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Groundwater Contamination and Remediation

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ISBN: 9783038974291 9783038974307 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-430-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-12-07 09:01:53
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This Special Issue of Water brings together 10 studies on groundwater contamination and remediation. Common themes include practical techniques for plume identification and delineation, the central role of subsurface processes, the pervasiveness of non-Fickian transport, and the importance of bacterial communities in the broader context of biogeochemistry.

A Multidisciplinary Look at Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: An Emerging Multi-Drug-Resistant Global Opportunistic Pathogen

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453535 Year: Pages: 133 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-353-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a Gram-negative bacterium found in water, plant rhizospheres, animals, and foods. It is associated with a variety of infections in humans, involving respiratory tract (most common), soft tissue and bone, blood, eye, heart, and brain. This opportunistic pathogen is of serious concern to the immunocompromised patient population, and it is also being isolated with increasing frequency from the respiratory tract of individuals with cystic fibrosis. The observed increase worldwide in antibiotic resistance and the ability of this organism to make biofilms on epithelial cells and medical devices make it difficult for health-care personnel to treat infections caused by this pathogen. Recently, several genomes of S. maltophilia have been sequenced, revealing high genetic diversity among isolates. This pathogen uses a variety of molecular mechanisms to acquire and demonstrate resistance to an impressive array of antimicrobial drugs. Research has also focused on the pathogenesis of S. maltophilia in animal models and the resulting host immune response. S. maltophilia is recognized as an important organism in the plant microbiome. This environmental bacterium uses a diffusible signal mechanism for controlling its colonization and interaction with other bacteria and plants. S. maltophilia has also gained considerable research interest for its biotechnological applications, with recent studies on enzyme production, anti-biofilm strategies, biodegradation, and bioremediation. This e-book focuses on the latest developments in the areas of physiology, genomics, infection and immunity, host-pathogen interaction, pathogenesis, antimicrobial resistance and therapy, molecular epidemiology, applied and environmental microbiology, bioremediation and biotechnology.

Current Challenges and Future Perspectives on Emerging Bioelectrochemical Technologies

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199044 Year: Pages: 121 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-904-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The increasing demand for energy worldwide, currently evaluated at 13 terawatts per year, has triggered a surge in research on alternative energy sources more sustainable and environmentally friendly. Bio-catalyzed electrochemical systems (BESs) are a rapidly growing biotechnology for sustainable production of bioenergy and/or value-added bioproducts using microorganisms as catalysts for bioelectrochemical reactions at the electrode surface. In the last decades, this biotechnology has been intensively studied and developed as a flexible and practical platform for multiple applications such as electricity production, wastewater treatment, pollutants remediation, desalination and production of biogas, biofuels, or other commodities. BESs could have a critical impact on societies in many spheres of activity and become one of the solutions to reform our petroleum-based economy. However, BESs research has so far been limited to lab scale with the notable exceptions of pilot scale microbial fuel cells for brewery and winery wastewater treatment coupled with electricity generation. In general, more knowledge has to be acquired to overcome the issues that are stymieing BESs development and commercialization. For example, it is critical to understand better microbial physiology including the mechanisms responsible for the transfer of electrons between the microbes and the electrodes to start optimizing the systems in a more rational manner. There are many BES processes and for each one of them there is a multitude of biological and electrochemical specifications to investigate and adjust such as the nature of the microbial platform, electrode materials, the reactor design, the substrate, the medium composition, and the operating conditions. The ultimate goal is to develop highly energy efficient BESs with a positive footprint on the environment while maintaining low cost and generating opportunities to create value. BESs are complex systems developed with elements found in multiple fields of science such as microbiology, molecular biology, bioinformatics, biochemistry, electrochemistry, material science and environmental engineering. Given the high volume of research activities going on in the field of BESs today, this e-book explores the current challenges, the more recent progresses, and the future perspectives of BESs technologies. The BESs discussed here include microbial fuel cells, microbial electrolysis cells, microbial electrosynthesis cells, microbial electroremediation cells, etc.

Geomicrobiology and Biogeochemistry of Precious Metals

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ISBN: 9783038973461 9783038973478 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-347-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biotechnology --- Ecology --- Geology --- Earth Sciences --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-20 10:57:53
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Precious metals continue to have economic and sociocultural importance, as their usage evolves and diversifies over time. Today, the industrial application of precious metals is increasing with the development of scientific and technological innovations. Especially, the biological cycling of these metals is receiving more and more attention, as the microbiota may be key to a range of issues regarding exploration, ore-processing and metallurgy, and the processing of electron waste. In this volume, we focus on enhancing the fundamental understanding of the biological processes that drive noble metal cycling and examine how this knowledge may be turned into biotechnolical applications.

Selected Papers from the 8th Symposium on Micro-Nano Science and Technology on Micromachines

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ISBN: 9783038977285 / 9783038977292 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-729-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This Special Issue presents selected papers from the 8th

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