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(Pushing) the Limits of Neuroplasticity Induced by Adult Language Acquisition

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456406 Year: Pages: 157 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-640-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology --- Media and communication
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Most adults attempt to learn a second or even third language at some point in their life. Since language exposure is one of the most intense cognitive training regimes one can encounter, it is not surprising that previous research has shown that multilingualism can induce profound change in the brain or ‘neuroplasticity’.What remains unclear is the scope of such adult language learning induced neuroplasticity. In other words, much is yet to be investigated about the factors that limit or promote adult language learning induced neuroplasticity.On the one hand, the present research topic discusses research that sheds light on neural mechanisms that limit adult language learning induced neuroplasticity such as: neural mechanisms of first language interference in the acquisition of a second language and reduced opportunity for language induced neuroplasticity due to aging. On the other hand, the Research Topic discusses factors that could enhance non-native language learning (and underlying neuroplastic mechanisms), such as the duration of the training regime, language aptitude, and meta-linguistic awareness.Therefore, the goal of the present Research Topic is to examine both the limits of neuroplasticity in adult language learning and the ways to push beyond those limits. Understanding of such limits and frontiers to push beyond the limits is not only theoretically fundamental but could also have practical implications for enhancing language training programmes.

Keywords

bilingualism --- plasticity --- Language --- Brain

The Variable Mind? How Apparently Inconsistent Effects Might Inform Model Building

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198597 Year: Pages: 135 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-859-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Model building is typically based on the identification of a set of established facts in any given field of research, insofar as the model is then evaluated on how well it accounts for these facts. Psychology – and specifically visual word identification and reading – is no exception in this sense (e.g., Amenta & Crepaldi, 2012; Coltheart et al., 2001; Grainger & Jacobs, 1996). What counts as an established fact, however, was never discussed in great detail. It was typically considered, for example, that experimental effects need to replicate across, e.g., individuals, experimental settings, and languages if they are to be believed. The emphasis was on consistency, perhaps under a tacit assumption that the universal principles lying behind our cognitive structures determine our behaviour for the most part (or at least for that part that is relevant for model building). There are signs that a different approach is growing up in reading research. On a theoretical ground, Dennis Norris’ Bayesian reader (2006, 2009) has advanced the idea that models can dispense of static forms of representation (i.e., fixed architectures), and process information in a way that is dynamically constrained by context-specific requirements. Ram Frost (2012) has focused on language-specific constraints in the development of general theories of reading. On an empirical ground, the most notable recent advance in visual word identification concern the demonstration that some previously established (in the classic sense) effects depend heavily on language (Velan and Frost, 2011), task (e.g., Duñabeitia et al., 2011; Marelli et al., 2013; Kinoshita and Norris, 2009), or even individual differences (Andrews & Lo, 2012, 2013). Variability has become an intrinsic and informative aspect of cognitive processing, rather than a sign of experimental weakness. This Research Topic aims at moving forward in this new direction by providing an outlet for experimental and theoretical papers that: (i) explore more in depth the theoretical basis for considering variability as an intrinsic property of the human cognitive system; (ii) highlight new context-dependent experimental effects, in a way that is informative on the dynamics of the underlying cognitive processing; (iii) shed new light on known context-dependent experimental effects, again in a way that enhances their theoretical informativeness.

Bridging Reading Aloud and Speech Production

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198955 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-895-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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For decades, human cognition involved in reading aloud and speech production has been investigated extensively (a quote search of the two in google scholar produces about 83,000 and 255,000 results, respectively). This large amount of research has produced quite detailed descriptions of the cognitive mechanisms that allow people to speak or to read aloud a word. However, despite the fact that reading aloud and speech production share some processes – generation of phonology and preparation of a motor speech response – the research in this two areas seems to have taken parallel and independent tracks, with almost no contact between the two. The present Research Topic takes an initial step towards building a bridge that will link the two research areas, as we believe that such an endeavour is essential for moving forward in our understanding of how the mind/brain processes words. To this aim, we encourage contributions exploring the relation between speech production and reading aloud. The questions the Research Topic should address include, but are not limited to, the following: To what extent are speech production and word reading/reading aloud similar? Are there some shared components and/or mechanisms between the two process? Is the time course of the (supposed) shared mechanisms activation similar in the two processes? How does the different input (conceptual vs. orthographic) interact with the types of information that reading and speaking share (semantic and phonological knowledge, articulatory codes)? How does a difference in the input affect the (supposed) common stages of processing (i.e., phonological encoding, and articulatory planning and execution)? We welcome any kind of contribution (e.g., original research article, review, opinion) that answers the above or other questions related to the Topic.

Learning a non-native language in a naturalistic environment: Insights from behavioural and neuroimaging research

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196395 Year: Pages: 150 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-639-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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It is largely accepted in the relevant literature that successful learning of one or more non-native languages is affected by a number of factors that are independent of the target language(s) per se; these factors include the age of acquisition (AoA) of the target language(s), the type and amount of formal instruction the learners have received, as well as the amount of language use that the learners demonstrate. Recent experimental evidence suggests that one crucial factor for efficient native-like performance in the non-native language is the amount of naturalistic exposure, or immersion, that the learners receive to that language. This can be broadly defined as the degree to which language learners use their non-native language outside the classroom and for their day-to-day activities, and usually presupposes that the learners live in an environment where their non-native language is exclusively or mostly used. Existing literature has suggested that linguistic immersion can be beneficial for lexical and semantic acquisition in a non-native language, as well as for non-native morphological and syntactic processing. More recent evidence has also suggested that naturalistic learning of a non-native language can also have an impact on the patterns of brain activity underlying language processing, as well as on the structure of brain regions that are involved, expressed as changes in the grey matter structure. This Research Topic brings together studies on the effects of learning and speaking a non-native language in a naturalistic environment. These include more efficient or “native-like” processing in behavioural tasks tapping on language (lexicon, morphology, syntax), as well as changes in the brain structure and function, as revealed by neuroimaging studies.

A aquisição de língua materna e não materna

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Book Series: Textbooks in Language Sciences ISBN: 9783961100163 9781976340147 Year: Pages: 498 DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.889261 Language: Uncoded
Publisher: Language Science Press
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-13 11:02:32
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The present volume is an introduction to the study of Language Acquisition, especially centered on Portuguese. Even though the different chapters always take Portuguese as a point of departure, a comparative perspective is assumed and Portuguese data is compared to data from other languages, when relevant. This book aims at filling a gap in the literature: an introductory textbook to be used by students of Language Acquisition in Portuguese-speaking countries. The book is composed by chapters authored by several Portuguese and Brazilian researchers and it presents in textbook format a relevant part of the research results obtained during the last decades. The book starts with a general historical presentation of the field. The following chapters explore the acquisition of phonology and syntax and consider the problem of typical and atypical development, as well as linguistic assessment. Bilingualism and L2 acquisition are the topics of two independent chapters. Two final chapters discuss the development of linguistic awareness, in relation to the acquisition of writing.

Developmental, Modal, and Pathological Variation Linguistic and Cognitive Profiles for Speakers of Linguistically Proximal Languages and Varieties

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456383 Year: Pages: 179 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-638-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology --- Media and communication
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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One significant area of research in the multifaceted field of bilingualism over the past two decades has been the demonstration, validation, and account of the so-called ‘bilingual advantage’. This refers to the hypothesis that bilingual speakers have advanced abilities in executive functions and other domains of human cognition. Such cognitive benefits of bilingualism have an impact on the processing mechanisms active during language acquisition in a way that results in language variation. Within bilingual populations, the notion of language proximity (or linguistic distance) is also of key importance for deriving variation. In addition, sociolinguistic factors can invest the process of language development and its outcome with an additional layer of complexity, such as schooling, language, dominance, competing motivations, or the emergence of mesolectal varieties, which blur the boundaries of grammatical variants. This is particularly relevant for diglossic speech communities—bilectal, bidialectal, or bivarietal speakers. The defined goal of the present Research Topic is to address whether the bilingual advantage extends to such speakers as well. Thus, ‘Linguistic and Cognitive Profiles for Speakers of Linguistically Proximal Languages and Varieties’ become an important matter within ‘Developmental, Modal, and Pathological Variation’.

Interdisciplinary Approaches to Multilingualism

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195183 Year: Pages: 89 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-518-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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This research topic stems from the "Interdisciplinary Approaches to Multilingualism" conference, which was hosted by the Language Research Centre at the University of Calgary. It was the first conference of its kind, which brought together the work of researchers, educators, and policy makers in the areas of first and second language acquisition from psycholinguistic and pedagogical perspectives. The goal was to provide an opportunity for participants to engage with the implications of multilingualism from a range of perspectives, including the effects of being bilingual from infancy to adulthood, the process and benefits of learning multiple languages, and the impact of multilingualism on society.

Question jurassienne et idéologies langagières. Langue et construction identitaire dans les revendications autonomistes des minorités francophones (1959-1978)

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ISBN: 9782889300365 Year: Pages: 464 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_594270 Language: French
Publisher: Editions Alphil Presses universitaires suisses Grant: Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) - OAPEN-CH - 163642
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-27 11:01:15
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This sociolinguistic study analyses the discourse on the language of the Jura autonomist movement. It explores the hypothesis that the language ideologies present in this discourse have participated in the identity construction of the Jura separatists as a francophone linguistic minority endangered under the supervision of the German speaking Berne Canton majority.

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