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Hemispheric Bases for Emotion and Memory

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194599 Year: Pages: 97 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-459-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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It has become clear that the two halves of the cortex differ in their contributions to both affective and memory processes. Still, the exact nature of the interrelationships among hemispheric function, emotion, and memory remains elusive. For example, controversy remains regarding differential hemispheric involvement in emotion, motivation, and affective style. Regarding memory, although evidence suggests differences in the manner in which the hemispheres interact may be related to memory retrieval, it is still not certain which factors involved in retrieval encourage or inhibit hemispheric communication. The goal of this Research Topic was to bring together diverse scientific perspectives on lateralized brain mechanisms underlying emotion, motivation, and memory. A range of international experts with diverse backgrounds, theoretical perspectives, and experimental methods contributed to the Topic. These contributions inform our understanding of lateralized affective and cognitive processes by providing thorough reviews of our current state of knowledge based on previous literature, by sharing intriguing new empirical findings, and by proposing theoretical models with testable frameworks to stimulate future research.

Keywords

lateralization --- hemisphere --- memory --- emotion --- affect --- handedness --- caffeine

Ethanol, Its Active Metabolites, and Their Mechanisms of Action: Neurophysiological and Behavioral Effects

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455164 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-516-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Ethanol, the main psychopharmacologically active ingredient of alcoholic drinks, represents a paradigmatic example of a research subject intrinsically able to perpetually self-generate interdisciplinary cutting-edge investigations.This eBook was inspired by the aim of providing an up-to-date characterization of the diverse effects of ethanol, of the possible mechanisms of action on different intracellular systems as well as of the hypothesized actions of ethanol and/or its metabolites on various neurotransmitters and neuromodulators.Indeed, the eBook provides a factual example of an excellent synthesis on the complex relationship between ethanol and its main biologically active metabolites (Chapter 1), on the behavioral and molecular consequences of early exposure to them (Chapter 2), on the recent proposals, advanced by the preclinical research, for new therapeutic approaches to distinct aspects of alcoholism (Chapter 3) and on the most recent and original preclinical evidence of the interactions between ethanol and/or its metabolites and the dopaminergic, adenosinergic and endocannabinoidergic systems (Chapter 4).Overall we believe that this eBook accomplishes its main goals of widening the perspective on this research subject and offering the readership a newer and, simultaneously, up-to-date and comprehensive scenery on ethanol’s and ethanol's active metabolites neurophysiological and behavioral effects.

The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health

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ISBN: 9783039218349 9783039218356 Year: Pages: 322 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-835-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:21:22
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The purpose of this Special Issue is to provide a thorough and up-to-date presentation of research investigating the impact of coffee and/or caffeine intake on various health outcomes. Areas of interest include, but are not limited to, the following topics: Human clinical trials of coffee or caffeine use in relation to disease or intermediate phenotypes. Epidemiological studies of habitual coffee or caffeine intake in relation to human health, among the general public, as well as, among special populations (i.e., children, pregnant women, diabetics, cancer patients, hypertensives, etc.). Mechanisms of action of nutrients and other bioactive components of coffee/caffeine. Studies integrating genetic or physiological markers of coffee/caffeine intake to investigations of coffee and health.

Keywords

accidental death --- caffeine --- caffeine intoxication --- intoxication --- Suicide --- HIV-HCV co-infection --- liver fibrosis --- coffee --- alcohol consumption --- coffee --- tea --- European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition --- 24-h dietary recall --- whole-blood --- mRNA --- transcriptomics --- gene expression --- coffee --- the Norwegian Women and Cancer Cohort (NOWAC) --- caffeine --- myocardial perfusion --- coronary artery disease --- adenosine --- regadenoson --- dipyridamole --- caffeine intake --- assisted reproduction techniques --- risk factors --- implantation --- clinical pregnancy --- live birth --- epidemiology --- bias --- causation --- coffee --- pregnancy --- coffee --- depression --- cohort study --- Mendelian Randomization --- coffee --- caffeine --- behavior --- causality --- genetic epidemiology --- epidemiological methods --- cardiovascular disease --- coffee consumption --- gene-diet interaction --- longevity --- NADH dehydrogenase --- polymorphism --- serum chloride levels --- CYP1A2 --- ADORA2A --- time trial performance --- caffeine metabolism --- pharmacological ergogenic aid --- polymorphism --- anxiety --- ergogenic --- adenosine receptor --- cytochrome P450 --- caffeine --- pharmacogenomics --- coffee --- caffeine --- chlorogenic acids --- phenolic --- cognition --- cognitive --- mood --- age --- sex --- caffeine --- wine --- chocolate --- aging --- cognition --- adult --- coffee --- hearing --- protection --- tinnitus --- Caffeine --- placebo --- sport --- exercise --- health --- expectancy --- cognitions --- caffeine --- coffee --- systematic review --- pregnancy --- safety --- individual responses --- ergogenic aid --- supplement --- did not respond --- responders --- n/a --- caffeine --- coffee --- tea --- soda --- energy drinks --- mate --- guidelines --- country --- consumption --- population --- public policy --- coffee --- caffeine --- lipids --- biomarkers --- trial --- lysophosphatidylcholine --- lipidomics --- n/a

Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health

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ISBN: 9783039286287 / 9783039286294 Year: Pages: 290 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-629-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The year 2019 has been prolific in terms of new evidence regarding the effects of coffee and caffeine consumption on diverse aspects of human functioning. This book collects 20 high-quality manuscripts published in Nutrients that include original investigation or systematic review studies of the effects of caffeine intake on human performance and health. The diversity of the articles published in this Special Issue highlights the extent of the effects of coffee and caffeine on human functioning, while underpinning the positive nature of most of these effects. This book will help with understanding why the natural sources of caffeine are so widely present in the nutrition behaviors of modern society.

Keywords

pharmacokinetics --- energy drink --- exercise --- elite athlete --- performance --- football --- RPE --- DOMS --- sport performance --- supplementation --- ergogenic aids --- consumer --- behavior --- perception --- coffee --- health --- consumption motives --- coffee/caffeine --- systematic review and meta-analysis --- prospective studies --- epidemiology --- cancer prevention --- colorectal cancer --- individual responses --- responders --- exercise performance --- ergogenic aids --- caffeine --- coffee --- tea --- energy drinks --- pregnancy --- newborn --- caffeine --- ergogenic aid --- resistance training --- isokinetic testing --- adrenal gland --- caffeine --- corticosterone --- puberty --- rat --- sex-difference --- caffeine --- energy drinks --- fatigue --- mood state --- exercise --- supplement --- resistance exercise --- speed --- repetition --- n/a --- metabolome --- skeletal muscle --- exercise --- muscle contraction --- ergogenic effect --- bench press --- upper limb --- resistance exercise --- ergogenic substances --- time under tension --- 1RM test --- caffeine --- metabolites --- phenotyping --- CYP450 --- NAT --- xanthine oxidase --- actigraphy --- athletic --- coffee --- ergogenic aid --- supplement --- anaerobic --- caffeine --- CMJ --- ergogenic aids --- exercise --- nutrition --- sport supplement --- Wingate --- electromyography --- efficiency --- sport --- exercise --- expectancy --- belief --- perceptions --- placebo effect --- recovery --- strength --- power --- sprint performance --- menstrual cycle --- fatigue --- placebo --- ergogenic --- EEG–EMG coherence --- n/a --- women --- resistance exercise --- exercise training --- velocity --- ergogenic aid --- muscle function --- n/a

Tea in Health and Disease

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ISBN: 9783038979869 9783038979876 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-987-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Tea, made from the leaves of the Camellia senenisis plant, is the second most consumed beverage worldwide after water. Accumulating evidence from cellular, animal, epidemiological and clinical studies have linked tea consumption to various health benefits, such as chemoprevention of cancers, chronic inflammation, heart and liver diseases, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, etc. Although such health benefits have not been consistently observed in some intervention trials, positive results from clinical trials have provided direct evidence supporting the cancer-protective effect of green tea. In addition, numerous mechanisms of action have been suggested to contribute to tea’s disease-preventive effects. Furthermore, effects of the processing and storage of tea, as well as additives on tea’s properties have been investigated.

Diet in Brain Health and Neurological Disorders: Risk Factors and Treatments

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ISBN: 9783039216505 9783039216512 Year: Pages: 68 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-651-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:39:37
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The role of nutrition in health and disease has been appreciated from time immemorial. Around 400 B.C., Hippocrates wrote “Let food by thy medicine and medicine be thy food.” In the 12th century, the great philosopher and physician Moses Maimonides wrote “any disease that can be treated by diet should be treated by no other means.” Now, in the 21st century, we are bombarded by claims in the media of “superfoods,” wondrous nutritional supplements, and special diets that promise to cure or prevent disease, improve health and restore functioning. Much of the focus has been on neurological disease, brain health and psychological functioning (behavior, cognition, and emotion). The hyperbole aside, there has been considerable progress in the past decade in our understanding of the contribution of specific nutrients and dietary patterns to brain development, physiology, and functioning. This Special Issue of Brain Sciences is devoted to the latest research on the role of nutritional deficiencies and excesses in the genesis of brain dysfunction, and use of diet for the prevention and treatment of brain and mental disorders. Basic laboratory and clinical research studies of the immature, adult, and aged nervous system are all welcome.

Modern Sample Preparation Approaches for Separation Science

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ISBN: 9783039214112 9783039214129 Year: Pages: 282 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-412-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General) --- Analytical Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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This book will provide the most recent knowledge and advances in Sample Preparation Techniques for Separation Science. Everyone working in a laboratory must be familiar with the basis of these technologies, and they often involve elaborate and time-consuming procedures that can take up to 80% of the total analysis time. Sample preparation is an essential step in most of the analytical methods for environmental and biomedical analysis, since the target analytes are often not detected in their in-situ forms, or the results are distorted by interfering species. In the past decade, modern sample preparation techniques have aimed to comply with green analytical chemistry principles, leading to simplification, miniaturization, easy manipulation of the analytical devices, low costs, strong reduction or absence of toxic organic solvents, as well as low sample volume requirements.Modern Sample Preparation Approaches for Separation Science also provides an invaluable reference tool for analytical chemists in the chemical, biological, pharmaceutical, environmental, and forensic sciences.

Keywords

vitamins --- extraction --- determination --- review --- sample preparation --- matrix solid phase dispersion --- sorbent --- miniaturization --- on-line --- blueberry --- non-anthocyanin polyphenol --- vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction --- response surface methodology --- desirability function approach --- nail --- curie temperature --- high-frequency heating --- liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry --- caffeine --- amlodipine --- gas chromatography --- hydrogel --- hormones --- pectin --- polyvinyl alcohol --- sample preparation --- in-tube SPME --- UHPLC-MS/MS --- organic-based monoliths --- antipsychotics --- plasma samples --- schizophrenic’ patients --- salting-out assisted liquid–liquid extraction --- sugaring-out assisted liquid–liquid extraction --- hydrophobic-solvent assisted liquid–liquid extraction --- subzero-temperature assisted liquid–liquid extraction --- phenolic compounds --- sorbent-based techniques --- multi-spheres adsorptive micro-extraction (MSA?E) --- floating sampling technology --- caffeine and acetaminophen tracers --- environmental water matrices --- vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction --- China herbal tea --- pesticides residue --- aflatoxins --- UPLC-MS/MS --- vortex-synchronized matrix solid-phase dispersion --- crab shells --- ionic liquids --- anthraquinones --- Cassiae Semen --- sample preparation --- nanocomposite --- pathogenic --- enrichment --- nucleic acid isolation --- sample preparation with TLC/HPTLC --- solvent front position extraction --- solvent delivery with a moving pipette --- automation --- LC–MS/MS --- environmental analysis --- whole water --- trace analysis --- SPE --- large volume --- in-line filter --- sand --- flow rate --- pharmaceuticals --- hormones --- pesticides --- space instrumentation --- liquid chromatography --- oligopeptides --- trapping system --- membrane-based microextraction --- barbiturates --- simultaneous determination --- whole blood --- urine --- liver --- sample preparation --- oxylipins --- protein precipitation --- liquid–liquid extraction --- solid-phase extraction --- biological samples --- chlorophenoxy acid herbicides --- HPLC --- hydrophobic in-tube solid-phase microextraction --- poly (OMA-co-TRIM) monolithic column --- rice grains --- gold --- sample preparation --- preconcentration --- geological samples

Novel Photoactive Materials

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ISBN: 9783038976509 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-651-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-05 14:29:32
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Photoactivity represents the ability of a material, generally speaking a semiconductor, to become active when interacting with light. It can be declined in many ways, and several functionalities arising from this behavior of materials can be exploited, all leading to positive repercussions on our environment. There are several classes of effects of photoactivity, all of which have been deeply investigated in the last few decades, allowing to develop more and more efficient materials and devices. All of them share a common point, that is, the interaction of a material with light, although many different materials are taken into account depending on the effect desired—from elemental semiconductors like silicon, to more complex compounds like CdTe or GaAs, to metal oxides like TiO2 and ZnO. Given the broadness of the field, a huge number of works fall within this topic, and new areas of discovery are constantly explored. The special issue “Novel Photoactive Materials” has been proposed as a means to present recent developments in the field, and for this reason the articles included touch different aspects of photoactivity, from photocatalysis to photovoltaics to light emitting materials.

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