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Targeting thyroid cancer microenvironment and epigenetic signalling: new frontiers in cancer endocrinology basic and clinical research

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192403 Year: Pages: 131 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-240-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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This Research Topic is devoted to the understanding of molecular mechanisms of Human Thyroid Cancers. Original research describing functional studies of genetic mutations that shed novel insights into the aetiology and pathogenesis of these cancers, as well as angiogenesis and tumor microenvironment, mouse models studies that describe mechanisms or novel potential therapeutic targets and biomarkers for these endocrine cancers are presented. Scopes: The scope of this Research Topic was to cover the entire field of thyroid cancers: the main focus of this topic is translational, with an emphasis on bench to bedside research. Experimental, pre-clinical and clinical research addressing the following aspects is included in this Research Topic: 1) Investigation of specific molecular patterns of thyroid tumorigenesis, which could allow the development of new directions in the field of pharmacotherapy research; 2) Emphasis on animal studies (preclinical models of human anaplastic thyroid cancers) for the validation of biomarkers with the potential to lead to clinical trials, and studies of targetable mechanisms of oncogenesis, progression of these malignancies, tumor microenvironment and extracellular matrix, and metastatic disease; 3) Assessment of biomarkers to predict the potential response or resistance to drug treatment (targeted cancer therapies) or to guide the follow-up of treated patients; 4) Investigation of new laboratory molecular tests (e.g. molecular techniques and applications of thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy) to translate in the clinical practice; In summary, specific areas of interest include: thyroid cancer genetics; genome-wide analysis; clinical and translational research; orthotopic mouse models of metastatic thyroid carcinoma; tumor microenvironment; epigenetic; biological insights of personalized medicine; novel applications of bioinformatics; large scale molecular characterization of tumors; diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers; endocrine pathology studies; thyroid fine-needle aspiration.

Crosstalk between the osteogenic and neurogenic stem cell niches: how far are they from each other?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197774 Year: Pages: 102 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-777-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Somatic stem cells reside in definite compartments, known as “niches”, within developed organs and tissues, being able to renew themselves, differentiate and ensure tissue maintenance and repair. In contrast with the original dogmatic distinction between renewing and non-renewing tissues, somatic stem cells have been found in almost every human organ, including brain and heart. The adult bone marrow, in particular, houses a complex multifunctional niche comprising hemopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), that intensely interact. HSCs represent the common precursors of all mature blood cells. MSCs are instead able to differentiate along multiple mesodermal lineages and are believed to represent the key somatic stem cell within the skeletogenic niche, being conceptually able to produce any tissue included within a mature skeletal segment (bone, cartilage, blood vessels, adipose tissue, and supporting connective stroma). Despite this high plasticity, the claim that MSCs could be capable of transdifferentiation along non-mesodermal lineages, including neurons, has been strongly argued. Adult osteogenic and neurogenic niches display wide differences: embryo origin, microenvironment, progenitors’ lifespan, lineages of supporting cells. Although similar pathways may be involved, it is hard to believe that the osteogenic and neurogenic lineages can share functional features. The outbreaking research achievements in the field of regenerative medicine, along with the pressing need for effective innovative tools for the treatment of neurodegeneration and neurologic disorders, have been forcing experimental clinical applications, which, despite their scientific weakness, have recently stimulated the public opinion. Based on this contemporary background, this Research Topic wish to provide an in-depth revision of the state of the art on relevant scientific milestones addressing the differences and possible interconnections and overlaps, between the osteogenic and the neurogenic niches. Dissertations on both basic research and clinical aspects, along with ethical and regulatory issues on the use of somatic stem cells for in vivo transplantation, have been covered.

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