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Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus as a Case Study: Using a Precautionary Risk Management Approach for Emerging Blood-Borne Pathogens in Canada (Book chapter)

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9809533075827 Year: DOI: 10.5772/38572 Language: English
Publisher: Intech Grant: FP7 Ideas: European Research Council - 228064
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:47:58
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In October 2009 it was reported that 68 of 101 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in the United States, when tested, were infected with a novel gamma retrovirus, xenotropic

murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) (Lombardi et al., 2009). XMRV is a recently

discovered human gammaretrovirus first described in prostate cancers that shares

significant homology with murine leukemia virus (MLV) (Ursiman et al., 2006). It is known

that XMRV can cause leukemias and sarcomas in several rodent, feline, and primate species

but has not been shown to cause disease in humans. XMRV was detectable in the peripheral

blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma of individuals diagnosed with CFS

(Lombardi et al., 2009). After this report was published there was a great deal of uncertainty

surrounding this emergent virus and its involvement in the etiology of CFS. The uncertainty

was, in part, due to CFS being a complex, poorly understood multi-system disorder with

different disease criteria used for its diagnosis. CFS, also known as Myalgic

Encephalomyelitis (ME), is a debilitating disease of unknown origin that is estimated to

affect 17 million people worldwide. The initial report connecting XMRV to prostate cancers

and CFS garnered significant media and scientific interest since it provided a potential



Susie ElSaadany2**, Tamer Oraby1

*

Daniel Krewski1, 4 and Peter R. Ganz5

1McLaughlin Centre for Population Health Risk Assessment, Institute of Population Health, University of

Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

2Blood Safety Surveillance and Health Care Acquired Infections Division, Centre for Communicable Diseases and

Infection Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

3Aspinall and Associates, Cleveland House, High Street, and Earth Sciences, Bristol University, Bristol, United

Kingdom

4Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa,

Ontario, Canada

5Health Canada, Director’s Office, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

** Corresponding Author

, Marian Laderoute2

, Jun Wu2

, Willy Aspinall3

,

www.intechopen.com

32 The Continuum of Health Risk Assessments

explanation for the disease but also an avenue for possible therapeutic treatments since

XMRV is known to be susceptible to some anti-retroviral drugs (Cohen, 2011).

Keywords

case study --- virus

Informative Psychometric Filters

Author:
ISBN: 9781920942663 Year: Pages: 310 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_459293 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2014-01-27 08:26:29
License: ANU Press

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Psychometrics; Psychological tests; Human being; Case study; Classification; Reliability

Teaching Political Science to Undergraduates. Active Pedagogy for the Microchip Mind

Author:
ISBN: 9783110450552 9783110450682 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.1515/9783110450552 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Social Sciences --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-07 14:27:42
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By 2020, half of the world’s population and most university students will have a supercomputer in their pockets. This revolution will affect the way students respond to higher education. The university classroom must henceforth engage students, and the classic lecture format alone might not be enough to do so. This book answers the question how university students can learn in the classroom what they cannot learn in any other way.The answer is inspired by options that are not available to political scientists – in the way that they are in the laboratories for the sciences, in the performances for the live arts, and in the studios for visual arts – as well as ideas that are already present, but not widespread in the discipline: problem-solving and case studies, as in the professional schools, and simulation exercises in many other disciplines. This book proposes therefore an active pedagogy for political science, at a time when active pedagogy is more important than ever.

Pro-ecological Restructuring of Companies

Author:
ISBN: 9781911529491 9781911529484 9781911529507 9781911529514 Year: Pages: 225 DOI: 10.5334/bbk Language: English
Publisher: Ubiquity Press
Subject: Business and Management --- Environmental Sciences --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-14 11:21:04
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"This book presents a practical approach to pro-environmental challenges faced by companies in the process of restructuring.
It contains a broad variety of case studies from different economic sectors, and small and large businesses, in four European countries: Ukraine, Romania, Germany and Poland. The studies are the results of surveys of companies that had either already restructured or were planning to, and reveal both the weaknesses and strengths in these practices. The book is divided into three parts: explorations of how political and legal factors are embedded in a company’s strategy and how they influence the company’s behaviour; analyses of companies’ activities on matching restructuring with ecology; and approaches to ecoinnovations within the companies.
The case studies throughout the book show that the restructuring of a company is an opportunity for the implementation of proecological action and “green” business models. The authors trust that the experiences and good practices of others will prove valuable both for future businessmen (i.e. students), but also for academics and representatives of local government, central environmental agencies, owners and managers of enterprises to be restructured."

Asynchrone Anwenderbeteiligung in Software-Projekten

Author:
ISBN: 9783866448704 Year: Pages: XXIV, 402 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000028748 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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This work addresses the problem of asynchronous user involvement in software projects. It develops a new methodology, OpenProposal, which Integrates an enhanced snapshot annotation tool into a collaborative environment. Two case studies show that this approach could help in reducing the effort for usability tests as well as motivating users to express their ideas and needs more precisely.

Delivering on the Promise of Democracy. Visual Case Studies in Educational Equity and Transformation

Author:
Book Series: Open Reports Series ISSN: 2399-6668/2399-6676 ISBN: 9781783745951/9781783745975 Year: Pages: 90 DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0157 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Education
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-28 13:22:37
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"Many educators can recite the faults of their schools or universities, but far fewer can recognize and develop existing strengths to benefit a wider audience. Sukhwant Jhaj has crafted a refreshing new look at how imaginative leadership and a shift in perspective can propel institutions to reach at-risk or underrepresented members of their communities. Delivering on the Promise of Democracy pulls back the curtain on seven high-performing universities to reveal which daily decisions, including listening to the community, embracing conflict, and implementing effective strategies through routine, guide administrators in achieving exceptional results. Through in-depth interviews that offer a close look at these seven universities, Jhaj traces a new trajectory for higher education: a call to question a university's effectiveness through its accessibility to the community it serves.Jhaj's book will inspire anybody interested in widening access to education with its call to renew their institution's mission through powerful and effective leadership. "

New Research in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Major Depression

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039210909 / 9783039210916 Year: Pages: 102 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-091-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:07
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Major depression and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) are now recognized among the most frequent psychiatric disorders, affecting 16–17% and 2–3% of the general population, respectively. They are commonly characterized by: i) a high level of psychiatric and somatic comorbidities; ii) a recurrence or chronic profile; and iii) a negative impact on daily functions, thereby leading to a profound impairment of quality of life. Despite significant advances in pharmacological and psychological therapies over the last decades, unsuccessful responses to standard treatment strategies are classically observed in approximately 20–30% of cases. Therefore, there is a significant need for improving the pathophysiological knowledge through a better identification of environmental, clinical, psychological, genetic, anatomical, and biological determinants, specifically implied in the development, the phenotypic expression, and the relapsing course and/or contributing to the therapeutic failure in major depression and OCD. We are convinced that this research approach is particularly relevant providing critical support for the promotion of innovative treatment alternatives potentially useful for the management of resistant forms of major depression and OCD.

Universities in Transition: Foregrounding Social Contexts of Knowledge in the First Year Experience

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9781922064837 Year: Pages: 258 DOI: 10.20851/universities-transition Language: English
Publisher: University of Adelaide Press
Subject: Education
Added to DOAB on : 2014-10-20 03:27:48
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Universities are social universes in their own right. They are the site of multiple, complex and diverse social relations, identities, communities, knowledges and practices. At the heart of this book are people enrolling at university for the first time and entering into the broad variety of social relations and contexts entailed in their ‘coming to know’ at, of and through university. By recasting ‘the transition to university’ as simultaneously and necessarily entailing a transition of university — indeed universities — and of their many and varied constitutive relations, structures and practices, the contributors to this book seek to reconceptualise the ‘first-year experience’ in terms of multiple and dynamic processes of dialogue and exchange amongst all participants. They interrogate taken-for-granted understandings of what ‘the university’ is, and consider what universities might yet become.

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