcomes (Bays et al., 2005; Cardoso-Leite et al., 2010) and sense of agency (Wenke et al., 2010). Prediction is also an indispensable factor for movement planning and control (Kawato, 1999). On the other hand, the sensory system also makes use of subsequent events to postdictively interpret a preceding event (e.g. Eagleman & Sejnowski, 2000; Enns, 2002; Khuu et al., 2010; Kawabe, 2011, 2012; Miyazaki et al., 2010; Ono & Kitazawa, 2011) and it's much the same even for infancy (Newman et al., 2008). Moreover, it has also been proposed that sense of agency stems not only from predictive processing but also from postdictive inference (Ebert & Wegner, 2011). The existence of postdictive processing is also supported by several neuroscience studies (Kamitani & Shimojo, 1999; Lau et al., 2007). How prediction and postdiction shape awareness of the external world is an intriguing question. Prediction is involved with the encoding of incoming signals, whereas postdiction is related to a re-interpretation of already encoded signals. Given this perspective, prediction and postdiction may exist along a processing stream for a single external event. However, it is unclear whether, and if so how, prediction and postdiction interact with each other to shape awareness of the external world. Awareness of the external world may also shape prediction and/or postdiction. It is plausible that awareness of the external world drives the prediction and postdiction of future and past appearances of the world. However, the literature provides little information about the role of awareness of the external world in prediction and postdiction. This background propelled us to propose this research topic with the aim of offering a space for systematic discussion concerning the relationship between awareness, prediction and postdiction among researchers in broad research areas, such as psychology, psychophysics, neuroscience, cognitive science, philosophy, and so forth. We encouraged papers that address one or more of the following questions: 1) How does prediction shape awareness of the external world? 2) How does postdiction shape awareness of the external world? 3) How do prediction and postdiction interact with each other in shaping awareness of the external world? 4) How does awareness of the external world shape prediction/postdiction?

A Matter of Bottom-Up or Top-Down Processes: The Role of Attention in Multisensory Integration

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451937 Year: Pages: 139 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-193-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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The integration of information from various sensory modalities influences behaviour. It can induce behavioural benefits such as faster reaction times and enhanced detection of noisy signals but may also produce illusions, all of which have been characterized by specific neuronal signatures. Yet, while these effects of multisensory integration are largely accepted, the role of attention in this process is still the object of intense debate. On the one hand, it has been suggested that attention may guide multisensory integration in a top-down fashion by selection of specific inputs to be integrated out of the plethora of information in our environment. On the other hand, there is evidence that integration could occur in a bottom-up manner, based on temporal and spatial correlations, and outside the focus of attention. An extreme example is the multisensory enhancement of neural responses in anesthetised animals. Attention itself is not a unitary construct, and may refer to a range of different selection mechanisms. Therefore, the interplay between attention and multisensory integration can take many forms which explain, in part, the diversity of findings and the disputes in the literature. The goal of this Research Topic is to help clarify the picture by trying to answer the following questions from various perspectives: Under which circumstances does multisensory integration take place without attention?, and, When does attention determine the fate of multisensory integration?

Recent Advances in Cellular D2D Communications

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ISBN: 9783038427384 9783038427377 Year: Pages: 182 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-16 13:18:28
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Device-to-device (D2D) communications have attracted a great deal of attention from researchers in recent years. It is a promising technique for offloading local traffic from cellular base stations by allowing local devices, in physical proximity, to communicate directly with each other. Furthermore, through relaying, D2D is also a promising approach to enhancing service coverage at cell edges or in black spots. However, there are many challenges to realizing the full benefits of D2D. For one, minimizing the interference between legacy cellular and D2D users operating in underlay mode is still an active research issue. With the 5th generation (5G) communication systems expected to be the main data carrier for the Internet-of-Things (IoT) paradigm, the potential role of D2D and its scalability to support massive IoT devices and their machine-centric (as opposed to human-centric) communications need to be investigated. New challenges have also arisen from new enabling technologies for D2D communications, such as non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) and blockchain technologies, which call for new solutions to be proposed. This edited book presents a collection of ten chapters, including one review and nine original research works on addressing many of the aforementioned challenges and beyond.

Ontological Terror

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ISBN: 9780822371847 9780822370727 9780822370871 Year: Pages: 233 Language: English
Publisher: Duke University Press
Subject: Ethnology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-16 11:02:06
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In Ontological Terror Calvin L. Warren intervenes in Afro-pessimism, Heideggerian metaphysics, and black humanist philosophy by positing that the "Negro question" is intimately imbricated with questions of Being. Warren uses the figure of the antebellum free black as a philosophical paradigm for thinking through the tensions between blackness and Being. He illustrates how blacks embody a metaphysical nothing. This nothingness serves as a destabilizing presence and force as well as that which whiteness defines itself against. Thus, the function of blackness as giving form to nothing presents a terrifying problem for whites: they need blacks to affirm their existence, even as they despise the nothingness they represent. By pointing out how all humanism is based on investing blackness with nonbeing—a logic which reproduces antiblack violence and precludes any realization of equality, justice, and recognition for blacks—Warren urges the removal of the human from its metaphysical pedestal and the exploration of ways of existing that are not predicated on a grounding in being.

Materiali per il secondo volume della Introduzione alle scienze dello spirito: Scritti inediti 1880-1893

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Book Series: Scuola delle Scienze Umane e Sociali. Quaderni ISSN: 2499-4774 ISBN: 9788868870201 Year: Volume: 3 Pages: 523 DOI: 10.6093/978-88-6887-020-1 Language: Italian
Publisher: FedOA - Federico II University Press
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-08 18:35:45
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As is well-known to the scholars of European philosophical thinking between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries, the great and ambitious plan of diltheyan criticism of the reason of history condensed in a pond-pink Introduction to the Human Sciences appeared in 1883 only the first volume especially the first two Books. The volume, which we present here, encloses in chronological order the various drafts which, as early as 1880, Dilthey made the work of the second volume of the work, which would have to contain the other four Books, the dedicated ones to the gnoseological, logical and methodological aspects of the philosophical foundation of the so-called sciences of the spirit. An absorbing commitment, which Dilthey will pursue throughout his scientific life, without saving power, will cost him a little in terms of psycho-physical health. In addition to the volume, which besides Breslau drafts also contains the famous Berlin Plan dating back to the early nineties, we also thought it appropriate to include the two dafts of the "Althoff Letter" dating back to mid-1882, as they also contain useful observations on the designed Introduction to the Human Sciences.

Modellierung und Ausführung von Workflows unter Berücksichtigung mobiler Kontextinformationen

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ISBN: 9783731507543 Year: Pages: XVIII, 362 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000078961 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-28 18:37:01
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Existing business modeling languages (or their extensions) have time, identity and activity related contexts (or objects) for modeling business processes. In order to support a Context Aware Service, location awareness is needed to enable the application or process to control the related workflows. For the integration of location constraints into workflow models, a concept based on restrictions is being developed in the present work.

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