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The cognitive and neural organisation of speech processing

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197750 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-774-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Speech production and perception are two of the most complex actions humans perform. The processing of speech is studied across various fields and using a wide variety of research approaches. These fields include, but are not limited to, (socio)linguistics, phonetics, cognitive psychology, neurophysiology, and cognitive neuroscience. Research approaches range from behavioural studies to neuroimaging techniques such as Magnetoencephalography, electroencephalography (MEG/EEG) and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), as well as neurophysiological approaches, such as the recording of Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs), and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). Each of these approaches provides valuable information about specific aspects of speech processing. Behavioural testing can inform about the nature of the cognitive processes involved in speech processing, neuroimaging methods show where (fMRI and MEG) in the brain these processes take place and/or elucidate on the time-course of activation of these brain areas (EEG and MEG), while neurophysiological methods (MEPs and TMS) can assess critical involvement of brain regions in the cognitive process. Yet, what is currently unclear is how speech researchers can combine methods such that a convergent approach adds to theory/model formulation, above and beyond the contribution of individual component methods? We expect that such combinations of approaches will significantly forward theoretical development in the field. The present research topic comprise a collection of manuscripts discussing the cognitive and neural organisation of speech processing, including speech production and perception at the level of individual speech sounds, syllables, words, and sentences. Our goal was to use findings from a variety of disciplines, perspectives, and approaches to gain a more complete picture of the organisation of speech processing. The contributions are grouped around the following five main themes: 1) Spoken language comprehension under difficult listening conditions; 2) Sub-lexical processing; 3) Sensorimotor processing of speech; 4) Speech production. The contributions used a variety of research approaches, including behavioural experiments, fMRI, EEG, MEG, and TMS. Twelve of the 14 contributions were on speech perception processing, and the remaining two examined speech production. This Research Topic thus displays a wide variety of topics and research methods and this comprehensive approach allows an integrative understanding of currently available evidence as well as the identification of concrete venues for future research.

Keywords

Speech --- Perception --- production --- TMS --- fMRI --- EEG --- MEG --- behavioural

Behaviour, Development and Evolution

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ISBN: 9781783742509 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0097 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Zoology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-22 11:01:50
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"The role of parents in shaping the characters of their children, the causes of violence and crime, and the roots of personal unhappiness are central to humanity. Like so many fundamental questions about human existence, these issues all relate to behavioural development. In this lucid and accessible book, eminent biologist Professor Sir Patrick Bateson suggests that the nature/nurture dichotomy we often use to think about questions of development in both humans and animals is misleading. Instead, he argues that we should pay attention to whole systems, rather than to simple causes, when trying to understand the complexity of development. In his wide-ranging approach Bateson discusses why so much behaviour appears to be well- designed. He explores issues such as ‘imprinting’ and its importance to the attachment of offspring to their parents; the mutual benefits that characterise communication between parent and offspring; the importance of play in learning how to choose and control the optimal conditions in which to thrive; and the vital function of adaptability in the interplay between development and evolution.&#xD;Bateson disputes the idea that a simple link can be found between genetics and behaviour. What an individual human or animal does in its life depends on the reciprocal character of its transactions with the world about it. This knowledge also points to ways in which an animal's own behaviour can provide the variation that influences the subsequent course of evolution.&#xD;This has relevance not only for our scientific approaches to the systems of development and evolution, but also on how humans change institutional rules that have become dysfunctional, or design public health measures when mismatches occur between themselves and their environments. It affects how we think about ourselves and our own capacity for change."

Brain Asymmetry of Structure And/Or Function

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ISBN: 9783038425502 9783038425519 Year: Pages: VIII, 148 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-551-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-28 13:57:29
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This edited book brings together research reports on the asymmetry of brain function in various species, including humans, dogs, birds, lizards and bees. As shown in a wide range of species, and, as we now know, not solely in humans, the left and right sides of the brain process information in different ways and control different responses or patterns of behaviour. Since this discovery, many new methods have become available to reveal the processes involved in the development, function and evolution of this important attribute of the brain. Chapters consider the evidence for asymmetry of sensory receptors, left–right differences in information processing and asymmetrical control of behaviour. The latter includes lateralization of bird song and use of the magnetic compass in navigation. Other chapters report studies on handedness, hemispheric asymmetries in emotional processing and perception of symmetry in humans. The importance of the degree, or strength, of asymmetry is discussed and the conclusion is that asymmetry of the brain enhances its efficiency. Other chapters provide evidence that early experience influences the development of asymmetry. All of the contributors have strong backgrounds in research and they discuss up-to-date discoveries on lateralized brain and behaviour.

Hallucinations: New Interventions Supporting People with Distressing Voices and/or Visions

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450077 Year: Pages: 106 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-007-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Hallucinations can occur across the five sensory modalities (auditory, visual, olfactory, tactile, and gustatory). Whilst they have the potential to be benign or even highly valued, they can often be devastating experiences associated with distress, impaired social and occupational functioning, self-harm and suicide. Those who experience hallucinations in this latter manner may do so within the context of a wide range of psychiatric diagnoses, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. The only routinely available interventions for people distressed by hallucinations are antipsychotic drugs, which date from the introduction of chlorpromazine in the 1950s, and manualized cognitive behavioral therapy, which originated in the 1990s. These interventions do not help all people distressed by hallucinations, and in the case of antipsychotic medication, come with notable side-effects. There has hence been great interest in new interventions to support people distressed by hallucinations. The goal of this Frontiers Research Topic is to present a collection of papers on new developments in clinical interventions for those distressed by hallucinations. In the psychiatric condition that remains most strongly associated with hallucinations, schizophrenia, the majority (~70%) of people will have experienced hallucinations in the auditory modality, approximately a third will have experienced visual hallucinations, and a smaller minority will have experienced hallucinations in other modalities. Consistent with this prevalence, this collection focusses on auditory and visual hallucinations. This is not to minimise the potential distress that can occur from hallucinations in other modalities. For example, tactile hallucinations, particularly when stemming from earlier experiences of sexual abuse, can be highly distressing, and improved ways to help sufferers of such experiences are also needed. In summary, this collection aims to result in an interdisciplinary collection of papers which will appeal to a wide readership, spanning all with an interest in this area.

Advances in the Prevention and Management of Obesity and Eating Disorders

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ISBN: 9783038428534 9783038428541 Year: Pages: VIII, 192 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-18 12:02:38
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Obesity and eating disorders remain major public health concerns worldwide that often co-exist. While we are far from having definitive solutions, scientific insights into the prevention and management of obesity and eating disorders have developed significantly in recent years. This research has been stimulated by the continuous challenge of reducing the global burden of obesity and its commonly associated health complications, as well as the life-threatening characteristics of eating disorders. Looking towards better solutions for these pressing public health concerns, this book addresses recent scientific findings regarding the prevention and management of obesity and eating disorders. It reports on cognition and mental health in people with obesity, as well as on food addiction, co-morbidities of eating disorders, cultural aspects of eating, intermittent dietary energy restriction as a treatment for overweight or obesity, factors influencing the adherence to dietary treatments for overweight and obesity, philosophies underpinning dietary practices, treatment of eating disorders in men, cognitive remediation therapy for anorexia nervosa, and online or virtual interventions for weight management or bulimia nervosa. This book includes culturally diverse findings from research groups around the world (e.g. Australia, UK, Norway, Brazil), and is informative for healthcare professionals and researchers working in the fields of obesity and/or eating disorders.

Hanging on to the Edges: Essays on Science, Society and the Academic Life

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ISBN: 9781783745807 9781783745821 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11647/OBP.0155 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-18 15:55:06
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What does it mean to be a scientist working today; specifically, a scientist whose subject matter is human life? Scientists often overstate their claim to certainty, sorting the world into categorical distinctions that obstruct rather than clarify its complexities. In this book Daniel Nettle urges the reader to unpick such distinctions—biological versus social sciences, mind versus body, and nature versus nurture—and look instead for the for puzzles and anomalies, the points of connection and overlap. These essays, converted from often humorous, sometimes autobiographical blog posts, form an extended meditation on the possibilities and frustrations of the life scientific. Pragmatically arguing from the intersection between social and biological sciences, Nettle reappraises the virtues of policy initiatives such as Universal Basic Income and income redistribution, highlighting the traps researchers and politicians are liable to encounter. This provocative, intelligent and self-critical volume is a testament to the possibilities of interdisciplinary study—whose virtues Nettle stridently defends—drawing from and having implications for a wide cross-section of academic inquiry. This will appeal to anybody curious about the implications of social and biological sciences for increasingly topical political concerns. It comes particularly recommended to Sciences and Social Sciences students and to scholars seeking to extend the scope of their field in collaboration with other disciplines.

Alzheimer's Disease Pathogenesis - Core Concepts, Shifting Paradigms and Therapeutic Targets

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ISBN: 9789533076904 Year: Pages: 704 DOI: 10.5772/951 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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Alzheimer's Disease Pathogenesis: Core Concepts, Shifting Paradigms, and Therapeutic Targets, delivers the concepts embodied within its title. This exciting book presents the full array of theories about the causes of Alzheimer's, including fresh concepts that have gained ground among both professionals and the lay public. Acknowledged experts provide highly informative yet critical reviews of the factors that most likely contribute to Alzheimer's, including genetics, metabolic deficiencies, oxidative stress, and possibly environmental exposures. Evidence that Alzheimer's resembles a brain form of diabetes is discussed from different perspectives, ranging from disease mechanisms to therapeutics. This book is further energized by discussions of how neurotransmitter deficits, neuro-inflammation, and oxidative stress impair neuronal plasticity and contribute to Alzheimer's neurodegeneration. The diversity of topics presented in just the right depth will interest clinicians and researchers alike. This book inspires confidence that effective treatments could be developed based upon the expanding list of potential therapeutic targets.

A Comprehensive Book on Autism Spectrum Disorders

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ISBN: 9789533074948 Year: Pages: 490 DOI: 10.5772/975 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Psychiatry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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The aim of the book is to serve for clinical, practical, basic and scholarly practices. In twentyfive chapters it covers the most important topics related to Autism Spectrum Disorders in the efficient way and aims to be useful for health professionals in training or clinicians seeking an update. Different people with autism can have very different symptoms. Autism is considered to be a ""spectrum"" disorder, a group of disorders with similar features. Some people may experience merely mild disturbances, while the others have very serious symptoms. This book is aimed to be used as a textbook for child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship training and will serve as a reference for practicing psychologists, child and adolescent psychiatrists, general psychiatrists, pediatricians, child neurologists, nurses, social workers and family physicians. A free access to the full-text electronic version of the book via Intech reading platform at http://www.intechweb.org is a great bonus.

Neurodegenerative Diseases - Processes, Prevention, Protection and Monitoring

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ISBN: 9789533074856 Year: Pages: 572 DOI: 10.5772/1252 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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Neurodegenerative Diseases - Processes, Prevention, Protection and Monitoring focuses on biological mechanisms, prevention, neuroprotection and even monitoring of disease progression. This book emphasizes the general biological processes of neurodegeneration in different neurodegenerative diseases. Although the primary etiology for different neurodegenerative diseases is different, there is a high level of similarity in the disease processes. The first three sections introduce how toxic proteins, intracellular calcium and oxidative stress affect different biological signaling pathways or molecular machineries to inform neurons to undergo degeneration. A section discusses how neighboring glial cells modulate or promote neurodegeneration. In the next section an evaluation is given of how hormonal and metabolic control modulate disease progression, which is followed by a section exploring some preventive methods using natural products and new pharmacological targets. We also explore how medical devices facilitate patient monitoring. This book is suitable for different readers: college students can use it as a textbook; researchers in academic institutions and pharmaceutical companies can take it as updated research information; health care professionals can take it as a reference book, even patients' families, relatives and friends can take it as a good basis to understand neurodegenerative diseases.

Huntington's Disease - Core Concepts and Current Advances

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ISBN: 9789533079530 Year: Pages: 568 DOI: 10.5772/1470 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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Huntington's Disease is one of the well-studied neurodegenerative conditions, a quite devastating and currently incurable one. It is a brain disorder that causes certain types of neurons to become damaged, causing various parts of the brain to deteriorate and lose their function. This results in uncontrolled movements, loss of intellectual capabilities and behavioural disturbances. Since the identification of the causative mutation, there have been many significant developments in understanding the cellular and molecular perturbations. This book, ""Huntington's Disease - Core Concepts and Current Advances"", was prepared to serve as a source of up-to-date information on a wide range of issues involved in Huntington's Disease. It will help the clinicians, health care providers, researchers, graduate students and life science readers to increase their understanding of the clinical correlates, genetic aspects, neuropathological findings, cellular and molecular events and potential therapeutic interventions involved in HD. The book not only serves reviewed fundamental information on the disease but also presents original research in several disciplines, which collectively provide comprehensive description of the key issues in the area.

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