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Principles Underlying Post-Stroke Recovery of Upper Extremity Sensorimotor Function - A Neuroimaging Perspective

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197675 Year: Pages: 153 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-767-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Abstract

Neuroimaging post-stroke has the potential to uncover underlying principles of disturbed hand function and recovery characterizing defined patient groups, including their long term course as well as individual variations. The methods comprise functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measuring task related activation as well as resting state. Functional MRI may be complemented by arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI to investigate slowly varying blood flow and associated changes in brain function. For structural MRI robust and accurate computational anatomical methods like voxel-based morphometry and surface based techniques are available. The investigation of the connectivity among brain regions and disruption after stroke is facilitated by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Intra- and interhemispheric coherence may be studied by electromagnetic techniques such as electroencephalography and transcranial magnetic stimulation. Consecutive phases of stroke recovery (acute, subacute, early chronic and late chronic stages) are each distinguished by intrinsic processes. The site and size of lesions entail partially different functional implications. New strategies to establish functional specificity of a lesion site include calculating contrast images between patients exhibiting a specific disorder and control subjects without the disorder. Large-size lesions often imply poor cerebral blood flow which impedes recovery significantly and possibly interferes with BOLD response of functional MRI. Thus, depending on the site and size of the infarct lesion the patterns of recovery will vary. These include recovery sensu stricto in the perilesional area, intrinsic compensatory mechanisms using alternative cortical and subcortical pathways, or behavioral compensatory strategies e.g. by using the non-affected limb. In this context, behavioral and neuroimaging measures should be developed and employed to delineate aspects of learning during recovery. Of special interest in recovery of hand paresis is the interplay between sensory and motor areas in the posterior parietal cortex involved during reaching and fine motor skills as well as the interaction with the contralesional hemisphere. The dominant disability should be characterized, from the level of elementary to hierarchically higher processes such as neglect, apraxia and motor planning. In summary, this Research Topic covers new trends in state of the art neuroimaging of stroke during recovery from upper limb paresis. Integration of behavioral and neuroimaging findings in probabilistic brain atlases will further advance knowledge about stroke recovery.

Selected Papers from the 15th Estuarine and Coastal Modeling Conference

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ISBN: 9783039212699 / 9783039212705 Year: Pages: 432 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-270-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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The 15th Estuarine and Coastal Modeling Conference provides a venue for commercial, academic, and government scientists and engineers from around the world to present and discuss the latest results and techniques in applied estuarine and coastal modeling. Prospective authors are invited to submit papers on a wide range of topic areas, including:• Pollutant Transport and Water Quality Prediction• Coastal Response to Climate Change• Modeling Techniques and Sensitivity Studies• Model Assessment• Modeling Specific Estuarine and Coastal Systems• Visualization and Analysis• Wave and Sediment Transport Modeling• Modeling of Chemicals and Floatables• Oil Spill Transport and Fate Modeling• Inverse Methods• Circulation Modeling• Facility Siting and CSO Studies• Data Assimilation• Nowcast/Forecast Modeling Systems• Modeling Systems with Strong Buoyancy Forcing• Modeling of Coupled Systems• Risk Analysis (Nuclear Reactors, Flood Forecasting)

Keywords

British Columbia --- environmental assessment --- marine construction --- circulation --- numerical model --- sediment model --- tidal current --- wind-driven current --- stratification --- initial dilution zone --- property-carrying particle model --- coupled models --- ecosystem simulation --- biophysical modeling --- Sandusky Bay --- Great Lakes --- tides --- tidal datums --- VDatum --- spatially varying uncertainty (SVU) --- north-east Gulf of Mexico --- Brown Passage --- Chatham Sound --- internal tides --- circulation --- numerical model --- stratification --- barotropic --- baroclinic --- Hood Canal --- floating bridge --- Salish Sea --- hydrodynamics --- Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM) --- circulation --- anthropogenic impact --- zone of influence --- Salish Sea model --- ice modeling --- operational forecast --- FVCOM --- CICE --- hydrodynamic modeling --- Great Lakes --- hydrodynamic numerical model --- H3D --- agriculture --- salt wedge --- climate change --- sea level rise --- river discharge --- channel deepening --- tidal constituent database --- ADvanced CIRCulation model (ADCIRC) --- Eastern North Pacific Ocean (ENPAC) --- coastal ocean modeling --- Gulf of Mexico --- operational nowcast and forecast system --- Finite Volume Community Ocean Model --- water level --- temperature --- salinity --- water quality --- model calibration --- estuary --- eutrophication --- CE-QUAL-W2 --- phytoplankton --- algal growth kinetics --- wave energy --- wind forcing --- large-wave hindcast --- multi-level nested-grid modeling --- CFSR --- NARR --- WaveWatch III --- SWAN --- hydrodynamics --- feasibility assessments --- nearshore restoration --- FVCOM --- Puget Sound --- Salish Sea --- numerical model --- sediment transport --- marine --- short-lived radioisotopes --- wave hindcast --- breakwater --- harbor --- estuary --- SWAN --- MIKE21SW --- unstructured grid --- storm surge --- coastal storm --- flooding --- compound events --- estuarine modeling --- lateral circulation --- tidal currents --- momentum balance --- coastal and estuarine modeling --- ADCIRC --- water level time series --- VDatum --- tidal datums --- statistical interpolation --- spatially varying uncertainty --- non-tidal zones --- marine grid population --- Texas --- western Louisiana --- Gulf of Mexico --- ocean modeling --- cloud computing --- data analysis --- geospatial data visualization

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