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How nature shaped echolocation in animals

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193479 Year: Pages: 207 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-347-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Echolocation has evolved in different groups of animals, from bats and cetaceans to birds and humans, and enables localization and tracking of objects in a dynamic environment, where light levels may be very low or absent. Nature has shaped echolocation, an active sense that engages audiomotor feedback systems, which operates in diverse environments and situations. Echolocation production and perception vary across species, and signals are often adapted to the environment and task. In the last several decades, researchers have been studying the echolocation behavior of animals, both in the air and underwater, using different methodologies and perspectives. The result of these studies has led to rich knowledge on sound production mechanisms, directionality of the sound beam, signal design, echo reception and perception. Active control over echolocation signal production and the mechanisms for echo processing ultimately provide animals with an echoic scene or image of their surroundings. Sonar signal features directly influence the information available for the echolocating animal to perceive images of its environment. In many echolocating animals, the information processed through echoes elicits a reaction in motor systems, including adjustments in subsequent echolocation signals. We are interested in understanding how echolocating animals deal with different environments (e.g. clutter, light levels), tasks, distance to targets or objects, different prey types or other food sources, presence of conspecifics or certain predators, ambient and anthropogenic noise. In recent years, some researchers have presented new data on the origins of echolocation, which can provide a hint of its evolution. Theoreticians have addressed several issues that bear on echolocation systems, such as frequency or time resolution, target localization and beam-forming mechanisms. In this Research Topic we compiled recent work that elucidates how echolocation – from sound production, through echolocation signals to perception- has been shaped by nature functioning in different environments and situations. We strongly encouraged comparative approaches that would deepen our understanding of the processes comprising this active sense.

The Evolution of Endothermy - From Patterns to Mechanisms

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455690 Year: Pages: 150 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-569-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Metabolic rate is a key ecophysiological factor determining fitness, distribution, survival and reproductive strategies of organisms. The ability to endogenously produce heat and elevate body temperature beyond ambient, has far reaching ecological implications. The diversity of thermogenic mechanisms and strategies employed throughout the animal kingdom is truly phenomenal and one of the greatest biological mysteries. Interestingly, even heat producing plants have been characterised.


Over the last several decades, the oversimplified distinction between warm- and cold blooded animals has well and truly been put to rest and the terms “endo- and ectotherm” have been established. Birds and mammals are regarded as endotherms, capable of maintaining high body temperatures within highly precise boundaries. On contrary, in ectothermic organisms ambient temperature governs body temperature and metabolism, encompassing the majority of present day species. However, it has recently become very clear that this distinction is still not accurate enough to describe the vastness of heat generating mechanisms within endo- but also ectotherms. Indeed, a plethora of ectothermic animals display endogenous as well as behavioural means of temperature control and mechanisms for heat generation. There is large diversity in regards to thermoregulatory ability and strategy within endotherms as well, with some groups being classified by separate categories such as basoendotherms and mesotherms.


Considerable interest and efforts has been put into the quest to understand the underlying physiological mechanisms leading and facilitating high metabolic rates and body temperatures of endotherms. These mechanisms are far from being exhaustively studied and the evolutionary trajectory leading to high metabolic rates and stable body temperatures is equally, vividly debated. This discussion includes an array of questions and theories surrounding the presence of endothermy in extinct dinosaurs. In addition, a lively debate surrounds the evolutionary drivers promoting the establishment of endothermy with clear support of direct or indirect selective benefits.


Within this Research Topic we plan to compile the latest ideas, knowledge and experimental work to elucidate the patterns of the evolution of endothermy and its transition/distinction from ectothermy. The focus is on key physiological mechanisms supporting this transition and contributing to the maintenance of high metabolic rates and body temperature in endotherms, as well as mechanisms for local heterothermy and heat dissipation in ectotherms. These mechanisms and conclusions may be derived from different levels of organisation such as population, taxon, species as well as tissue, cellular or molecular levels. It may also encompass novel experimental or theoretical models testing evolutionary theories of endothermy. A comparative approach is encouraged but not fundamental.

What Works in Conservation: 2017

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Book Series: What Works in Conservation ISBN: 9781783743100 Year: Pages: 442 DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0109 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-22 11:01:43
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"Is leaving headlands in fields unsprayed beneficial for wildlife? Is paying farmers to cover the costs of bird conservation measures effective?
Is using prescribed fire beneficial for young trees in forests?
Does translocating frogs benefit wild populations?
Is providing artificial roost structures for bats beneficial?
What Works in Conservation has been created to provide practitioners with answers to these and many other questions about practical conservation. This book provides an assessment of the effectiveness of 763 conservation interventions based on summarized scientific evidence. Chapters cover the practical global conservation of amphibians, bats, birds and forests, conservation of European farmland biodiversity and some aspects of enhancing natural pest control, enhancing soil fertility and control of freshwater invasive species. It contains key results from the summarized evidence for each conservation intervention and an assessment of the effectiveness of each by international expert panels. The accompanying website www.conservationevidence.com describes each of the studies individually, and provides full references.
This is the second edition of What Works in Conservation, which is revised on an annual basis. It will also available online as a free-to-download PDF at www.conservationevidence.com"

What Works in Conservation 2018

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Book Series: What Works in Conservation ISSN: 20594232 20594240 ISBN: 9781783744282 9781783744305 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 660 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11647/OBP.0131 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-17 14:12:22
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What Works in Conservation has been created to provide practitioners with answers to these and many other questions about practical conservation. This book provides an assessment of the effectiveness of 1277 conservation interventions based on summarized scientific evidence. The 2018 edition contains new chapters covering practical global conservation of primates, peatlands, shrublands and heathlands, management of captive animals as well as an extended chapter on control of freshwater invasive species. Other chapters cover the global conservation of amphibians, bats, birds and forests, conservation of European farmland biodiversity and some aspects of enhancing natural pest control, enhancing soil fertility and control of freshwater invasive species. It contains key results from the summarized evidence for each conservation intervention and an assessment of the effectiveness of each by international expert panels. The accompanying website www.conservationevidence.com describes each of the studies individually, and provides full references.

Behavioural and Ecological Consequences of Urban Life in Birds

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454976 Year: Pages: 364 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-497-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Urbanization is next to global warming the largest threat to biodiversity. Indeed, it is becoming increasingly evident that many bird species get locally extinct as a result of urban development. However, many bird species benefit from urbanization, especially through the abundance of human-provided resources, and increase in abundance and densities. These birds are intriguing to study in relation to its resilience and adaption to urban environments, but also in relation to its susceptibility and the potential costs of urban life. This Research Topic consisting of 30 articles (one review, two meta-analyzes and 27 original data papers) provides insights into species and population responses to urbanization through diverse lenses, including biogeography, community ecology, behaviour, life history evolution, and physiology.

From Ecology to Brain Development: Bridging Separate Evolutionary Paradigms

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455577 Year: Pages: 133 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-557-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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The nervous system is the product of biological evolution and is shaped by the interplay between extrinsic factors determining the ecology of animals, and by intrinsic processes that dictate the developmental rules that give rise to adult functional structures. This special topic is oriented to develop an integrative view from behavior and ecology to neurodevelopmental processes. We address questions such as how do sensory systems evolve according to ecological conditions? How do neural networks organize to generate adaptive behavior? How does cognition and brain connectivity evolve? What are the developmental mechanisms that give rise to functional adaptation? Accordingly, the book is divided in three sections, (i) Evolution of sensorimotor systems; (ii) Cognitive computations and neural circuits, and (iii) Development and brain evolution. We hope that this initiative will support an interdisciplinary program that addresses the nervous system as a unified organ, subject to both functional and developmental constraints, where the final outcome results of a compromise between different parameters rather than being the result of several single variables acting independently of each other.

What Works in Conservation 2019

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Book Series: What Works in Conservation ISSN: 2059-4232 / 2059-4240 ISBN: 9781783747627 / 9781783747641 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 706 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11647/OBP.0179 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Ecology --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-25 23:09:57
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What Works in Conservation has been created to provide practitioners with answers to these and many other questions about practical conservation. This book provides an assessment of the effectiveness of 1389 conservation interventions based on summarized scientific evidence. The 2019 edition contains new material on bat conservation. Other chapters cover practical global conservation of primates, peatlands, shrublands and heathlands, management of captive animals as well as an extended chapter on control of freshwater invasive species, the global conservation of amphibians, bats, birds and forests, conservation of European farmland biodiversity and some aspects of enhancing natural pest control, enhancing soil fertility and control of freshwater invasive species. It contains key results from the summarized evidence for each conservation intervention and an assessment of the effectiveness of each by international expert panels. The accompanying website www.conservationevidence.com describes each of the studies individually, and provides full references.This is the fourth edition of What Works in Conservation, which is revised on an annual basis.

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