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Non-conventional Yeast in the Wine Industry

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450534 Year: Pages: 177 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-053-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that exhibit high ethanol tolerance and excellent fermentative ability are extensively used in winemaking as selected starters. However, a side-effect of the widespread use of these commercial starter cultures is the elimination of native microbiota, which might result in wines with similar analytical and sensory properties, depriving them from the variability, complexity and personality that define the typicality of a wine. Nonetheless, a way of balancing control and yeast population diversity during wine fermentation is the selection of non-Saccharomyces yeasts with optimal oenological traits. Therefore, a current trend in enology is the implementation of mixed- or multi-starters cultures, combining S. cerevisiae that remains the yeast species required for the completion of fermentation and non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from the native flora of grape juices. This research topic mainly deals with possible applications of different non-Saccharomyces yeast to wine production such as aroma production, ethanol reduction or biocontrol.Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that exhibit high ethanol tolerance and excellent fermentative ability are extensively used in winemaking as selected starters. However, a side-effect of the widespread use of these commercial starter cultures is the elimination of native microbiota, which might result in wines with similar analytical and sensory properties, depriving them from the variability, complexity and personality that define the typicality of a wine. Nonetheless, a way of balancing control and yeast population diversity during wine fermentation is the selection of non-Saccharomyces yeasts with optimal oenological traits. Therefore, a current trend in enology is the implementation of mixed- or multi-starters cultures, combining S. cerevisiae that remains the yeast species required for the completion of fermentation and non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from the native flora of grape juices. This research topic mainly deals with possible applications of different non-Saccharomyces yeast to wine production such as aroma production, ethanol reduction or biocontrol.

Biofilms from a Food Microbiology Perspective: Structures, Functions and Control Strategies

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451081 Year: Pages: 197 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-108-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Materials and equipment in food processing industries are colonized by surface-associated microbial communities called biofilms. In these biostructures microorganisms are embedded in a complex organic matrix composed essentially of polysaccharides, nucleic acids and proteins. This organic shield contributes to the mechanical biofilm cohesion and triggers tolerance to environmental stresses such as dehydratation or nutrient deprivation. Notably, cells within a biofilm are more tolerant to sanitation processes and the action of antimicrobial agents than their free living (or planktonic) counterparts. Such properties make conventional cleaning and disinfection protocols normally not effective in eradicating these biocontaminants. Biofilms are thus a continuous source of persistent microorganisms, including spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, leading to repeated contamination of processed food with important economic and safety impact. Alternatively, in some particular settings, biofilm formation by resident or technological microorganisms can be desirable, due to possible enhancement of food fermentations or as a means of bioprotection against the settlement of pathogenic microorganisms. In the last decades substantial research efforts have been devoted to unravelling mechanisms of biofilm formation, deciphering biofilm architecture and understanding microbial interactions within those ecosystems. However, biofilms present a high level of complexity and many aspects remain yet to be fully understood. A lot of attention has been also paid to the development of novel strategies for preventing or controlling biofilm formation in industrial settings. Further research needs to be focused on the identification of new biocides effective against biofilm-associated microorganisms, the development of control strategies based on the inhibition of cell-to-cell communication, and the potential use of bacteriocins, bacteriocin-producing bacteria, phage, and natural antimicrobials as anti-biofilm agents, among others. This Research Topic aims to provide an avenue for dissemination of recent advances within the “biofilms” field, from novel knowledge on mechanisms of biofilm formation and biofilm architecture to novel strategies for biofilm control in food industrial settings.

The plant microbiome and its importance for plant and human health

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193783 Year: Pages: 189 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-378-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
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The study of plant-microbe associations by new techniques has significantly improved our understanding of the structure and specificity of the plant microbiome. Yet, microbiome function and the importance of the plant’s microbiome in the context of human and plant health are largely unexplored. Comparable with our human microbiome, millions of microbes inhabit plants, forming complex ecological communities that influence plant growth and health through its collective metabolic activities and host interactions. Viewing the microbiota from an ecological perspective can provide insight into how to promote plant health and stress tolerance of their hosts or how to adapt to a changing climate by targeting this microbial community. Moreover, the plant microbiome has a substantial impact on human health by influencing our gut microbiome by eating raw plants such as lettuce and herbs but also by influencing the microbiome of our environment through airflow. This research topic comprising reviews, original and opinion articles highlights the current knowledge regarding plant microbiomes, their specificity, diversity and function as well as all aspects studying the management of plant microbiomes to enhance plant growth, health quality and stress tolerance.

Harnessing Useful Rhizosphere Microorganisms for Pathogen and Pest Biocontrol

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450596 Year: Pages: 334 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-059-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Growing demographic trends require sustainable technologies to improve quality and yield of future food productions. However, there is uncertainty about plant protection strategies in many agro-ecosystems. Pests, diseases, and weeds are overwhelmingly controlled by chemicals which pose health risks and cause other undesirable effects.Therefore, an increasing concern on control measures emerged in recent years. Many chemicals became questioned with regard to their sustainability and are (or will be) banned. Alternative management tools are studied, relying on biological, and low impact solutions. This ResearchTopic concerns microbial biocontrol agents, root-associated microbiomes, and rhizosphere networks. Understanding how they interact or respond to (a)biotic environmental cues is instrumental for an effective and sustainable impact. The rhizosphere is in this regard a fundamental object of study, because of its role in plant productivity. This e-book provides a polyhedral perspective on many issues in which beneficial microorganisms are involved. Data indeed demonstrate that they represent an as yet poorly-explored resource, whose exploitation may actively sustain plant protection and crop production. Given the huge number of microbial species present on the planet, the microorganisms studied represent just the tip of an iceberg. Data produced are, however, informative enough about their genetic and functional biodiversity, as well as about the ecosystem services they provide to underp in crop production. Challenges for future research work concern not only the biology of these species, but also the practices required to protect their biodiversity and to extend their application in the wide range of agricultural soils and systems present in the world. Agriculture cannot remain successfully and sustainable unless plant germplasm and useful microbial species are integrated, a goal for which new knowledge and information-based approaches are urgently needed.Growing demographic trends require sustainable technologies to improve quality and yield of future food productions. However, there is uncertainty about plant protection strategies in many agro-ecosystems. Pests, diseases, and weeds are overwhelmingly controlled by chemicals which pose health risks and cause other undesirable effects.Therefore, an increasing concern on control measures emerged in recent years. Many chemicals became questioned with regard to their sustainability and are (or will be) banned. Alternative management tools are studied, relying on biological, and low impact solutions. This ResearchTopic concerns microbial biocontrol agents, root-associated microbiomes, and rhizosphere networks. Understanding how they interact or respond to (a)biotic environmental cues is instrumental for an effective and sustainable impact. The rhizosphere is in this regard a fundamental object of study, because of its role in plant productivity. This e-book provides a polyhedral perspective on many issues in which beneficial microorganisms are involved. Data indeed demonstrate that they represent an as yet poorly-explored resource, whose exploitation may actively sustain plant protection and crop production. Given the huge number of microbial species present on the planet, the microorganisms studied represent just the tip of an iceberg. Data produced are, however, informative enough about their genetic and functional biodiversity, as well as about the ecosystem services they provide to underp in crop production. Challenges for future research work concern not only the biology of these species, but also the practices required to protect their biodiversity and to extend their application in the wide range of agricultural soils and systems present in the world. Agriculture cannot remain successfully and sustainable unless plant germplasm and useful microbial species are integrated, a goal for which new knowledge and information-based approaches are urgently needed.

Phage Therapy: Past; Present and Future

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452514 Year: Pages: 392 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-251-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Historically, the first observation of a transmissible lytic agent that is specifically active against a bacterium (Bacillus anthracis) was by a Russian microbiologist Nikolay Gamaleya in 1898. At that time, however, it was too early to make a connection to another discovery made by Dmitri Ivanovsky in 1892 and Martinus Beijerinck in 1898 on a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants. Thus the viral world was discovered in two of the three domains of life, and our current understanding is that viruses represent the most abundant biological entities on the planet. The potential of bacteriophages for infection treatment have been recognized after the discoveries by Frederick Twort and Felix d’Hérelle in 1915 and 1917. Subsequent phage therapy developments, however, have been overshadowed by the remarkable success of antibiotics in infection control and treatment, and phage therapy research and development persisted mostly in the former Soviet Union countries, Russia and Georgia, as well as in France and Poland. The dramatic rise of antibiotic resistance and especially of multi-drug resistance among human and animal bacterial pathogens, however, challenged the position of antibiotics as a single most important pillar for infection control and treatment. Thus there is a renewed interest in phage therapy as a possible additive/alternative therapy, especially for the infections that resist routine antibiotic treatment. The basis for the revival of phage therapy is affected by a number of issues that need to be resolved before it can enter the arena, which is traditionally reserved for antibiotics. Probably the most important is the regulatory issue: How should phage therapy be regulated? Similarly to drugs? Then the co-evolving nature of phage-bacterial host relationship will be a major hurdle for the production of consistent phage formulae. Or should we resort to the phage products such as lysins and the corresponding engineered versions in order to have accurate and consistent delivery doses? We still have very limited knowledge about the pharmacodynamics of phage therapy. More data, obtained in animal models, are necessary to evaluate the phage therapy efficiency compared, for example, to antibiotics. Another aspect is the safety of phage therapy. How do phages interact with the immune system and to what costs, or benefits? What are the risks, in the course of phage therapy, of transduction of undesirable properties such as virulence or antibiotic resistance genes? How frequent is the development of bacterial host resistance during phage therapy? Understanding these and many other aspects of phage therapy, basic and applied, is the main subject of this Topic.

A Multidisciplinary Look at Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: An Emerging Multi-Drug-Resistant Global Opportunistic Pathogen

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453535 Year: Pages: 133 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-353-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a Gram-negative bacterium found in water, plant rhizospheres, animals, and foods. It is associated with a variety of infections in humans, involving respiratory tract (most common), soft tissue and bone, blood, eye, heart, and brain. This opportunistic pathogen is of serious concern to the immunocompromised patient population, and it is also being isolated with increasing frequency from the respiratory tract of individuals with cystic fibrosis. The observed increase worldwide in antibiotic resistance and the ability of this organism to make biofilms on epithelial cells and medical devices make it difficult for health-care personnel to treat infections caused by this pathogen. Recently, several genomes of S. maltophilia have been sequenced, revealing high genetic diversity among isolates. This pathogen uses a variety of molecular mechanisms to acquire and demonstrate resistance to an impressive array of antimicrobial drugs. Research has also focused on the pathogenesis of S. maltophilia in animal models and the resulting host immune response. S. maltophilia is recognized as an important organism in the plant microbiome. This environmental bacterium uses a diffusible signal mechanism for controlling its colonization and interaction with other bacteria and plants. S. maltophilia has also gained considerable research interest for its biotechnological applications, with recent studies on enzyme production, anti-biofilm strategies, biodegradation, and bioremediation. This e-book focuses on the latest developments in the areas of physiology, genomics, infection and immunity, host-pathogen interaction, pathogenesis, antimicrobial resistance and therapy, molecular epidemiology, applied and environmental microbiology, bioremediation and biotechnology.

Biopesticides Manual Guidelines for Selecting, Sourcing, Producing and Using Biopesticides for Key Pests of Tobacco

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9781789242010; 9781789242027 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.1079/9781789242027.0000 Language: English
Publisher: CABI
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Plant Sciences --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-10-16 14:35:07
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This manual aims to make information resources and technical advice available in order to support the deployment of biopesticides, which include microbials (e.g. bacteria, algae, protozoa, viruses and fungi), macrobials (e.g. predatory insects, parasitoids and beneficial nematodes), botanicals, and semiochemicals. It is intended to be a one-stop shop to address the information needs of the key groups who are responsible for selecting, sourcing and using biopesticides in the tobacco production system. Chapter 2 provides information for decision makers to support selection of biopesticide active substances. It also provides guidelines for trial managers on experimental design, data collection and reporting. Chapter 3 provides guidance for sourcing biopesticides. It also includes manuals for the local production of three types of biopesticide: Trichogramma; neem [Azadirachta indica]; and fungal biopesticides such as Trichoderma. Chapter 4 presents training materials to provide an overview of biopesticides in general together with detailed information on how to work with the key biopesticides that have already been used successfully to manage key pests in tobacco.

Review of Invertebrate Biological Control Agents Introduced into Europe

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ISBN: 9781786390790; 9781786390806; 9781786390813 Year: Pages: 194 DOI: 10.1079/9781786390790.0000 Language: English
Publisher: CABI
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Plant Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-10-16 16:28:31
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This review provides an overview of all documented releases of exotic (non-European) invertebrate biological control agents (IBCAs) into the environment in Europe and summarizes key information on the target species as well as on the biological control agent released. It is an update of A Review of Biological Control in Western and Southern Europe edited by Greathead (1976) and covers the period from 1897, when the beetle Rodolia cardinalis was introduced into Portugal against the invasive cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi, until the end of 2009. This review is based largely on the BIOCAT database (Greathead and Greathead 1992), which contains records of the introduction of insect natural enemies, namely parasitoids and predators, for the control of insect pests worldwide. This review may not provide the complete list of BC agents introduced into Europe. Nevertheless, the report includes a vast majority of the introductions, and hence provides a representative picture of the history of releases of exotic BC agents into the environment in Europe.

Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species

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ISBN: 9783039215584 9783039215591 Year: Pages: 218 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-559-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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From the beginning of this century, non-Saccharomyces yeasts have taken increased relevance in wine processing. Several biotechnological companies now produce non-Saccharomyces yeasts at an industrial level to improve aroma or flavor, stabilize wine, produce biological acidification, or conversely metabolize malic acid. Species like Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Kloeckera apiculata, Lachancea thermotolerans, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and several others are common due to the technological applications they have in sensory quality but also in wine ageing and stabilization. Moreover, spoilage non-Saccharomyces yeasts like Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Saccharomycodes ludwigii, and Zygosacharomyces bailii are becoming important because of the alterations they are able to produce in high-quality wines. New strategies to control these defective yeasts have been developed to control them without affecting sensory quality. The knowledge of the physiology, ecology, biochemistry, and metabolomics of these yeasts can help to better use them in controlling traditional problems such as low fermentative power, excessive volatile acidity, low implantation under enological conditions, and sensibility to antimicrobial compounds like sulfites traditionally used in wine processing. This Special Issue intends to compile current research and revised information on non-Saccharomyces yeasts with enological applications to facilitate the use and the understanding of this biotechnological tool. In 1 year this SI has globally more than 15kdownloads and produced more than 30 citations.

Keywords

Lachancea thermotolerans --- Kluyveromyces thermotolerans --- acidification --- wines --- sequential fermentations --- non-Saccharomyces --- non-Saccharomyces yeasts --- Wickerhamomyces anomalus --- Pichia anomala --- enzymes --- glycosidases --- acetate esters --- biocontrol --- mixed starters --- wine --- wine --- Zygosaccharomyces rouxii --- re-fermentation --- spoilage-control --- non-Saccharomyces --- high-ethanol --- Schizosaccharomyces pombe --- oenological uses --- maloalcoholic fermentation --- stable pigments --- wine safety --- non-Saccharomyces yeast --- Saccharomycodes ludwigii --- S. ludwigii --- spoilage yeasts’ control --- ageing-on-lees --- non-Saccharomyces --- yeast --- sparkling wine --- nitrogen --- aroma --- Candida stellata --- ecology --- taxonomy --- metabolism --- processing foods --- co-fermentation --- non-Saccharomyces --- genome --- aroma compounds --- anthocyanin --- mixed cultures fermentation --- flavor complexity --- Aureobasidium pullulans --- biotechnological applications --- viticulture --- enzymes --- non-Saccharomyces yeasts --- Torulaspora delbrueckii --- winemaking --- yeast inoculation --- yeast dominance --- wine quality --- genetic improvement --- antimicrobial peptides --- biocontrol --- Brettanomyces bruxellensis --- Candida intermedia --- wine --- off-flavors --- wine acidity --- volatile acidity --- malolactic bacteria --- Lactobacillus plantarum --- Lachancea thermotolerans --- Schizosaccharomyces pombe --- Candida stellate --- Torulaspora delbrueckii --- Zygotorulaspora florentina --- Pichia kudriavzevii --- Stermerella bacillaris --- Metschnikowia pulcherrima --- oenological uses --- enzymes --- stable pigments --- pulcherrimin --- n/a --- n/a

Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods

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ISBN: 9781786394118; 9781786394118 Year: Pages: 332 DOI: 10.1079/9781786394118.0000 Language: English
Publisher: CABI
Subject: Biology --- Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-10-16 16:13:23
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This proceedings contains papers dealing with issues affecting biological control, particularly pertaining to the use of parasitoids and predators as biological control agents. This includes all approaches to biological control: conservation, augmentation, and importation of natural enemy species for the control of arthropod targets, as well as other transversal issues related to its implementation. It has 14 sessions addressing the most relevant and current topics in the field of biological control of arthropods: (i) Accidental introductions of biocontrol agens: positive and negative aspects; (ii) The importance of pre and post release genetics in biological control; (iii) How well do we understand non-target impacts in arthropod biological control; (iv) Regulation and access and benefit sharing policies relevant for classical biological control approaches; (v) The role of native and alien natural enemy diversity in biological control; (vi) Frontiers in forest insect control; (vii) Biocontrol marketplace I; (viii) Weed and arthropod biological control: mutual benefits and challenges; (ix) Maximizing opportunities for biological control in Asia's rapidly changing agro-environments; (x) Biological control based integrated pest management: does it work?; (xi) Exploring the compatibility of arthropod biological control and pesticides: models and data; (xii) Successes and uptake of arthropod biological control in developing countries; (xiii) Socio-economic impacts of biological control; (xiv) Biocontrol marketplace II.

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