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Alterations of Epigenetics and MicroRNAs in Cancer and Cancer Stem Cell

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193455 Year: Pages: 79 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-345-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biology --- Genetics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Studies have shown that alterations of epigenetics and microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in the initiation and progression of human cancer. Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes in cancer cells is generally mediated by DNA hypermethylation of CpG island promoter and histone modification such as methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) and tri-methylation of H3K27. MiRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate expression of various target genes. Specific miRNAs are aberrantly expressed and play roles as tumor suppressors or oncogenes during carcinogenesis. Important tumor suppressor miRNAs are silenced by epigenetic alterations, resulting in activation of target oncogenes in human malignancies. Stem cells have the ability to perpetuate themselves through self-renewal and to generate mature cells of various tissues through differentiation. Accumulating evidence suggests that a subpopulation of cancer cells with distinct stem-like properties is responsible for tumor initiation, invasive growth, and metastasis formation, which is defined as cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells are considered to be resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiation therapy, suggesting that these cells are important targets of cancer therapy. DNA methylation, histone modification and miRNAs may be deeply involved in stem-like properties in cancer cells. Restoring the expression of tumor suppressor genes and miRNAs by chromatin modifying drugs may be a promising therapeutic approach for cancer stem cells. In this Research Topic, we discuss about alterations of epigenetics and miRNAs in cancer and cancer stem cell and understand the molecular mechanism underlying the formation of cancer stem cell, which may provide a novel insight for treatment of refractory cancer.

The Tumor Microenvironment of High Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer

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ISBN: 9783038975540 / 9783038975557 Year: Pages: 434 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-555-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-06 09:22:42
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The Special Issue on high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) and the contribution of the tumor microenviroment (TME) consists of reviews contributed by leaders in the OC field. As HGSOC metastases have a highly complex TME, there is an urgent need to better understand the TME in general, its distinct components in particular, and the role of the TME in the context of disease recurrence and development of chemoresistance. The Special Issue incorporates the current understanding of the different parts of thd TME components, including the cancer cells themselves, the cells surrounding the cancer cells or stromal cells, and the cells of the immune system, which are attracted to the site of metastases. In addition to these cells of the TME, the role of various cellular factors made by the cells of the TME are also the subject of the reviews. In addition, reviews in this Special Issue cover the complex relationships between the molecular mechanisms of HGSOC progression, including genomic, epigenomic and transcriptomic changes and changes in the immune cell landscape, as these may provide attractive new molecular targets for HGSOC therapy.

Stem Cell Genetic Fidelity

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194902 Year: Pages: 110 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-490-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Genetics --- Science (General) --- Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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The vision of this Frontiers in Oncology Research Topic on "Stem Cell Genetic Fidelity" had the goal of steeping a diverse range of research perspectives to a first comprehensive synthesis of thought on the questions of how tissue stem cells manage gene mutation rate and the significance of that management in mammalian evolution and biology, in particular as it relates to tissue cell renewal, carcinogenesis, and aging. The primary focus was determinants of mutation rate in distributed stem cells (DSCs), which encompass all naturally occurring stem cells at all stages of mammalian development. In particular, contributions were sought that considered a broad range of aspects of the immortal DNA strand hypothesis for DSC genetic fidelity. Though proposed in 1975, only in the last decade has this landmark concept in tissue cell biology emerged as a central discussion in DSC research with increasing scrutiny and discussion by an increasing number of laboratories of diverse research perspectives and experimental approaches. With this hypothesis presenting a formidable technical challenge for experimental investigation, as would be expected, both supportive and unsupportive reports have been lining up. In the case of supportive studies, neither the range of applicable tissues nor the responsible molecular mechanisms are known; and the essential genomic process, non-random DNA template strand inheritance by asymmetrically self-renewing DSCs, has been suggested to potentially have other cellular roles besides reducing mutation rate. A major aspiration of this Research Topic was to create the first comprehensive, critical synthesis of current insights and viewpoints on the impact of the immortal DNA strand hypothesis in the history of DSC mutation research. A wide range of article types was considered including historical perspectives, critical reviews, critical commentaries, new hypotheses, new research perspectives, technical advances, and original research reports. Although treatments of the immortal DNA strand hypothesis were the major focus, the desired synthesis required integration of related ideas on mechanisms of DSC mutagenesis and its impact in the evolution of mammals, the emergence of cancers, and stem cell aging. As such, investigators focused on issues in e.g., germ stem cell mutagenesis, effects of environmental mutagens on DSC mutation rate, DSC mutation and tissue aging, determinations of types of mutations in DSCs, and the role of DSC mutation in cancer initiation were invited. Similarly, although the specific goal of the Research Topic was to enlighten DSC genetic fidelity in humans and other mammalians, informing contributions based on studies in other model organisms were also welcomed. To achieve even better representation of current experience, advances, and ideas in this field of investigation, these early contributors were encouraged to extend the opportunity to others who shared their interest in advancing our understanding of the mutability of DSCs and its significance in human biology.

Advances in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Model Systems, Microenvironmental Influences, Therapy, and Origins

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197699 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-769-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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This eBook provides a compendium of the current state-of-the-art in research tools for, and understanding of, the critical research areas in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with a strong emphasis on (HG-SOC). Research areas covered include therapy response and development, microenvironmental influences and the etiology and progression of EOC. Ten articles detail established and novel in vivo and in vitro model systems. These include primary and immortalized cell culture in 2D and 3D as well as genetically engineered, transgenic, spontaneous, syngeneic, classical xenograft and patient derived xenograft mouse models. The generation of genetically engineered mouse models of HG-SOC has been a major dilemma as models with the oncogenic aberrations common in the human malignancy do not accurately recapitulate HG-SOC. Conversely, commonly used HG-SOC cell lines have been found to not harbor the expected genetic changes. These issues as well as the rapid acceptance of patient derived xenograft models are reviewed. Five articles discuss different aspects of the tumor microenvironment including its role in therapy resistance, disease progression and metastasis. Mutation of BRCA1/2 continues to be the best defined risk factor for HG-SOC. Three articles discuss BRCA-loss in the context of disease development, targeted therapies and changes in preventative measures proposed for mutation carriers in light of the recent advances in knowledge regarding the origins of this malignancy. An image of HG-SOC with patchy BRCA1 expression is featured on the cover (image by VM Howell). A major clinical issue for patients with HG-SOC is the development of therapy resistance. Five articles focus on therapy resistance and different ways to overcome resistance. Overall, this eBook is an outstanding resource to aid researchers design their programs of research and determine the most appropriate and up-to-date EOC model systems to address their research questions.

Pleiotropic Action of Selenium in the Prevention and Treatment of Cancer, and Related Diseases

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ISBN: 9783038976929 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-693-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 11:07:22
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This book will cover topics related to the preparation and use of heterogeneous catalytic systems for the transformation of renewable sources, as well as of materials deriving from agro-industrial wastes and by-products. At the same time, the ever-increasing importance of bioproducts, due to the acceptance and request of consumers, makes the upgrade of biomass into chemicals and materials not only an environmental issue, but also an economical advantage.

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