Search results: Found 8

Listing 1 - 8 of 8
Sort by
Noise and Vibration Control in the Built Environment

Author:
ISBN: 9783038424215 9783038424208 Year: Pages: XII, 176 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-06-02 09:49:16
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

With global urbanization rapidly rising and the increasing need of high-quality built environments, the requirement of achieving improved sound quality, both for outdoor and indoor environments, has received a lot of attention. This Special Issue collection reflects the current state of the art, with 12 papers covering environmental acoustics; the influence of soundscapes on people’s behavior; soundscape pleasantness estimation; tranquility; perceived quality of sonic environments; sound and vibration-related health complaints concerning tramways; and the disturbance of construction machines; as well as in building and room acoustics, including natural ventilation-enabling façade noise control devices; the effect of external shading devices; rating method of airborne sound insulation; water supply and drainage noise, and the effect of diffusive surfaces in auditoria. Some papers cover research on the engineering aspects of sound and vibration, such as sound propagation and noise control techniques, as well as perception aspects of sound, such as indoor acoustic comfort and environmental soundscapes. The book is prefaced by Prof. S Wu, entitled ‘Sustainable Urban Sound Environment’.

Emerging Technologies to Promote and Evaluate Physical Activity

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192984 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-298-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Public Health --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:07
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Increasingly, efforts to promote and measure physical activity are achieving greater precision, greater ease of use, and/or greater scope by incorporating emerging technologies. This is significant for physical activity promotion because more precise measurement will allow investigators to better understand where, when, and how physical activity is and is not occurring, thus enabling more effective targeting of particular behavior settings. Emerging technologies associated with the measurement and evaluation of physical activity are noteworthy because: (1) Their ease of use and transferability can greatly increase external validity of measures and findings; (2) Technologies can significantly increase the ability to analyze patterns; (3) They can improve the ongoing, systematic collection and analysis of public health surveillance due to real-time capabilities associated with many emerging technologies; (4) There is a need for research and papers about the cyberinfrastructure required to cope with big data (multiple streams, processing, aggregation, visualization, etc.); and (5) Increasingly blurred boundaries between measurement and intervention activity (e.g., the quantified-self /self-tracking movement) may necessitate a reevaluation of the conventional scientific model for designing and evaluating these sorts of studies. There have been many recent, disparate advances related to this topic. Advances such as crowdsourcing allow for input from large, diverse audiences that can help to identify and improve infrastructure for activity (e.g., large group identification of environmental features that are conducive or inhibiting to physical activity on a national and even global scale). Technologies such as Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and accelerometry are now available in many mobile phones and can be used for identifying and promoting activity and also understanding naturalistically-occurring activity. SenseCam and other personal, visual devices and mobile apps provide person point of view context to physical activity lifestyle and timing. Further, multiple sensor systems are enabling better identification of types of activities (like stair climbing and jumping) that could not previously be identified readily using objective measures like pedometers or accelerometers in isolation. The ability of activity sensors to send data to remote servers allows for the incorporation of online technology (e.g., employing an online social-network as a source of inspiration or accountability to achieve physical activity goals), and websites such as Stickk.com enable individuals to make public contracts visible to other users and also incorporates financial incentives and disincentives in order to promote behaviors including physical activity. In addition, the increasing use of active-gaming (e.g., Wii, XBox Kinect) in homes, schools, and other venues further underscores the growing link between technology and physical activity. Improvements in mathematical models and computer algorithms also allow greater capacity for classifying and evaluating physical activity, improving consistency across research studies. Emerging technologies in the promotion and evaluation of physical activity is a significant area of interest because of its ability to greatly increase the amount and quality of global recorded measurements of PA patterns and its potential to more effectively promote PA. Emerging technologies related to physical activity build on our own and others’ interdisciplinary collaborations in employing technology to address public health challenges. This research area is innovative in that is uses emerging resources including social media, crowdsourcing, and online gaming to better understand patterns of physical activity.

Microbiome Interplay and Control

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455058 Year: Pages: 421 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-505-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

In complex systems, such as our body or a plant, the host is living together with thousands of microbes, which support the entire system in function and health. The stability of a microbiome is influenced by environmental changes, introduction of microbes and microbial communities, or other factors. As learned in the past, microbial diversity is the key and low-diverse microbiomes often mirror out-of-control situations or disease. It is now our task to understand the molecular principles behind the complex interaction of microbes in, on and around us in order to optimize and control the function of the microbial community – by changing the environment or the addition of the right microorganisms. This Research Topic focuses on studies (including e.g. original research, perspectives, mini reviews, and opinion papers) that investigate and discuss: 1) The role of the microbiome for the host/environmental system 2) The exchange and change of microbes and microbial communities (interplay) 3) The influence of external factors toward the stability of a microbiome 4) Methods, possibilities and approaches to change and control a system’s microbiome (e.g. in human or plant disease) 5) Experimental systems and approaches in microbiome research.The articles span the areas: human health and disease, animal and plant microbiomes, microbial interplay and control, methodology and the built environment microbiome.

Walkable Neighborhoods: The Link between Public Health, Urban Design, and Transportation

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039219308 / 9783039219315 Year: Pages: 234 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-931-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Transportation --- Media and communication
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

It is now widely recognized that individual-based motivational interventions alone are not sufficient to address the global pandemic of physical inactivity (lack of exercise and too much sitting time). There has been a growing interest in the effect the physically built environment can have on people’s active behaviors. The fundamental assumption is that surrounding physical environments can support active behaviors among a large number of people with long-term effects. This topic has received much attention over the last decade, mainly in the three fields of urban design, public health, and transportation. This Special Issue aims to provide multidisciplinary and evidence-based state-of-the-art research on how the locations where people live impact their active behaviors and health outcomes.

Keywords

urban design --- active living --- aging --- physical activity --- sedentary behavior --- age-friendly environments --- older adult --- physical activity --- social connectedness --- physical environment --- citizen science --- Discovery Tool --- built environment --- urban health --- urban form --- walking --- physical activity --- health promotion --- walkability --- neighborhood --- older adult --- chronic diseases --- body mass --- disease mapping --- geographic variation --- obese --- overweight --- spatial analysis --- walkability --- traffic safety --- walking --- cycling --- infrastructure --- active travel --- active transport --- neighbourhood --- scale --- built environment --- physical activity --- walking --- soft mobility --- walkable environment --- physical activity --- health outcomes --- active living --- street network configuration --- peripheral neighbourhoods --- pedestrian flow --- streetscape features --- Istanbul --- walkable neighborhood --- sitting --- elderly --- built environment --- non-communicable diseases --- Africa --- walkable environment --- physical activity --- sedentary behaviour --- neighbourhood --- walkability --- active living --- survey --- questionnaire --- mobility management --- public transport --- step counts --- city planning --- compact city --- neighborhood --- natural experiment --- built environment --- urban design --- policy evaluation --- active living --- liveability --- Australia --- walkability --- environment --- overweight --- obesity --- review

People, Places and Policy

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Regions and Cities ISBN: 9781315683904 9781138925205 9781317407577 9781317407560 9781317407553 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9781315683904 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Business and Management --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:15
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The Open Access version of this book, available at www.tandfebooks.com, has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 3.0 license. Set within the context of UK devolution and constitutional change, People, Places and Policy offers important and interesting insights into ‘place-making’ and ‘locality-making’ in contemporary Wales. Combining policy research with policy-maker and stakeholder interviews at various spatial scales (local, regional, national), it examines the historical processes and working practices that have produced the complex political geography of Wales. This book looks at the economic, social and political geographies of Wales, which in the context of devolution and public service governance are hotly debated. It offers a novel ‘new localities’ theoretical framework for capturing the dynamics of locality-making, to go beyond the obsession with boundaries and coterminous geographies expressed by policy-makers and politicians. Three localities – Heads of the Valleys (north of Cardiff), central and west coast regions (Ceredigion, Pembrokeshire and the former district of Montgomeryshire in Powys) and the A55 corridor (from Wrexham to Holyhead) – are discussed in detail to illustrate this and also reveal the geographical tensions of devolution in contemporary Wales. This book is an original statement on the making of contemporary Wales from the Wales Institute of Social and Economic Research, Data and Methods (WISERD) researchers. It deploys a novel ‘new localities’ theoretical framework and innovative mapping techniques to represent spatial patterns in data. This allows the timely uncovering of both unbounded and fuzzy relational policy geographies, and the more bounded administrative concerns, which come together to produce and reproduce over time Wales’ regional geography.

Landscape Urbanism and Green Infrastructure

Author:
ISBN: 9783039213696 / 9783039213702 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-370-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This volume examines the applicability of landscape urbanism theory in contemporary landscape architecture practice by bringing together ecology and architecture in the built environment. Using participatory planning of green infrastructure and application of nature-based solutions to address urban challenges, landscape urbanism seeks to reintroduce critical connections between natural and urban systems. In light of ongoing developments in landscape architecture, the goal is a paradigm shift towards a landscape that restores and rehabilitates urban ecosystems. Nine contributions examine a wide range of successful cases of designing livable and resilient cities in different geographical contexts, from the United States of America to Australia and Japan, and through several European cities in Italy, Portugal, Estonia, and Greece. While some chapters attempt to conceptualize the interconnections between cities and nature, others clearly have an empirical focus. Efforts such as the use of ornamental helophyte plants in bioretention ponds to reduce and treat stormwater runoff, the recovery of a poorly constructed urban waterway or participatory approaches for optimizing the location of green stormwater infrastructure and examining the environmental justice issue of equative availability and accessibility to public open spaces make these innovations explicit. Thus, this volume contributes to the sustainable cities goal of the United Nations.

Keywords

pedestrian zones --- well-being --- viable city --- residents’ views --- green infrastructure --- Greece --- biophilic urbanism --- vacant land --- street verges --- spontaneous vegetation --- postal questionnaire --- Asia --- Japan --- recreation --- urban sustainability --- landscape urbanism --- green gentrification --- Soviet-era housing blocks --- deprived areas --- Roma minority --- built environment --- urban design --- regenerative design --- sustainable development --- river restoration --- biophilic urbanism --- green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) --- social equity --- site suitability modeling --- geographic information systems --- environmental justice --- urban planning --- Philadelphia --- urban design --- landscape first --- post-postmodernism --- landscape history --- urban ecology --- plant ecology --- context-sensitive design --- landscape theory --- urban geography --- nature-based solution --- floating treatment wetland --- pollutant removal --- runoff --- biophilic design --- green infrastructure --- Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) --- public open space --- re-naturing cities --- urban nature --- visitor satisfaction survey --- resource rationalization --- biophilic design --- public amenity --- public green infrastructure (PGI) --- public open space --- renaturing cities --- sustainable development --- livability --- liveability --- urban nature (UN) --- well-being --- built environment --- nature-based solutions --- sustainable cities --- biophilic design --- urban planning --- landscape architecture --- environmental justice --- public perception --- well-being

Human Mobility, Spatiotemporal Context, and Environmental Health: Recent Advances in Approaches and Methods

Author:
ISBN: 9783039211838 / 9783039211845 Year: Pages: 382 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-184-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Environmental health researchers have long used concepts like the neighborhood effect to assessing people’s exposure to environmental influences and the associated health impact. However, these are static notions that ignore people’s daily mobility at various spatial and temporal scales (e.g., daily travel, migratory movements, and movements over the life course) and the influence of neighborhood contexts outside their residential neighborhoods. Recent studies have started to incorporate human mobility, non-residential neighborhoods, and the temporality of exposures through collecting and using data from GPS, accelerometers, mobile phones, various types of sensors, and social media. Innovative approaches and methods have been developed. This Special Issue aims to showcase studies that use new approaches, methods, and data to examine the role of human mobility and non-residential contexts on human health behaviors and outcomes. It includes 21 articles that cover a wide range of topics, including individual exposure to air pollution, exposure and access to green spaces, spatial access to healthcare services, environmental influences on physical activity, food environmental and diet behavior, exposure to noise and its impact on mental health, and broader methodological issues such as the uncertain geographic context problem (UGCoP) and the neighborhood effect averaging problem (NEAP). This collection will be a valuable reference for scholars and students interested in recent advances in the concepts and methods in environmental health and health geography.

Keywords

obesity --- built environment --- activity space --- regression analysis --- UGCoP --- foodscape exposure --- activity space --- commuting route --- space-time kernel density estimation --- time-weighted exposure --- Beijing --- cycling for transportation --- bike paths --- train stations --- subway stations --- adults --- Brazil --- fuel consumption --- emissions estimation --- GPS trace --- big data --- air pollution exposure --- human mobility --- mobile phone data --- dynamic assessment --- GIS --- GPS --- activity space --- environmental exposure --- the uncertain geographic context problem --- noise pollution --- mental disorders --- built environment --- multilevel model --- China --- PM concentrations --- crop residue burning --- correlation analysis --- interannual and seasonal variations --- China --- the neighborhood effect averaging problem (NEAP) --- human mobility --- environmental exposure --- the uncertain geographic context problem --- UGCoP --- car ownership --- car use --- built environment --- spatial autocorrelation --- multilevel Bayesian model --- geographical accessibility --- Healthcare services --- GIS --- E2SFCA --- CHAS --- Singapore --- environmental health --- food environment --- environmental context cube --- environmental context exposure index --- the uncertain geographic context problem (UGCoP) --- GPS --- GIS --- healthcare accessibility --- catchment areas --- access probability --- taxi GPS trajectories --- E2SFCA --- greenspace exposure --- health --- human mobility --- physical activity --- structural equation modeling --- Guangzhou --- healthcare accessibility --- population demand --- geographic impedance --- the elderly --- urban planning --- 3SFCA --- real-time traffic --- crowdedness --- well-being experience --- long-distance walking --- collective leisure activity --- walking event --- urban leisure --- missing data --- spatial data --- imputation --- geographic imputation --- activity space --- ecological momentary assessment --- EMA --- walking --- active travel --- ageing --- physical environment --- personal projects --- activity space --- Public Participatory GIS (PPGIS) --- spatial accessibility --- multimodal network --- primary healthcare --- China --- 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic --- transport modes --- rail travel --- spatial spread --- quantile regression --- green space --- road traffic accidents --- cognitive aging --- activity space --- life-course perspectives --- environmental exposures

Planning, Development and Management of Sustainable Cities

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038979067 9783038979074 Year: Pages: 440 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-907-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The concept of ‘sustainable urban development’ has been pushed to the forefront of policymaking and politics as the world wakes up to the impacts of climate change and the destructive effects of the Anthropocene. Climate change has emerged to be one of the biggest challenges faced by our planet today, threatening both built and natural systems with long-term consequences, which may be irreversible. While there is a vast body of literature on sustainability and sustainable urban development, there is currently limited focus on how to cohesively bring together the vital issues of the planning, development, and management of sustainable cities. Moreover, it has been widely stated that current practices and lifestyles cannot continue if we are to leave a healthy living planet to not only the next generation, but also to the generations beyond. The current global school strikes for climate action (known as Fridays for Future) evidences this. The book advocates the view that the focus needs to rest on ways in which our cities and industries can become green enough to avoid urban ecocide. This book fills a gap in the literature by bringing together issues related to the planning, development, and management of cities and focusing on a triple-bottom-line approach to sustainability.

Keywords

spatial decision support systems --- urban planning --- sustainability indicators --- urban metabolism --- sustainable regional development --- land use governance --- regional stakeholder involvement --- precision farming (PF) --- wood fuel --- technology roadmapping (TRM) --- open innovation (OI) --- Germany --- sustainability assessment --- sustainable urban development --- neighborhood sustainability --- neighborhood sustainability assessment index --- sustainable city --- Ipoh --- Malaysia --- scaling-up strategy --- sustainable development --- local new town --- neoliberal capitalism --- Wujin --- China --- low-energy transport --- carbon --- energy consumption --- sociotechnical transition --- innovation --- cities --- United Kingdom --- sustainability --- tree --- urban forest --- forest values --- urban transport --- sustainable transport --- developing cities --- medium-sized cities --- infrastructure --- transport projects --- sustainability --- knowledge management --- practitioner perceptions --- frames --- framing processes --- low carbon cities --- visioning --- urban resilience --- sustainability --- sustainability literacy --- urban development --- public participation --- urban planning --- civic engagement --- green economy --- built environment sector --- eco-cities --- sustainable urban development --- green innovation --- low carbon economy --- socio-technical transition --- urban fire --- spatio-temporal features --- SDM, humidity --- GDP --- the fire assimilation effect --- fire inertia effect --- fire caution effect --- urban land development --- natural environmental impact --- driving forces-pressure-state-impact-policy and pattern (DPSIP) --- water supply --- demand --- time-series forecasting --- ARIMA --- urban water sustainability --- Istanbul --- ecosystem approach --- urban ecology --- eco-cities --- process-function ecology --- heat island mitigation --- urban forestry --- green infrastructure --- ecological landscape management --- sustainability index --- mixed land-use --- neighbourhood --- travel behaviour --- perception --- indicator --- stakeholder --- megacity --- co-design --- co-production --- bottom-up --- anthropogenic impact --- environmental threshold --- road grades --- heavy-duty vehicles --- emissions --- sustainable transportation --- China --- water asset management --- Gap analysis --- LOS (level of service) --- PIs (performance indicators) --- customer value --- noise pollution --- low-frequency noise --- DEFRA --- human well-being --- sustainability --- power poles --- City Biodiversity Index --- Satoyama Index --- land use mixture --- land cover --- GIS --- sustainability --- sustainable development --- sustainable urban development --- sustainable city --- sustainable urban ecosystems --- sustainability assessment --- smart cities

Listing 1 - 8 of 8
Sort by
Narrow your search
-->