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Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue: Formation; Function; and Impact on Health and Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452453 Year: Pages: 165 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-245-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Adipocytes are a major component of the bone marrow, accounting for up to 70% of total bone marrow volume in healthy humans. Indeed, this bone marrow adipose tissue (often referred to as ‘MAT’ or ‘BMAT’) accounts for at least 5% of total adipose tissue mass in lean, healthy humans, suggesting a role in normal physiology and development. Bone marrow adiposity further increases with ageing and in diverse clinical conditions, including major public health challenges such as osteoporosis. Yet despite this abundance and compelling clinical potential, bone marrow adipocytes have received surprisingly little attention from the biomedical research community. Thankfully, this is now beginning to change. Research over the past decade has begun to increase our knowledge of BMAT, including the conditions associated with altered bone marrow adiposity and the potential physiological and pathological functions of bone marrow adipocytes. The articles within this e-Book highlight many of these recent developments, underscoring our increasing knowledge of BMAT formation and function; showcasing emerging techniques for basic and clinical BMAT analysis; and highlighting key questions and future directions for this burgeoning and increasingly diverse field. The editors would like to express their thanks to the authors for contributing the articles within this e-Book; to the senior editors at Frontiers in Endocrinology for their guidance; and to the staff at Frontiers for their helpful input throughout.

Keywords

bone

Dietary Bioactives and Bone Health

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ISBN: 9783038428459 9783038428466 Year: Pages: VI, 188 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-20 13:26:39
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There is general agreement within the fields of food, nutrition, and medical sciences that an individual’s diet and lifestyle can substantially predispose one to, or protect against osteoporosis, low bone mass, and numerous other age-related bone diseases. Dietary bioactives, found diversity in a variety of foods from fruits to vegetables, herbs and spices, essential oils and beverages, have the potential to influence bone health. The NIH Office of Dietary Supplements has defined dietary bioactives as “compounds that are constituents in foods and dietary supplements, other than those needed to meet basic human nutritional needs, which are responsible for changes in health status.” These compounds are generally thought to be safe in food at normal consumption levels (e.g., polyphenols in plant foods). Dietary bioactives are currently being assessed for their properties beyond antioxidant capacity, including anti-inflammatory actions. Some compounds or classes of compounds have been reported to enhance bone formation and inhibit bone resorption through their actions on cell signaling pathways that influence osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation.Emerging scientific evidence is available, including observational studies and small clinical interventions that suggest consumption of certain dietary bioactives may have beneficial effects on bone health. Animal models have the unique advantage of feeding controlled diets for extended periods of time to assess long-term changes in bone. While bone mineral density (BMD) is the gold standard for assessing fracture risk, other factors such as bone structure, including trabecular thickness and separation, influence bone strength. Bone turnover rate is also predictive of fracture. Future research is needed to determine the types and quantities of dietary bioactives that are most effective and at what dose, as well as the mechanisms involved in modulating cellular events, in order to set precedence for larger clinical trials.

Keywords

dietary --- bioactives --- bone --- osteoporosis

Putting the "why" back into bone "archytecture"

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193110 Year: Pages: 82 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-311-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-03 17:04:57
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A large literature exists on trabecular and cortical bone morphology. The engineering performance of bone, implied from its 3d architecture, is often the endpoint of bone biology experiments, being clinically relevant to bone fracture. How and why does bone travel along its complex spatio-temporal trajectory to acquire its architecture? The question "why" can have two meanings. The first, "teleological - why is an architecture advantageous?" – is the domain of substantial biomechanical research to date. The second, "etiological – how did an architecture come about?" – has received far less attention. This Frontiers Bone Research Topic invited contributions addressing this "etiological why" – what mechanisms can coordinate the activity of bone forming and resorbing cells to produce the observed complex and efficient bone architectures? One mechanism is proposed – chaotic nonlinear pattern formation (NPF) which underlies – in a unifying way – natural structures as disparate as trabecular bone, swarms of birds flying or shoaling fish, island formation, fluid turbulence and others. At the heart of NPF is the fact that simple rules operating between interacting elements multiplied and repeated many times, lead to complex and structured patterns. This paradigm of growth and form leads to a profound link between bone regulation and its architecture: in bone "the architecture is the regulation". The former is the emergent consequence of the latter. Whatever mechanism does determine bone's developing architecture has to operate at the level of individual sites of formation and resorption and coupling between the two. This has implications as to how we understand the effect on bone of agents such as gene products or drugs. It may be for instance that the "tuning" of coupling between formation and resorption might be as important as the achievement of enhanced bone volume. The ten articles that were contributed to this Topic were just what we hoped for – a snapshot of leading edge bone biology research which addresses the question of how bone gets its shape. We hope that you find these papers thought-provoking, and that they might stimulate new ideas in the research into bone architecture, growth and adaptation, and how to preserve healthy bone from gestation and childhood until old age.

Osteosarcoma - Biology, Behavior and Mechanisms

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9789535130956 9789535130963 Year: Pages: 254 DOI: 10.5772/62700 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor and mainly affects children, adolescents, and young adults. Osteosarcoma shows significant genetic instability, resulting in very complex biology with multifaceted cellular and molecular mechanisms and behavior. Although clinical outcomes, both prognostic and functional, of osteosarcoma dramatically improved in the 1980s, the prognoses of the patients with relapsed and/or metastatic disease remained very poor in spite of our continuous efforts to overcome this difficulty. This book aims to delve into the current advances of basic and clinical sciences in osteosarcoma that are guiding the future directions of its research and clinical practice. The knowledge presented here will lead to further inspiration, ideas, and novel insights into the field of osteosarcoma research. Hopefully, this work will foster improvement of the prognosis for patients suffering from the disease.

Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma

ISBN: 9783906980461 9783906980584 Year: Pages: 156 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-01-12 11:17:42
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Soft tissue and bone sarcomas disproportionately affect children, adolescents, and young adults. Although considered a rare disease, sarcomas continue to have a devastating effect on these patients and their loved ones, and their impact on our society far exceed their relatively low prevalence. Because of its rarity and heterogeneity, clinical decision making on management of sarcomas are often individualized and without a consensus treatment strategy. Furthermore, research to improve clinical outcomes are particularly challenging as sizeable studies are hard to produce. By improving our knowledge about the molecular biology of sarcomas, we hope to identify new treatment strategies and targets for further drug development. [...]

Inorganic Biomaterials

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198016 Year: Pages: 149 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-801-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Materials --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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The intention of the editors A. R. Boccaccini and W. Höland has been to target this e-book to a broad readership and at the same time to present scientific contributions sufficiently detailed which discuss various specific fundamental aspects of inorganic biomaterials and their biomedical and dental applications. In this context, two large categories of biomaterials need to be mentioned, namely bioactive biomaterials for the replacement and regeneration of hard tissue and biocompatible, non-bioactive biomaterials for restorative dentistry. Both categories include products based on glasses or glass-ceramics as well as organic-inorganic composite materials. Among the bioactive products, BIOGLASS®, developed in the late 1960s by Prof. Dr. L. L. Hench, occupies a prominent position, being BIOGLASS® the first man-made material shown to form strong and functional bonding to leaving tissue. Sadly, Prof. Hench passed away in December 2015, at the time this e-book was being completed, it is therefore a great honor for the editors to dedicate this e-book to his memory. Indeed the book contains a comprehensive review written by Prof. Hench, in collaboration with Prof. J. R. Jones (UK), which provides a timely overview of the development and applications of bioactive glasses, including a discussion on the remaining challenges in the field. Further bioactive materials have been developed over the years by leading scientists such as Prof. Kokubo (Japan). These materials have also found their way into this book. The other contributions in this book, written by worldwide recognized experts in the field, present the latest advances in relevant areas such as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering, metallic ion releasing systems, cements, bioactive glass–polymer coatings, composites for bone regeneration, and effect of porosity on cellular response to bioceramics. In addition to bioactive materials, inorganic systems for restorative dentistry are also discussed in this e-book. Biomaterials for dental restorations consist of glassy or crystalline phases. Glass-ceramics represent a special group of inorganic biomaterials for dental restorations. Glass-ceramics are composed of at least one inorganic glassy phase and at least one crystalline phase. These products demonstrate a combination of properties, which include excellent aesthetics and the ability to mimic the optical properties of natural teeth, as well as high strength and toughness. They can be processed using special processing procedures, e.g. machining, moulding and sintering, to fabricate high quality products. The editors would like to extend their gratitude to the Frontiers team in Lausanne, Switzerland, for their outstanding dedication to make possible the publication of this e-book in a timely manner. It is our wish that the book will contribute to expand the field of inorganic biomaterials, both in terms of fundamental knowledge and applications, and that the book will be useful not only to established researchers but also to the increasing number of young scientists starting their careers in the field of inorganic biomaterials.

Kition-Bamboula VII : Fouilles dans les nécropoles de Kition (2012-2014)

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ISBN: 9782356681805 DOI: 10.4000/books.momeditions.2903 Language: French
Publisher: MOM Éditions
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:38
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Les nécropoles de l’ancienne Kition (sous la ville moderne de Larnaca) ont fait l’objet de nombreuses fouilles depuis le xixe siècle : aux recherches d’antiquités ont succédé des fouilles d’urgence, sans qu’aucune exploration toutefois n’ait pu se faire de façon programmée, avec les méthodes de l’analyse stratigraphique et anthropologique. Entre 2012 et 2014, la mission archéologique de Kition a conduit des fouilles systématiques dans une des nécropoles de l’âge du Fer de la ville, au lieu-dit Pervolia. Programmée dans le cadre d’une étude générale de la topographie urbaine à l’âge du Fer, cette fouille a permis de conduire une étude exhaustive, à la fois à l’échelle du site (occupation diachronique de l’espace) et à celle de la tombe (architecture, cycle d’utilisation, pratiques funéraires). Les résultats de ces travaux occupent la majeure partie de ce volume, que complètent la publication du matériel de tombes découvertes lors de fouilles plus anciennes sur le même site et celle des fouilles d’urgence réalisées par le Département des Antiquités de Chypre en 2012 dans une autre nécropole de la ville, au lieu-dit Tourapi. Le volume est dirigé par Anna Cannavò, Sabine Fourrier et Alexandre Rabot, en collaboration avec Anna Satraki pour la publication des fouilles de Kition-Tourapi. Plusieurs spécialistes ont bien voulu apporter leur concours : Fabien Belhaoues, Rémi Corbineau, Nathalie Delhopital, Nathalia Denninger, Lluis Garcia Petit, Armelle Gardeisen, Anna Georgiadou, Evangéline Markou, Maria A. Socratous et Prisca Vareilles. Les archives scientifiques de la fouille de la mission à Kition-Pervolia sont consultables en libre accès sur le portail chypre.mom.fr, développé par Bruno Morandière (MOM).

Biology-Driven Targeted Therapy of Pediatric Soft-Tissue and Bone Tumors: Current Opportunities and Future Challenges

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198191 Year: Pages: 147 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-819-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Recent advances in the understanding of the biological basis of pediatric soft-tissue and bone tumors, especially owing to the advent of “omics” technologies, have led to an exponential increase in the current knowledge on the genetic and cellular patho-mechanisms that drive these diseases. This offers the unprecedented opportunity to develop and implement targeted therapies such as monoclonal antibodies, small molecules, oncolytic viruses, and immunotherapies in standard and/or personalized treatment regimens. However, to date only a few examples document a successful translation of discoveries from the bench to the bedside. Recent international expert congresses such as the “Pediatric Cancer Translational Genomics” conference (Phoenix, Arizona, 2012), the ESF-EMBO workshop on “Molecular Biology and Innovative Therapies in Sarcomas” (Pultusk, Poland, 2012), and the AACR special meeting on “Pediatric Cancer at the Crossroads – Translating Discovery into Improved Outcomes” (San Diego, California, 2013) further emphasize the urgent need for a more rapid and especially more successful translational process. Hence, we strongly believe that a Frontiers Research Topic aiming at this aspect would fit just in time and that it would have great potential to receive numerous contributions of outstanding experts of the field. The proposed Frontiers Research Topic shall provide a platform for active and interdisciplinary discussion, summarize current state-of-the-art knowledge on all basic research and translational aspects in pediatric soft-tissue and bone tumors, and offer new perspectives of how to further promote and accelerate the translational process. We welcome high-quality original research articles, brief reports, as well as opinion, hypothesis, and review articles, and especially encourage submissions from early-career scientists.

Mechanical Loading and Bone

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197514 Year: Pages: 99 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-751-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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This research topic is focused on recent advances in our understanding of effects of mechanical loading on the skeleton, and research methods used in addressing these. Though it is well established that mechanical loading provides an essential stimulus for skeletal growth and maintenance, there have been major advances recently in terms of our understanding of the molecular pathways involved, which are thought to provide novel drug targets for treating osteoporosis. The articles included in this topic encompass the full spectrum of laboratory and clinical research, and range from review articles, editorials, hypothesis papers and original research articles. Together, they demonstrate how mechanical loading underpins many aspects of bone biology, including the pathogenesis and treatment of osteoporosis and other clinical disorders associated with skeletal fragility.

Bone Marrow T Cells at the Center Stage in Immunological Memory

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450930 Year: Pages: 84 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-093-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Increasing evidence supports the notion that bone marrow (BM) represents a relevant player in T cell responses, particularly in its role as a specialized organ for long-term memory. Memory T cells are enriched in the BM over long times after priming, and can be recruited to the periphery upon antigenic challenge. The articles in this research topic include discussions of whether these T cells are passing-through or truly resident, as well as a debate on the extent of proliferation of BM memory T cells. Original research articles in this collection include an analysis of the number of memory T cells found in different bones as well as effects of B cell depletion on T cell memory in the BM. T cells in the BM can influence a number of processes, from bone remodeling, control of cancer, to effects on hemopoiesis or Graft versus Host Disease (GVHD). This research topic contains several contributions to these topics including discussions on how to translate BM T cell knowledge into medicine.

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