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Les semences

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ISBN: 9782759218936 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.35690/978-2-7592-1893-6 Language: French
Publisher: éditions Quae
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-10 11:21:04
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A complete guide on seed production and distribution in tropical regions: technical aspects and organisation of seed production, basic principles for plant improvement and seed biology, management of operations relating to seed production, harvesting and post-harvest conditioning. It also deals with rules for placing on the market of seed and the management of seed breeding companies.

Low-Cost Methods for Molecular Characterization of Mutant Plants: Tissue Desiccation, DNA Extraction and Mutation Discovery: Protocols

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783319162584 9783319162591 Year: Pages: 35 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-16259-1 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Biotechnology --- Plant Sciences --- Manufactures --- Chemical Engineering --- Pharmacy and materia medica
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-12 17:07:01
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Open Access provided with a grant from the International Atomic Energy Agency.This book offers low-cost and rapid molecular assays for the characterization of mutant plant germplasm. Detailed protocols are provided for the desiccation of plant tissues; the extraction of high-quality DNA for downstream applications; the extraction of single-strand-specific nucleases for single nucleotide polymorphism; and small insertion/deletion discovery using standard agarose gel electrophoresis. The methods described can be applied in any laboratory equipped for basic molecular biology and do away with the need for expensive freezers and toxic organic compounds. With the appropriate validation of sample quality and longevity, they can provide sufficient DNA for a variety of molecular applications, such as marker studies and TILLING, at approximately one tenth of the cost per sample when compared to commercial kits.

Biotechnologies for Plant Mutation Breeding: Protocols

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783319450193 9783319450216 Year: Pages: 340 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-45021-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Manufactures --- Chemical Engineering --- Biotechnology --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-08 13:33:36
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This book offers 19 detailed protocols on the use of induced mutations in crop breeding and functional genomics studies, which cover topics including chemical and physical mutagenesis, phenotypic screening methods, traditional TILLING and TILLING by sequencing, doubled haploidy, targeted genome editing, and low-cost methods for the molecular characterization of mutant plants that are suitable for laboratories in developing countries. The collection of protocols equips users with the techniques they need in order to start a program on mutation breeding or functional genomics using both forward and reverse-genetic approaches. Methods are provided for seed and vegetatively propagated crops (e.g. banana, barley, cassava, jatropha, rice) and can be adapted for use in other species.

The Challenge of Protein Crops as a Sustainable Source of Food and Feed for the Future

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451623 Year: Pages: 325 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-162-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Grain legumes, together with quinoa and amaranth (pseudocereals) and other crops are attractive candidates to satisfy the growing demand for plant protein production worldwide for food and feed. Despite their high value, many protein crops have not been adequately assessed and numerous species are underutilized. Special attention has to be paid to genetic diversity and landraces, and to the key limiting factors affecting yield, including water deficiency and other abiotic and biotic stresses, in order to obtain stable, reliable and sustainable crop production through the introduction and local adaptation of genetically improved varieties. Legumes, the main protein crops worldwide, contribute to the sustainable improvement of the environment due to their ability to fix nitrogen and their beneficial effects on the soil. They play a key role in the crop diversification and sustainable intensification of agriculture, particularly in light of new and urgent challenges, such as climate change and food security. In addition, the role of legumes in nutrition has been recognized as a relevant source of plant protein, together with other benefits for health. Chapters dealing with common bean, lupine, soybean, lentil, cowpea and Medicago are included in this book. Most contributions deal with legumes, but the significant number of papers on different aspects of quinoa gives an idea of the increasing importance of this protein crop. Pseudocereals, such as quinoa and amaranth, are good sources of proteins. Quinoa and amaranth seeds contain lysine, an essential amino acid that is limited in other grains. Nutritional evaluations of quinoa indicate that it constitutes a source of complete protein with a good balance among all of the amino acids needed for human diet, and also important minerals, vitamins, high quality oils and flavonoids. Other protein crops also included in this book are hemp, cotton and cereals (maize, wheat and rice). Although cereals protein content is not high, their seeds are largely used for human consumption. In this book are included articles dealing with all different aspects of protein crops, including nutritional value, breeding, genetic diversity, biotic and abiotic stress, cropping systems or omics, which may be considered crucial to help provide the plant proteins of the future. Overall, the participation of 169 authors in 29 chapters in this book indicates an active scientific community in the field, which appears to be an encouraging reflect of the global awareness of the need for sustainability and the promising future of proteins crops as a source of food and feed.

Advances in Legume Research

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456321 Year: Pages: 609 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-632-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Legumes crops have an extraordinary importance for the agriculture and the environment. In a world urgently requiring more sustainable agriculture, food security and healthier diets the demand for legume crops is on the rise. The International Legume Society (http://ils.nsseme.com) organizes a triannual series of conferences with the goal to serve as a forum to discuss interdisciplinary progress on legume research. The Second International Legume Society Conference (ILS2) hosted in October 2016 at Troia, Portugal was the starting point for the Research Topic “Advances in Legume Research” in FiPS, that was also open to spontaneous submissions.

Bronzezeitliche Fleischverarbeitung im Salzbergtal bei Hallstatt

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783700172611 Year: Pages: 160 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_453482 Language: German
Publisher: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 57
Added to DOAB on : 2013-09-21 22:37:31
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An animal bone assemblage discovered in an area of Late Bronze Age aboveground activities at the Hallstatt salt mining site was analysed. Together with sunken logwall structurs the results support the idea of a large-scale production of salt-meat, ham and bacon.

Improving Animal Welfare through Genetic Selection

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198832 Year: Pages: 106 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-883-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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In livestock species, breeding goals are aimed primarily at improvement of production traits. However, there are a number of examples where selection for high production efficiency has resulted in reduced welfare through unfavorable outcomes in health and fitness characteristics. These effects raise questions about what is ethically acceptable in animal breeding. Welfare problems may be experienced when physiological balance is disturbed by genetic selection for high production alone, by a mismatch between the environmental challenges and the range of coping responses available to an animal, or from a mismatch between the animal’s needs and their degree of satisfaction. This may be resolved by either improving the environment to support the animal, but also by providing the animal, through genetic selection, with means to adapt to the production environment. The Standing Committee of the European Convention for the Protection of Animals kept for Farming Purposes emphasizes that breeding goals should include health and welfare. The Farm Animal Welfare Council pleas for a greater emphasis in breeding programs on traits associated with good welfare. However, although breeding goals in most farm animal species have been broadened beyond production traits to include functional traits, behavioral traits are rarely included despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. It is the goal of the present Research Topic to bring together experimental and theoretical research focusing on the genetics of welfare traits and the possibility to improve animal welfare through selection. This topic presents an overview of the relationship between selection for high production and livestock robustness, examples of improving robustness through the introduction of novel traits in livestock breeding, and a discussion on selection methods to address welfare issues. The discussion on sustainability of breeding practices is very alive today and will remain to be an important part of the debate in the future.

Natural Diversity in the New Millennium

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199525 Year: Pages: 173 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-952-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Natural diversity has been extensively used to understand plant biology and improve crops. However, studies were commonly based on visual phenotypes or on a few measurable parameters. Nowadays, a large number of parameters can be measured thanks to next generation sequencing, metabolomics, proteomics, and transcriptomics thus providing an unprecedented resolution in the detection of natural diversity. This enhanced resolution offers new possibilities in terms of understanding plant biology. Technology advances also contribute to a better assessment of the biodiversity loss currently taking place. Hence, the topic presents an overview on efforts for maintaining biological diversity in crops, on possibilities offered by recent technologies in the assessment of natural variation, and ends with examples of the diversity found even at the cellular level.

Molecular and Metabolic Mechanisms Associated with Fleshy Fruit Quality

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452729 Year: Pages: 436 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-272-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Fleshy Fruits are a late acquisition of plant evolution. In addition of protecting the seeds, these specialized organs unique to plants were developed to promote seed dispersal via the contribution of frugivorous animals. Fruit development and ripening is a complex process and understanding the underlying genetic and molecular program is a very active field of research. Part of the ripening process is directed to build up quality traits such as color, texture and aroma that make the fruit attractive and palatable. As fruit consumers, humans have developed a time long interaction with fruits which contributed to make the fruit ripening attributes conform our needs and preferences. This issue of Frontiers in Plant Science is intended to cover the most recent advances in our understanding of different aspects of fleshy fruit biology, including the genetic, molecular and metabolic mechanisms associated to each of the fruit quality traits. It is also of prime importance to consider the effects of environmental cues, cultural practices and postharvest methods, and to decipher the mechanism by which they impact fruit quality traits. Most of our knowledge of fleshy fruit development, ripening and quality traits comes from work done in a reduced number of species that are not only of economic importance but can also benefit from a number of genetic and genomic tools available to their specific research communities. For instance, working with tomato and grape offers several advantages since the genome sequences of these two fleshy fruit species have been deciphered and a wide range of biological and genetic resources have been developed. Ripening mutants are available for tomato which constitutes the main model system for fruit functional genomics. In addition, tomato is used as a reference species for climacteric fruit which ripening is controlled by the phytohormone ethylene. Likewise, grape is a reference species for non-climacteric fruit even though no single master switches controlling ripening initiation have been uncovered yet. In the last period, the genome sequence of an increased number of fruit crop species became available which creates a suitable situation for research communities around crops to get organized and information to be shared through public repositories. On the other hand, the availability of genome-wide expression profiling technologies has enabled an easier study of global transcriptional changes in fruit species where the sequenced genome is not yet available. In this issue authors will present recent progress including original data as well as authoritative reviews on our understanding of fleshy fruit biology focusing on tomato and grape as model species.

Management of Fusarium Species and their Mycotoxins in Cereal Food and Feed

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452941 Year: Pages: 259 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-294-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Health and safety of food and feed are the most important criteria for their quality. The quality of feed is in turn important for animal health, the environment and for the safety of food from animal origin. Fungi belonging to the Fusarium genus are widespread in crops causing plant diseases and producing toxic metabolites. Fusarium species can colonize plants during their growth on the field and cause serious damage in terms of yield and quality of harvested grains. One of the most important fungal diseases of wheat and other cereals in the world is Fusarium head blight caused by the fungal pathogens Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum and others. In addition, these fungi produce mycotoxins, contaminating food and feed. The most important Fusarium mycotoxins include trichothecenes, zearalenone and fumonisins, primarily because of their prevalence, but also because of the toxic effect to humans and animals. However, these fungi produce also other mycotoxins such as moniliformin, beauvericin, enniantin or fusarins. Food and feed can be contaminated with mycotoxins at various stages in the production chain resulting in serious problems with health, safety and economic losses. It is estimated that 25% of the crop in the world each year are contaminated with these metabolites, the problem affects both industrialized countries and developing countries. The aim of this Research Topic of Frontiers in Microbiology is to publish state of the art research about occurrence and genomics of Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in the whole food and feed chain starting from the crops as well as implications for health and economic aspects. This research topic highlights the current knowledge on the plant diseases caused by Fusarium fungi as well as all aspects of Fusarium mycotoxin contamination of crops, food and feed, taking into account decontamination methods.

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