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Biofilms from a Food Microbiology Perspective: Structures, Functions and Control Strategies

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451081 Year: Pages: 197 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-108-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Materials and equipment in food processing industries are colonized by surface-associated microbial communities called biofilms. In these biostructures microorganisms are embedded in a complex organic matrix composed essentially of polysaccharides, nucleic acids and proteins. This organic shield contributes to the mechanical biofilm cohesion and triggers tolerance to environmental stresses such as dehydratation or nutrient deprivation. Notably, cells within a biofilm are more tolerant to sanitation processes and the action of antimicrobial agents than their free living (or planktonic) counterparts. Such properties make conventional cleaning and disinfection protocols normally not effective in eradicating these biocontaminants. Biofilms are thus a continuous source of persistent microorganisms, including spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, leading to repeated contamination of processed food with important economic and safety impact. Alternatively, in some particular settings, biofilm formation by resident or technological microorganisms can be desirable, due to possible enhancement of food fermentations or as a means of bioprotection against the settlement of pathogenic microorganisms. In the last decades substantial research efforts have been devoted to unravelling mechanisms of biofilm formation, deciphering biofilm architecture and understanding microbial interactions within those ecosystems. However, biofilms present a high level of complexity and many aspects remain yet to be fully understood. A lot of attention has been also paid to the development of novel strategies for preventing or controlling biofilm formation in industrial settings. Further research needs to be focused on the identification of new biocides effective against biofilm-associated microorganisms, the development of control strategies based on the inhibition of cell-to-cell communication, and the potential use of bacteriocins, bacteriocin-producing bacteria, phage, and natural antimicrobials as anti-biofilm agents, among others. This Research Topic aims to provide an avenue for dissemination of recent advances within the “biofilms” field, from novel knowledge on mechanisms of biofilm formation and biofilm architecture to novel strategies for biofilm control in food industrial settings.

Fungal Pathogenesis in Humans: The Growing Threat

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ISBN: 9783038979005 9783038979012 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-901-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Cancer survival rates and successful organ transplantation in patients continues to increase due to improvements in early diagnosis and treatments. Since immuno-suppressive therapies are frequently used, the mortality rate due to secondary infections has become an ever-increasing problem. Opportunistic fungal infections are probably the deadliest threat to these patients due to their difficult early diagnosis, the limited effect of antifungal drugs and the appearance of resistances. In recent years, a considerable effort has been devoted to investigating the role of many virulence traits in the pathogenic outcome of fungal infections. New virulence factors (hypoxia adaptation, CO2 sensing, pH regulation, micronutrient acquisition, secondary metabolites, immunity regulators, etc.) have been reported and their molecular mechanisms of action are being thoroughly investigated. The recent application of gene-editing technologies such as CRISPr-Cas9, has opened a whole new window to the discovery of new fungal virulence factors. Accurate fungal genotyping, Next Generation Sequencing and RNAseq approaches will undoubtedly provide new clues to interpret the plethora of molecular interactions controlling these complex systems. Unraveling their intimate regulatory details will provide insights for a more target-focused search or a rational design of more specific antifungal agents. This Special Issue is show significant discoveries, proofs of concept of new theories or relevant observations in fungal pathogenesis and its regulation.

Microbial Biofilms in Healthcare: Formation, Prevention and Treatment

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ISBN: 9783039284108 9783039284115 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-411-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Biofilms are ubiquitous and their presence in industry can lead to production losses. However, nowhere do biofilms impact human health and welfare as much as those that are found contaminating the healthcare environment, surgical instruments, equipment, and medical implantable devices. Approximately 70% of healthcare-associated infections are due to biofilm formation, resulting in increased patient morbidity and mortality. Biofilms formed on medical implants are recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment, which leaves implant removal as the principal treatment option. In this book, we investigate the role of biofilms in breast and dental implant disease and cancer. We include in vitro models for investigating treatment of chronic wounds and disinfectant action against Candida sp. Also included are papers on the most recent strategies for treating biofilm infection ranging from antibiotics incorporated into bone void fillers to antimicrobial peptides and quorum sensing.

Advances in Prevention of Foodborne Pathogens of Public Health Concern during Manufacturing

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ISBN: 9783039219322 9783039219339 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-933-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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According to a report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), achieving safe and healthier foods was one of the top ten achievements of public health in the 20th century. However, considerable persisting challenges currently exist in developed nations and developing economies for further assuring the safety and security of the food supplies. According to CDC estimates, as many as 3000 American adults, as an example, and based on a recent epidemiological estimate of the World Health Organization, around 420,000 individuals around the globe, lose their lives annually due to foodborne diseases. This emphasizes the need for innovative and emerging interventions, for further prevention or mitigation of the risk of foodborne microbial pathogens during food processing and manufacturing. The current publication discusses recent advancements and progress in the elimination and decontamination of microbial pathogens during various stages of manufacturing and production. Special emphasis is placed on hurdle validation studies, investigating decontamination of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars, various serogroups of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, public health-significant serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes, and pathogenic species of Cronobacter.

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