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New Therapies and Immunological Findings in Melanoma and Other Skin Cancers

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457120 Year: Pages: 137 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-712-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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New therapies are currently being developed in the field of skin cancer. In particular, advances in melanoma now represent the frontline of cancer immunotherapy, as immunological findings in the disease have led to the development of highly effective immune-checkpoint inhibitors. However, these immune-checkpoint inhibitors are only effective in a subset of patients, and may not work in other skin cancer types, thus highlighting the need for further innovation in the field of skin cancer treatment.The purpose of this Research Topic is therefore to provide an up-to-date overview of immune processes and new therapies for melanoma and other skin cancers in order to further stimulate the development of new and even more successful treatments.

Cancer Biomarkers and Targets in Digestive Organs

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ISBN: 9783039214631 / 9783039214648 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-464-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Identification and development of cancer biomarkers and targets have greatly accelerated progress towards precision medicine in oncology. Studies of tumor biology have not only provided insights into the mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis, but also led to discovery of molecules that have been developed into cancer biomarkers and targets. Multi-platforms for molecular characterization of tumors using next-generation genomic sequencing, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and blood-based biopsies have greatly expanded the portfolio of potential biomarkers and targets. These cancer biomarkers have been developed for diagnosis, early detection, prognosis, and prediction of treatment response. The molecular targets have been exploited for anti-cancer therapy and delivery of therapeutic agents. This Special Issue of Biomedicines focuses on recent advances in the discovery, characterization, translation, and clinical application of cancer biomarkers and targets in malignant diseases of the digestive system. The goal is to stimulate basic and translational research and clinical collaboration in this exciting field with the hope of developing strategies for prevention and early detection/diagnosis of cancer in digestive organs, and improving therapeutic and psychosocial outcomes in patients with these malignant diseases.

Keywords

colorectal cancer --- intestinal disorder --- intestinal tumors --- zebrafish --- stereotactic body radiation therapy --- immunotherapy --- biomarkers --- Asian Cancer Research Group (ACRG) --- gastric carcinoma --- molecular profiling --- precision therapy --- pembrolizumab --- predictive biomarkers --- ramucirumab --- The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) --- therapeutic targets --- trastuzumab --- biliary tract carcinoma --- chemotherapy --- clinical trial --- colorectal carcinoma --- gastric carcinoma --- gastrointestinal oncology --- hepatocellular carcinoma --- immunotherapy --- pancreatic carcinoma --- targeted therapy --- Liver transplantation --- liver graft injury --- intragraft gene expression profiles --- cell adhesion molecules --- CD274 --- HFE --- hepatocellular carcinoma --- immunohistochemistry --- molecular profiling --- next-generation sequencing --- precision medicine --- predictive biomarkers --- gastrointestinal oncology --- pancreatic carcinoma --- hepatocellular carcinoma --- biliary tract carcinoma --- gastric carcinoma --- colorectal carcinoma --- stereotactic body radiation therapy --- liver transplant --- targeted therapy --- psychosocial support --- G protein–coupled receptors --- cholecystokinin --- gastrin --- gastrin-releasing peptide --- bombesin --- neurokinin --- neurotensin --- somatostatin --- circulating tumor cells --- colorectal carcinoma --- CAM invasion assay --- phenotypic mosaics --- tumor progenitor --- biomarker --- gastrointestinal malignancies --- immunotherapy --- n/a

Pleiotropic Action of Selenium in the Prevention and Treatment of Cancer, and Related Diseases

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ISBN: 9783038976929 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-693-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 11:07:22
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This book will cover topics related to the preparation and use of heterogeneous catalytic systems for the transformation of renewable sources, as well as of materials deriving from agro-industrial wastes and by-products. At the same time, the ever-increasing importance of bioproducts, due to the acceptance and request of consumers, makes the upgrade of biomass into chemicals and materials not only an environmental issue, but also an economical advantage.

Links between Fibrogenesis and Cancer: Mechanistic and Therapeutic Challenges: Mechanistic and Therapeutic Challenges

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ISBN: 9783039217069 / 9783039217076 Year: Pages: 348 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-707-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Tissue fibrosis may occur for unknown causes or be the consequence of many pathological conditions including chronic inflammatory or infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, graft rejection, or malignancy. On the other hand, malignant tumors have been identified in fibrotic tissues decades ago, and now accumulating evidence suggests that fibrotic lesions enhance the risk of cancer in several organs such as liver, lungs, and breast. Disruption of an organ parenchymal cells and of its normal structural scaffold during tissue fibrogenesis appears to induce loss of cell polarity, promoting uncontrolled cell proliferation that may eventually lead to cancer development. Many cellular and molecular abnormalities including aberrant expression of microRNAs, genetic and epigenetic alterations, evasion or delayed apoptosis, unregulated intracellular signal pathways, and dysregulation or defective intercellular communications have been proposed to explain this link between fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis. However, the precise mechanisms of this fibrosis-to-cancer transition remain unclear. This book presents a collection of reviews and original articles summarizing recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of cancer development in fibrotic organs.

Keywords

lung cancer --- renal injury --- fibrosis --- crizotinib --- anaplastic lymphoma kinase --- cystic formation --- pulmonary fibrosis --- butylidenephthalide --- SOX2 --- type I collagen --- bleomycin --- YAP --- TAZ --- Hippo pathway --- fibrosis --- cancer --- mechanotransduction --- TGF-? --- Wnt --- uterine fibroid --- leiomyoma --- tumor --- tumor necrosis factor ? --- cytokine --- growth factor --- inflammation --- clinical symptoms --- pathophysiology --- therapy --- hepatocellular carcinoma --- cirrhosis --- regeneration --- inflammation --- cytokines --- genetic instability --- reactive oxygen species --- idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) --- lung cancer (LC) --- non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) --- acute lung injury --- protein S --- apoptosis --- signal pathway --- Erk1/2 --- lipopolysaccharide --- uterine fibroid --- leiomyoma --- smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential --- leiomyosarcoma --- myometrium --- immunohistochemistry --- marker --- pathology --- tumor --- diagnosis --- cancer-associated fibroblasts --- tumor microenvironment --- nanoparticles --- breast cancer --- antitumor efficacy --- cirrhosis --- HBV --- HCV --- hepatocellular carcinoma --- idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis --- lung cancer --- pathogenesis --- common pathways --- hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) --- fibrosis --- cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) --- hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) --- tumor microenvironment --- hepatocellular carcinoma --- non-alcoholic steatohepatitis --- fibrosis --- hepatic stellate cells --- extracellular matrix --- carcinogenesis --- angiogenesis --- cancer-associated fibroblasts --- extracellular matrix --- fibrosis --- heterogeneity --- interstitial fluid pressure --- metabolic reprogramming --- transforming growth factor-? --- tumor stiffness --- GPR40 --- GPR120 --- DHA --- omega-3 fatty acid --- SREBP-1 --- hepatocytes --- EMT --- lncRNA --- metastasis --- miRNA --- SMAD --- TGF-? --- targeted therapy --- tumor microenvironment --- n/a

Natural Compounds as New Cancer Treatments

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ISBN: 9783039213658 / 9783039213665 Year: Pages: 128 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-366-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Cancer remains one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although many pharmacological and clinical advances have been made, there is a constant need for new molecules to improve the overall options for treatment. Natural compounds from animal, microbial, vegetal, or fungal origin represent countless sources of new compounds that can be used as anticancer drugs, provided their activity, bioavailability, and toxicity are adequate. This book aims to compile both original articles and reviews that cover the most recent advances in the use of natural compounds for cancer treatment, and provide new objectives and advice for future research in the field of biological activity of natural compounds.

Smart Nanovesicles for Drug Targeting and Delivery

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ISBN: 9783038978947 / 9783038978954 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-895-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Nanovesicles are highly-promising systems for the delivery and/or targeting of drugs, biomolecules and contrast agents. Despite the fact that initial studies in this area were performed on phospholipid vesicles, there is an ever-increasing interest in the use of other molecules to obtain smart vesicular carriers focusing on strategies for targeted delivery. These systems can be obtained using newly synthesized smart molecules, or by intelligent design of opportune carriers to achieve specific delivery to the site of action.

Development and Application of Herbal Medicine from Marine Origin

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ISBN: 9783039212217 / 9783039212224 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-222-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Marine herbal medicine generally refers to the use of marine plants as original materials to develop crude drugs, or for other medical purposes. The term ‘marine plants’ usually denotes macroalgae grown between intertidal and subintertidal zones, including Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta, and Rhodophyta. Considerable progress has been made in the field of biomedical research into marine microalgae and microorganisms in the past decade. As the most important source of fundamental products in the world, marine plants have a very important role in biomedical research. Furthermore, worldwide studies have consistently demonstrated that many crude drugs derived from marine plants contain novel ingredients that may benefit health or can be used in the treatment of diseases; some have been developed into health foods, and some even into drugs. It is expected that there are many substances of marine plant origin that will have medical applications in terms of improving human health and are awaiting discovery.In this Special Issue, entitled “Development and Application of Herbal Medicine of Marine Origin”, we will provide a platform for researchers to publish biomedical studies on substances of marine plant origin. We welcome submissions from scientists and academics from across the world.

MicroRNA as Biomarkers in Cancer Diagnostics and Therapy

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ISBN: 9783039212491 / 9783039212507 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-250-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This Special Issue celebrates the 25th anniversary of the discovery of the first microRNA. The size of the microRNome and complexity of animal body plans and organ systems suggests a role for microRNAs in cell fate determination and differentiation. More than 2000 sequences have been proposed to represent unique microRNA genes in humans, with an increasing number of mechanistic roles identified in developmental, physiological, and pathological processes. Thus, dysregulation of a few key microRNAs can have a profound global effect on the gene expression and molecular programs of a cell. This great potential for clinical intervention has captured the interest and imagination of researchers in many fields. However, very few fields have been as prolific as the field of cancer research. This Special Issue provides but a glimpse of the large body of literature of microRNA biology in cancer research, containing 4 original research studies and 4 review articles that focus on specific hematologic or solid tumors in disease. Collectively, these articles highlight state-of-the-art approaches and methodologies for microRNA detection in tissue, blood, and other body fluids in a range of biomarkers applications, from early cancer detection to prognosis and treatment response. The articles also address some of the challenges regarding clinical implementation.

Cancer Metabolomics 2018

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039213450 / 9783039213467 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-346-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The metabolomics approach, defined as the study of all endogenously-produced low-molecular-weight compounds, appeared as a promising strategy to define new cancer biomarkers. Information obtained from metabolomic data can help to highlight disrupted cellular pathways and, consequently, contribute to the development of new-targeted therapies and the optimization of therapeutics. Therefore, metabolomic research may be more clinically translatable than other omics approaches, since metabolites are closely related to the phenotype and the metabolome is sensitive to many factors. Metabolomics seems promising to identify key metabolic pathways characterizing features of pathological and physiological states. Thus, knowing that tumor metabolism markedly differs from the metabolism of normal cells, the use of metabolomics is ideally suited for biomarker research. Some works have already focused on the application of metabolomic approaches to different cancers, namely lung, breast and liver, using urine, exhaled breath and blood. In this Special Issue we contribute to a more complete understanding of cancer disease using metabolomics approaches.

Sex Hormone Receptor Signals in Human Malignancies

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ISBN: 9783039211739 / 9783039211746 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-174-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Sex steroids, including androgens, estrogens, and progestogens, are knownto have widespread physiological actions beyond the reproductive systemvia binding to the sex hormone receptors. Meanwhile, emerging evidence hasindicated that sex hormone receptor signals are involved in the outgrowth ofsome malignancies, such as prostate and breast carcinomas, as well as othersthat have not traditionally been considered as endocrine-related neoplasms. ThisSpecial Issue “Sex Hormone Receptor Signals in Human Malignancies” coversvarious aspects of the potential role of sex hormone receptors and related signalsin prostate cancer, breast cancer, and other neoplastic conditions by depictingpromising findings derived from in vitro and in vivo experiments as well as theanalyses of surgical specimens. The current observations described may thusprovide a unique insight into novel or known functions of sex hormone receptorsand related molecules.

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