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Über den Einfluss der Fußgeometrie auf die Energieeffizienz beim zweibeinigen Gehen

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Technische Mechanik, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 16143914 ISBN: 9783731508878 Year: Volume: 34 Pages: X, 292 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000089994 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
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The influence of foot geometry on energy efficiency in bipedal walking is investigated. A method for the optimization of the foot geometry of a bipedal robot is developed. It is based on a planar model with arbitrary convex foot geometry in combination with a hybrid zero dynamics based controller. Optimal gaits and foot geometries are determined. The average energy consumption can be reduced by more than 80% compared to a model with point feet.

Kinematics

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ISBN: 9789535136873 9789535136880 9789535140405 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68259 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Mechanical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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The present work contains a selection of research that is focused on the development of the kinematics; in this way, we can find the evolution of the kinematics in recent years, like applications in navigation systems, parallel robots, manipulators, and mobile robots. This work also includes new methods for the analysis in different applications, which are important in the proposal of new paradigms. Modeling is presented in applications oriented to a better understanding of biosystems; on the other hand, we also have applications of intelligent systems that enrich and complement the analysis of movement and position. Definitely, we hope that the present research work enriches and contributes with ideas and elements of interest for each of our readers.

Biomechanics

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Book Series: Biomedical Engineering ISSN: 26315343 ISBN: 9781789851212 9781789851229 Year: Volume: 4 Pages: 112 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73352 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Mechanical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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I have taught a variety of courses in biomechanics, introductory and advanced, at multiple universities in Canada. I have not been able to find or use an appropriate textbook for students whose background is not biomedical engineering. It should be noted that there are many outstanding books on biomechanics; however, they are usually not very introductory or the topics covered are too detailed, which makes it impossible for those audiences to make effective use of the book. The present book is an attempt to fill this gap. No previous familiarity of anatomy, biology, or physiology is expected, and in fact every chapter begins with a review of the relevant necessary background. Each chapter then highlights identification and explanation of the indispensable aspects of the associated biomechanics issues.

Towards a New Cognitive Neuroscience: Modeling Natural Brain Dynamics

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192717 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-271-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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Decades of brain imaging experiments have revealed important insights into the architecture of the human brain and the detailed anatomic basis for the neural dynamics supporting human cognition. However, technical restrictions of traditional brain imaging approaches including functional magnetic resonance tomography (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and magnetoencephalography (MEG) severely limit participants' movements during experiments. As a consequence, our knowledge of the neural basis of human cognition is rooted in a dissociation of human cognition from what is arguably its foremost, and certainly its evolutionarily most determinant function, organizing our behavior so as to optimize its consequences in our complex, multi-scale, and ever-changing environment. The concept of natural cognition, therefore, should not be separated from our fundamental experience and role as embodied agents acting in a complex, partly unpredictable world. To gain new insights into the brain dynamics supporting natural cognition, we must overcome restrictions of traditional brain imaging technology. First, the sensors used must be lightweight and mobile to allow monitoring of brain activity during free participant movements. New hardware technology for electroencephalography (EEG) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) allows recording electrical and hemodynamic brain activity while participants are freely moving. New data-driven analysis approaches must allow separation of signals arriving at the sensors from the brain and from non-brain sources (neck muscles, eyes, heart, the electrical environment, etc.). Independent component analysis (ICA) and related blind source separation methods allow separation of brain activity from non-brain activity from data recorded during experimental paradigms that stimulate natural cognition. Imaging the precisely timed, distributed brain dynamics that support all forms of our motivated actions and interactions in both laboratory and real-world settings requires new modes of data capture and of data processing. Synchronously recording participants’ motor behavior, brain activity, and other physiology, as well as their physical environment and external events may be termed mobile brain/body imaging ('MoBI'). Joint multi-stream analysis of recorded MoBI data is a major conceptual, mathematical, and data processing challenge. This Research Topic is one result of the first international MoBI meeting in Delmenhorst Germany in September 2013. During an intense workshop researchers from all over the world presented their projects and discussed new technological developments and challenges of this new imaging approach. Several of the presentations are compiled in this Research Topic that we hope may inspire new research using the MoBI paradigm to investigate natural cognition by recording and analyzing the brain dynamics and behavior of participants performing a wide range of naturally motivated actions and interactions.

Modeling Excitable Tissue

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Simula SpringerBriefs on Computing; Reports on Computational Physiology ISBN: 9783030611576 Year: Pages: 100 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-61157-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Science (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-11-19 00:19:52
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This open access volume presents a novel computational framework for understanding how collections of excitable cells work. The key approach in the text is to model excitable tissue by representing the individual cells constituting the tissue. This is in stark contrast to the common approach where homogenization is used to develop models where the cells are not explicitly present. The approach allows for very detailed analysis of small collections of excitable cells, but computational challenges limit the applicability in the presence of large collections of cells.

Water-Worked Bedload: Hydrodynamic and Mass Transport

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ISBN: 9783039213016 9783039213023 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-302-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The state-of-the-art in water-worked bed hydraulics can only be examined through a careful exploration of the experimental (both laboratory and field) results via theoretical development. This book is primarily focused on the research aspects that involve a comprehensive knowledge of sediment dynamics in turbulent flows, as the most up-to-date research findings in the field are presented. It begins with two reviews on bedload transport and water-work bed experimental studies. The sediment dynamics is then analyzed from a classical perspective by applying the mean bed shear approach and additionally incorporating a statistical description for the role of turbulence. The work finally examines the local scour problems at hydraulic structures and results from field studies. It is intended as a course guide for field professionals, keeping up with modern technological developments. Therefore, as a simple prerequisite, readers should have a basic knowledge of hydraulics to an undergraduate level.

Micro/Nano Devices for Blood Analysis

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ISBN: 9783039218240 9783039218257 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-825-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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The development of micro- and nanodevices for blood analysis is an interdisciplinary subject that demands the integration of several research fields, such as biotechnology, medicine, chemistry, informatics, optics, electronics, mechanics, and micro/nanotechnologies. Over the last few decades, there has been a notably fast development in the miniaturization of mechanical microdevices, later known as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), which combine electrical and mechanical components at a microscale level. The integration of microflow and optical components in MEMS microdevices, as well as the development of micropumps and microvalves, have promoted the interest of several research fields dealing with fluid flow and transport phenomena happening in microscale devices. Microfluidic systems have many advantages over their macroscale counterparts, offering the ability to work with small sample volumes, providing good manipulation and control of samples, decreasing reaction times, and allowing parallel operations in one single step. As a consequence, microdevices offer great potential for the development of portable and point-of-care diagnostic devices, particularly for blood analysis. Moreover, the recent progress in nanotechnology has contributed to its increasing popularity, and has expanded the areas of application of microfluidic devices, including in the manipulation and analysis of flows on the scale of DNA, proteins, and nanoparticles (nanoflows). In this Special Issue, we invited contributions (original research papers, review articles, and brief communications) that focus on the latest advances and challenges in micro- and nanodevices for diagnostics and blood analysis, micro- and nanofluidics, technologies for flow visualization, MEMS, biochips, and lab-on-a-chip devices and their application to research and industry. We hope to provide an opportunity to the engineering and biomedical community to exchange knowledge and information and to bring together researchers who are interested in the general field of MEMS and micro/nanofluidics and, especially, in its applications to biomedical areas.

Organs-on-chips

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ISBN: 9783039289172 / 9783039289189 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-918-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Recent advances in microsystems technology and cell culture techniques have led to the development of organ-on-chip microdevices that produce tissue-level functionality, not possible with conventional culture models, by recapitulating natural tissue architecture and microenvironmental cues within microfluidic devices.

Keywords

microfluidics --- vascularization --- organ-on-a-chip --- vascularized tumor model --- tissue engineering --- microfluidic device --- cell culture --- organ-on-chips --- lung epithelial cell --- surfactant protein --- angiogenesis --- shear stress --- biomechanics --- vessel branching --- beating force --- bio-mechanical property --- cardiac 3D tissue --- human induced pluripotent Stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CM) --- tissue engineering --- vacuum chuck --- barrier permeability --- epithelial–endothelial interface --- paracellular/transcellular transport --- organ-on-chip --- MEMS --- silicon --- PDMS --- membranes --- cell --- strain --- stress --- lattice light-sheet microscopy --- 3D cell culture system --- functional neuron imaging --- 3D cell culture --- neuronal cells --- SH-SY5Y cells --- image-based screening --- nanogrooves --- neuronal cell networks --- neuronal guidance --- drug metabolism --- biomimetic oxidation --- microfluidics --- organ-on-a-chip --- liver-on-a-chip --- liver-on-a-chip --- drug hepatotoxicity --- drug metabolism --- organoid --- 3D cell culture --- spheroid array --- high-throughput screening --- drug efficacy --- organ-on-a-chip (OOC) --- microfluidic device --- mechanical cue --- shear flow --- compression --- stretch --- strain --- syringe pump --- integrated pump --- passive delivery --- organs-on-chips --- microfluidics --- drug absorption --- fluoroelastomer --- ischemia/reperfusion injury --- thrombolysis --- organ-on-a-chip --- endothelial cell activation --- microfluidics --- microfabrication --- organ-on-a-chip --- trans-epithelial electrical resistance --- multi-culture --- n/a

Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering

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ISBN: 9783039289653 / 9783039289660 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-966-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Bone tissue engineering aims to develop artificial bone substitutes that partially or totally restore the natural regeneration capability of bone tissue lost under circumstances of injury, significant defects, or diseases such as osteoporosis. In this context, biomaterials are the keystone of the methodology. Biomaterials for bone tissue engineering have evolved from biocompatible materials that mimic the physical and chemical environment of bone tissue to a new generation of materials that actively interacts with the physiological environment, accelerating bone tissue growth. Mathematical modelling and simulation are important tools in the overall methodology. This book presents an overview of the current investigations and recent contributions in the field of bone tissue engineering. It includes several successful examples of multidisciplinary collaboration in this transversal area of research. The book is intended for students, researchers, and professionals of a number of disciplines, such as engineering, mathematics, physics, chemistry, biomedicine, biology, and veterinary. The book is composed of an editorial section and 16 original research papers authored by leading researchers of this discipline from different laboratories across the world

Keywords

Pelvis --- Bone tumor --- 3D-printed implant --- Fixation design --- von Mises stress --- dental implants --- osseointegration --- resonance frequency analysis --- biomaterials --- titanium --- powder metallurgy --- loose sintering --- finite element method --- mechanical behaviour --- bone tissue regeneration --- computed tomography --- Xenografts --- stem cell --- cartilage --- finite element --- finite-element simulation --- electric stimulation --- bone regeneration --- computational modelling --- electrically active implants --- bioelectromagnetism --- critical size defect --- maxillofacial --- minipig --- oxygen delivery --- optimization --- mass transfer --- transport --- bone tissue engineering --- computational fluid dynamics --- Lattice Boltzmann method --- scaffold design --- culturing protocol --- Lagrangian scalar tracking --- cortical bone --- damage --- finite elements --- numerical results --- adipogenesis --- bone marrow --- MSCs --- prediction marker --- bone tissue --- elastoplasticity --- finite element method --- fracture risk --- osteoporosis --- trabeculae --- trabecular bone score --- vertebra --- biomechanics --- finite element modelling --- pelvis --- bone adaptation --- musculoskeletal modelling --- bone tissue engineering --- biomaterials --- computational mechanobiology --- numerical methods in bioengineering --- Ti6Al4V scaffolds --- triply periodic minimal surfaces --- selective laser melting --- additive manufacturing --- biomaterial applications --- finite element analysis --- spark plasma sintering --- wollastonite --- human dental pulp stem cells --- substrate-mediated electrical stimulation --- direct current electric field --- osteo-differentiation --- bone morphogenesis proteins --- cortical bone --- digital image correlation --- multiscale analysis --- micromechanics --- computational mechanics --- cone beam computed tomography --- automatic segmentation --- sliding window --- 3D virtual surgical plan --- Otsu’s method --- n/a

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