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Thioredoxin and Glutaredoxin Systems

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ISBN: 9783038978367 / 9783038978374 Year: Pages: 280 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-837-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Abstract

This Special Issue features recent data concerning thioredoxins and glutaredoxins from various biological systems, including bacteria, mammals, and plants. Four of the sixteen articles are review papers that deal with the regulation of development of the effect of hydrogen peroxide and the interactions between oxidants and reductants, the description of methionine sulfoxide reductases, detoxification enzymes that require thioredoxin or glutaredoxin, and the response of plants to cold stress, respectively. This is followed by eleven research articles that focus on a reductant of thioredoxin in bacteria, a thioredoxin reductase, and a variety of plant and bacterial thioredoxins, including the m, f, o, and h isoforms and their targets. Various parameters are studied, including genetic, structural, and physiological properties of these systems. The redox regulation of monodehydroascorbate reductase, aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, and cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase could have very important consequences in plant metabolism. Also, the properties of the mitochondrial o-type thioredoxins and their unexpected capacity to bind iron–sulfur center (ISC) structures open new developments concerning the redox mitochondrial function and possibly ISC assembly in mitochondria. The final paper discusses interesting biotechnological applications of thioredoxin for breadmaking.

Keywords

methionine --- methionine sulfoxide --- methionine sulfoxide reductase --- physiological function --- protein --- plant --- repair --- redox homeostasis --- signaling --- stress --- mitochondria --- thioredoxin --- iron–sulfur cluster --- redox regulation --- ALAD --- tetrapyrrole biosynthesis --- redox control --- thioredoxins --- posttranslational modification --- chlorophyll --- redox regulation --- thioredoxin --- ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase --- chloroplast --- H2O2 --- redox signalling --- development --- regeneration --- adult stem cells --- metazoan --- cyanobacteria --- thioredoxin --- photosynthesis --- redox active site --- thioredoxin --- disulfide --- flavin --- NADPH --- X-ray crystallography --- SAXS --- methanoarchaea --- chilling stress --- cold temperature --- posttranslational modification --- regulation --- ROS --- thiol redox network --- thioredoxin --- thioredoxin --- Calvin-Benson cycle --- photosynthesis --- carbon fixation --- chloroplast --- macromolecular crystallography --- protein-protein recognition --- electrostatic surface --- Chlamydomonas reinhardtii --- thioredoxin --- glutaredoxin --- legume plant --- symbiosis --- redox homeostasis --- stress --- thioredoxin --- monodehydroascorbate reductase --- water stress --- protein oxidation --- antioxidants --- ascorbate --- glutathione --- wheat --- thioredoxin --- thioredoxin reductase --- baking --- redox --- dough rheology --- protein oxidation --- methionine oxidation --- methionine sulfoxide reductases --- oxidized protein repair --- ageing --- Chlamydomonas reinhardtii --- cysteine alkylation --- cysteine reactivity --- MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry --- thioredoxin --- X-ray crystallography --- Isocitrate dehydrogenase --- glutathionylation --- nitrosylation --- glutaredoxin --- Arabidopsis thaliana --- thioredoxins --- plastidial --- specificity --- function --- proteomic --- photosynthesis --- Calvin cycle --- n/a

The Origin and Early Evolution of Life: Prebiotic Chemistry of Biomolecules

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ISBN: 9783039216062 / 9783039216079 Year: Pages: 288 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-607-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Abstract

Studying the origin of life is one of man’s greatest achievements over the last sixty years. The fields of interest encompassed by this quest are multiple and interdisciplinary: chemistry, physics, biology, biochemistry, mathematics, geology but also statistics, atmospheric science, meteorology, oceanography, and astrophysics. Recent scientific discoveries, such as water on Mars and the existence of super-Earths with atmospheres similar to primordial Earth, have pushed researchers to simulate prebiotic conditions in explaining the abiotic formation of molecules essential to life. This collection of articles offers an overview of recent discoveries in the field of prebiotic chemistry of biomolecules, their formation and selection, and the evolution of complex chemical systems.

Keywords

origin of life --- systems chemistry --- Chemomimesis --- Molecular Darwinism --- origin of life --- prebiotic chemistry --- thiol-rich peptides --- cysteine --- aminonitriles --- imidazoles --- origin of life --- prebiotic chemistry --- nucleotide and nucleoside synthesis --- protein design --- novel metalloproteins --- binary patterned amino acid sequences --- prebiotic chemistry --- population growth --- replication --- growth order --- Darwinian evolution --- selection --- origin of life --- abiogenesis --- carbon fixation --- hydrothermal vents --- electrochemistry --- reduction --- digit multiplicity --- information --- transmission --- encoding --- translation --- diversity --- function --- origin of life --- layered double hydroxide (LDH) clay --- pentose diphosphate --- pentopyranose nucleic acid --- arabinopyranose nucleic acid --- RNA --- base pairing --- purine precursor --- inosine --- AICAR --- peptide/RNA world --- prebiotic information system --- translation and the genetic code --- bridge peptide and aaRS --- ribozyme and tRNA --- tRNA and mRNA --- coevolution of translation machine and the genetic code --- MVC architecture pattern and biological information --- numerical codons --- AnyLogic software for computer simulation of translation machine --- phosphoryl transfer --- metabolism --- energy currency --- mixed anhydride --- origin of life --- hypercycle --- Monte Carlo --- prebiotic chemistry --- carbamic acid --- carbon dioxide-ammonia ices --- infrared spectra --- anharmonicity --- origin of life --- metabolism --- phosphates --- network expansion simulation --- thermodynamic bottleneck --- molecular clocks --- ab initio molecular dynamics --- catalysis --- prebiotic soup --- origins of life --- aldol reaction --- mechanochemistry --- minerals --- monosaccharides --- prebiotic chemistry --- prebiotic polymerization --- nucleotide oligomerization --- abasic oligomers --- nucleotide stability --- stability as a selection pressure --- dry-wet cycles --- genetic code origin --- tRNA accretion model --- tRNA-synthetase --- metabolism --- thioester --- nucleotidyltransferases --- early peptides --- ribosome --- n/a

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