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Bone Marrow T Cells at the Center Stage in Immunological Memory

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450930 Year: Pages: 84 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-093-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Increasing evidence supports the notion that bone marrow (BM) represents a relevant player in T cell responses, particularly in its role as a specialized organ for long-term memory. Memory T cells are enriched in the BM over long times after priming, and can be recruited to the periphery upon antigenic challenge. The articles in this research topic include discussions of whether these T cells are passing-through or truly resident, as well as a debate on the extent of proliferation of BM memory T cells. Original research articles in this collection include an analysis of the number of memory T cells found in different bones as well as effects of B cell depletion on T cell memory in the BM. T cells in the BM can influence a number of processes, from bone remodeling, control of cancer, to effects on hemopoiesis or Graft versus Host Disease (GVHD). This research topic contains several contributions to these topics including discussions on how to translate BM T cell knowledge into medicine.

Crosstalk between the osteogenic and neurogenic stem cell niches: how far are they from each other?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197774 Year: Pages: 102 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-777-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Somatic stem cells reside in definite compartments, known as “niches”, within developed organs and tissues, being able to renew themselves, differentiate and ensure tissue maintenance and repair. In contrast with the original dogmatic distinction between renewing and non-renewing tissues, somatic stem cells have been found in almost every human organ, including brain and heart. The adult bone marrow, in particular, houses a complex multifunctional niche comprising hemopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), that intensely interact. HSCs represent the common precursors of all mature blood cells. MSCs are instead able to differentiate along multiple mesodermal lineages and are believed to represent the key somatic stem cell within the skeletogenic niche, being conceptually able to produce any tissue included within a mature skeletal segment (bone, cartilage, blood vessels, adipose tissue, and supporting connective stroma). Despite this high plasticity, the claim that MSCs could be capable of transdifferentiation along non-mesodermal lineages, including neurons, has been strongly argued. Adult osteogenic and neurogenic niches display wide differences: embryo origin, microenvironment, progenitors’ lifespan, lineages of supporting cells. Although similar pathways may be involved, it is hard to believe that the osteogenic and neurogenic lineages can share functional features. The outbreaking research achievements in the field of regenerative medicine, along with the pressing need for effective innovative tools for the treatment of neurodegeneration and neurologic disorders, have been forcing experimental clinical applications, which, despite their scientific weakness, have recently stimulated the public opinion. Based on this contemporary background, this Research Topic wish to provide an in-depth revision of the state of the art on relevant scientific milestones addressing the differences and possible interconnections and overlaps, between the osteogenic and the neurogenic niches. Dissertations on both basic research and clinical aspects, along with ethical and regulatory issues on the use of somatic stem cells for in vivo transplantation, have been covered.

In Search of In Vivo MSC

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452354 Year: Pages: 102 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-235-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Advances in Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing

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ISBN: 9783039217007 9783039217014 Year: Pages: 128 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-701-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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PacBio’s single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology offers important advantages over the short-read DNA sequencing technologies that currently dominate the market. This includes exceptionally long read lengths (20 kb or more), unparalleled consensus accuracy, and the ability to sequence native, non-amplified DNA molecules. From fungi to insects to humans, long reads are now used to create highly accurate reference genomes by de novo assembly of genomic DNA and to obtain a comprehensive view of transcriptomes through the sequencing of full-length cDNAs. Besides reducing biases, sequencing native DNA also permits the direct measurement of DNA base modifications. Therefore, SMRT sequencing has become an attractive technology in many fields, such as agriculture, basic science, and medical research. The boundaries of SMRT sequencing are continuously being pushed by developments in bioinformatics and sample preparation. This book contains a collection of articles showcasing the latest developments and the breadth of applications enabled by SMRT sequencing technology.

Newborn Screening for Sickle Cell Disease and other Haemoglobinopathies

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ISBN: 9783039216147 9783039216154 Year: Pages: 162 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-615-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Newborn Screening for Sickle Cell Disease and other Haemoglobinopathies is a Special Issue of the International Journal of Neonatal Screening. Sickle cell disease is one of the most common inherited blood disorders, with a huge impact on health care systems due to high morbidity and high mortality associated with the undiagnosed disease. Newborn screening helps to make the diagnosis early and to prevent fatal complications and diagnostic odysseys. This book gives an overview of diagnostic standards in newborn screening for sickle cell disease and examples of existing newborn screening programs.

Keywords

newborn screening --- sickle cell disease --- India --- tribal --- non-tribal --- Guthrie spots --- cord blood --- automated HPLC --- (recommended) screening panel --- policy making --- harmonisation --- patient advocacy --- Sickle Cell Disease --- ‘Getting to Outcomes’ --- newborn screening) --- sub-Saharan Africa --- Nigeria --- Kaduna State --- implementation science --- public health engagement --- glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase --- G6PD deficiency --- point-of-care --- diagnostics --- malaria --- Plasmodium vivax --- screening --- sickle cell disease --- newborn --- mass spectrometry --- hemoglobinopathies --- newborn screening --- methods --- review --- sickle cell disease --- neonatal screening program --- registry --- birth prevalence --- newborn screening --- sickle cell disease --- hemoglobinopathy --- laboratory methods --- neonatal screening --- hemoglobin pattern --- HPLC --- IEF --- capillary electrophoresis --- sickle cell disease --- high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) --- ?-globin gene --- sickle cell disease --- newborn screening --- Caribbean --- newborn screening --- sickle cell disease --- MALDI-TOF --- mass spectrometry --- thalassemia --- prevention --- neonatal screening --- sickle cell disease --- hemoglobinopathies --- sickle cell disorder --- patient organisations --- patient representatives --- service users --- sickle cell and thalassaemia screening programme --- health policy --- screening --- sickle cell disease --- newborn --- thalassemia --- burden of disease --- newborn screening --- hemoglobinopathies --- sickle cell disease (SCD) --- pathophysiology --- hydroxyurea/hydroxycarbamide --- haemolysis --- vaso-occlusive crisis --- acute chest syndrome --- end-organ damage --- bone marrow transplant --- anaemia --- foetal haemoglobin --- gene therapy for haemoglobinopathies --- n/a

Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering

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ISBN: 9783039289653 / 9783039289660 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-966-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Bone tissue engineering aims to develop artificial bone substitutes that partially or totally restore the natural regeneration capability of bone tissue lost under circumstances of injury, significant defects, or diseases such as osteoporosis. In this context, biomaterials are the keystone of the methodology. Biomaterials for bone tissue engineering have evolved from biocompatible materials that mimic the physical and chemical environment of bone tissue to a new generation of materials that actively interacts with the physiological environment, accelerating bone tissue growth. Mathematical modelling and simulation are important tools in the overall methodology. This book presents an overview of the current investigations and recent contributions in the field of bone tissue engineering. It includes several successful examples of multidisciplinary collaboration in this transversal area of research. The book is intended for students, researchers, and professionals of a number of disciplines, such as engineering, mathematics, physics, chemistry, biomedicine, biology, and veterinary. The book is composed of an editorial section and 16 original research papers authored by leading researchers of this discipline from different laboratories across the world

Keywords

Pelvis --- Bone tumor --- 3D-printed implant --- Fixation design --- von Mises stress --- dental implants --- osseointegration --- resonance frequency analysis --- biomaterials --- titanium --- powder metallurgy --- loose sintering --- finite element method --- mechanical behaviour --- bone tissue regeneration --- computed tomography --- Xenografts --- stem cell --- cartilage --- finite element --- finite-element simulation --- electric stimulation --- bone regeneration --- computational modelling --- electrically active implants --- bioelectromagnetism --- critical size defect --- maxillofacial --- minipig --- oxygen delivery --- optimization --- mass transfer --- transport --- bone tissue engineering --- computational fluid dynamics --- Lattice Boltzmann method --- scaffold design --- culturing protocol --- Lagrangian scalar tracking --- cortical bone --- damage --- finite elements --- numerical results --- adipogenesis --- bone marrow --- MSCs --- prediction marker --- bone tissue --- elastoplasticity --- finite element method --- fracture risk --- osteoporosis --- trabeculae --- trabecular bone score --- vertebra --- biomechanics --- finite element modelling --- pelvis --- bone adaptation --- musculoskeletal modelling --- bone tissue engineering --- biomaterials --- computational mechanobiology --- numerical methods in bioengineering --- Ti6Al4V scaffolds --- triply periodic minimal surfaces --- selective laser melting --- additive manufacturing --- biomaterial applications --- finite element analysis --- spark plasma sintering --- wollastonite --- human dental pulp stem cells --- substrate-mediated electrical stimulation --- direct current electric field --- osteo-differentiation --- bone morphogenesis proteins --- cortical bone --- digital image correlation --- multiscale analysis --- micromechanics --- computational mechanics --- cone beam computed tomography --- automatic segmentation --- sliding window --- 3D virtual surgical plan --- Otsu’s method --- n/a

Circulating Tumor Cells: Finding Rare Events for A Huge Knowledge of Cancer Dissemination

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ISBN: 9783039286980 / 9783039286997 Year: Pages: 366 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-699-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) as a real-time liquid biopsy approach can be used to obtain new insights into metastasis biology, and as companion diagnostics to improve the stratification of therapies and to obtain insights into the therapy-induced selection of cancer cells. In this book, we will cover all the different facets of CTCs to assemble a huge corpus of knowledge on cancer dissemination: technologies for their enrichment, detection, and characterization; their analysis at the single-cell level; their journey as CTC microemboli; their clinical relevance; their biology with the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT); their stem-cell properties; their potential to initiate metastasis at distant sites; their ex vivo expansion; and their escape from the immune system.

Keywords

circulating tumor cells --- circulating tumor DNA --- liquid biopsy --- metastatic colorectal cancer --- FOLFIRINOX --- circulating tumor cells --- CTC --- liquid biopsy --- CTM --- CTMat --- CTC biology --- CTC capture technology --- metastasis --- circulating tumor cells (CTCs) --- hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) --- castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) --- epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) --- fibronectin --- integrin B1 --- SLUG --- major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) --- immunomodulation --- bone marrow --- melanoma --- disseminated tumor cells --- solid cancers --- single-cell analysis --- enrichment and detection technologies --- flow cytometry --- tumor stem cells --- HMB-45 --- CD133 --- locally advanced rectal cancer --- circulating tumor cells --- RAD23B --- thymidylate synthase --- chemoradioresistance --- liquid biopsy --- circulating tumor cells --- epithelial–mesenchymal transition --- stem cells --- early breast cancer --- prostate cancer (PCa) --- circulating tumor cells (CTC) --- liquid biopsy --- circulating tumor cells --- metastasis --- xenograft models --- breast cancer --- prostate cancer --- CTC --- AR --- AR-V7 --- ctRNA --- exosome --- circulating tumor cells --- hematological cells --- neutrophils --- platelets --- liquid biopsy --- circulating tumor cells --- melanoma --- liquid biopsy --- EPISPOT --- CellSearch® --- liquid biopsy --- CTCs --- immune checkpoint inhibitors --- PD-L1 expression --- NSCLC --- small-cell lung carcinoma --- circulating tumor cells --- microfluidics --- gene expression analysis --- synaptophysin --- chromogranin A --- rovalpituzumab tesirine --- leukocyte-derived extracellular vesicles --- immunofluorescence imaging --- EpCAM enrichment --- CellSearch --- EasyCount slides --- ACCEPT --- CTC --- heterogeneity --- liquid biopsy --- liquid surgery --- clinical utility --- circulating tumor cells (CTCs) --- glioma --- biomarker --- rVAR2 --- malaria --- enrichment and detection technologies --- prostate cancer --- biomarkers --- circulating tumor cells --- androgen receptor --- ARV7 --- abiraterone --- enzalutamide --- metastasis --- tumor-initiating cells (TICs) --- circulating tumor cells (CTCs) --- CTC-derived xenografts --- CTC-derived ex vivo models --- cerebrospinal liquid biopsy --- in vivo flow cytometry --- tumor biomarkers --- circulating tumor cells --- ctDNA --- miRNA --- exosomes --- emboli --- targeted therapy --- circulating tumor cells --- tumor cell dissemination --- immune system --- microbiome --- circulating tumor cells (CTCs) --- clinical trials --- breast cancer --- CTC-based treatment decisions --- circulating tumour cells --- colorectal cancer --- colorectal surgery --- microsatellite instability --- microfluidics --- immunophenotyping --- fish --- liquid biopsy --- circulating leukemia cells --- circulating plasma cells --- n/a

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