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Realist Magic

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Book Series: New Metaphysics ISBN: 9781607852025 Year: Pages: 234 Language: English
Publisher: Open Humanities Press
Subject: Mathematics --- Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2014-10-11 11:01:12
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Object-oriented ontology offers a startlingly fresh way to think about causality that takes into account developments in physics since 1900. Causality, argues, Object Oriented Ontology (OOO), is aesthetic. In this book, Timothy Morton explores what it means to say that a thing has come into being, that it is persisting, and that it has ended. Drawing from examples in physics, biology, ecology, art, literature and music, Morton demonstrates the counterintuitive yet elegant explanatory power of OOO for thinking causality.

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ontology --- physics --- causality

Health Among the Elderly in Germany

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Book Series: Beitrage zur Bevölkerungswissenschaft ISBN: 9783847402886 9783847406068 Year: Pages: 214 DOI: 10.3224/84740606 Language: English
Publisher: Verlag Barbara Budrich
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-13 11:01:03
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Whether increasing life expectancy leads to better health remains still controversial. Three topics are explored: (1) vanguard groups which inform about possible levels of health if the general social and environmental conditions were to approach those of the vanguard group; (2) the social and behavioral determinants of health differentiated into proximal and distal factors; (3) vulnerable groups such as migrants and the health differences between migrant groups. Newly available population-based data as well as new study designs and advanced statistical modelling form the basis for the empirical analyses.&#xD;

Reichenbach’s Paradise. Constructing the Realm of Probabilstic Common “Causes”

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ISBN: 9783110372717 Year: Pages: 113 DOI: 10.2478/9783110372717 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Philosophy --- Statistics
Added to DOAB on : 2014-11-17 10:26:35
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Since its introduction by Hans Reichenbach, many philosophers have claimed to refute the idea – known as the common cause principle – that any surprising correlation between any two factors that do not directly influence one another is due to some common cause. For example, falsity of the principle is frequently inferred from falsifiability of Bell’s inequalities. The author demonstrates, however, that the situation is not so straightforward. There is more than one version of the principle formulated with the use of different variants of Reichenbach-inspired notions; their falsity still remains an open question. The book traces different formulations of the principle and provides proofs of a few pertinent theorems, settling the relevant questions in various probability spaces. In exploring mathematical and philosophical issues surrounding the principle, the book offers both philosophical insight and mathematical rigor.

Time and Causality

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192526 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-252-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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The problem of how humans and other intelligent systems construct causal representations from non-causal perceptual evidence has occupied scholars in cognitive science for many decades. Most contemporary approaches agree with David Hume that patterns of covariation between two events of interest are the critical input to the causal induction engine, irrespective of whether this induction is believed to be grounded in the formation of associations (Shanks & Dickinson, 1987), rule-based evaluation (White, 2004), appraisal of causal powers (Cheng, 1997), or construction of Bayesian Causal Networks (Pearl, 2000). Recent research, however, has repeatedly demonstrated that an exclusive focus on covariation while neglecting contiguity (another of Hume's cues) results in ecologically invalid models of causal inference. Temporal spacing, order, variability, predictability, and patterning all have profound influence on the type of causal representation that is constructed. The influence of time upon causal representations could be seen as a bottom-up constraint (though current bottom-up models cannot account for the full spectrum of effects). However, causal representations in turn also constrain the perception of time: Put simply, two causally related events appear closer in subjective time than two (equidistant) unrelated events. This reversal of Hume's conjecture, referred to as Causal Binding (Buehner & Humphreys, 2009) is a top-down constraint, and suggests that our representations of time and causality are mutually influencing one another. At present, the theoretical implications of this phenomenon are not yet fully understood. Some accounts link it exclusively to human motor planning (appealing to mechanisms of cross-modal temporal adaptation, or forward learning models of motor control). However, recent demonstrations of causal binding in the absence of human action, and analogous binding effects in the visual spatial domain, challenge such accounts in favour of Bayesian Evidence Integration. This Research Topic reviews and further explores the nature of the mutual influence between time and causality, how causal knowledge is constructed in the context of time, and how it in turn shapes and alters our perception of time. We draw together literatures from the perception and cognitive science, as well as experimental and theoretical papers. Contributions investigate the neural bases of binding and causal learning/perception, methodological advances, and functional implications of causal learning and perception in real time.

Data-driven Methods for Fault Localization in Process Technology

Author:
Book Series: Karlsruher Schriften zur Anthropomatik / Lehrstuhl für Interaktive Echtzeitsysteme, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ; Fraunhofer-Inst. für Optronik, Systemtechnik und Bildauswertung IOSB Karlsruhe ISSN: 18636489 ISBN: 9783731500988 Year: Volume: 15 Pages: XVIII, 194 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000036427 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:02
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Control systems at production plants consist of a large number of process variables. When detecting abnormal behavior, these variables generate an alarm. Due to the interconnection of the plant's devices the fault can lead to an alarm flood. This again hides the original location of the causing device. In this work several data-driven approaches for root cause localization are proposed, compared and combined. All methods analyze disturbed process data for backtracking the propagation path.

The Being of Analogy

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Book Series: New Metaphysics ISBN: 9781785420221 9781785420238 Year: Pages: 280 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_605486 Language: English
Publisher: Open Humanities Press
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-05 11:01:12
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Similarity has long been excluded from reality in both the analytical and continental traditions. Because it exists in the aesthetic realm, and because aesthetics is thought to be divorced from objective reality, similarity has been confined to the prison of the subject. In The Being of Analogy, Noah Roderick unleashes similarity onto the world of objects. Inspired by object-oriented theories of causality, Roderick argues that similarity is ever present at the birth of new objects. This includes the emergent similarity of new mental objects, such as categories—a phenomenon we recognize as analogy. Analogy, Roderick contends, is at the very heart of cognition and communication, and it is through analogy that we can begin dismantling the impossible wall between knowing and being.

New Vistas on Old Problems: Recent Approaches to the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics

Authors: ---
Book Series: Proceedings 3: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783844242843 Year: Pages: 188 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-07 12:14:48
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Quantum theory has been a subject of interpretational debates ever since its inception. The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox, the empirical violation of Bell’s inequalities, and recent activities to exploit quantum entanglement for technological innovation only exacerbate a long-standing philosophical debate. Despite no-signaling theorems and theories of decoherence, deep-rooted conflicts between special relativistic principles and observed quantum correlations as well as between definite measurement outcomes and quantum theoretical superpositions persist.This collection of papers, first presented at an international symposium at the University of Bern in 2011, highlights some recent approaches to the old problems of a philosophy of quantum mechanics. The authors address the issues from a variety of perspectives, ranging from variations of causal theory and system theoretic interpretations of the observer to an empirical test of whether entanglement itself can be entangled. The essays demonstrate that the discussion about the foundations of quantum mechanics is as lively and interesting as ever.

Mapping Psychopathology with fMRI and Effective Connectivity Analysis

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452071 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-207-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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There is a growing appreciation that many psychiatric (and neurological) conditions can be understood as functional disconnection syndromes – as reflected in aberrant functional integration and synaptic connectivity. This Research Topic considers recent advances in understanding psychopathology in terms of aberrant effective connectivity – as measured noninvasively using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).Recently, there has been increasing interest in inferring directed connectivity (effective connectivity) from fMRI data. Effective connectivity refers to the influence that one neural system exerts over another and quantifies the directed coupling among brain regions – and how they change with pathophysiology. Compared to functional connectivity, effective connectivity allows one to understand how brain regions interact with each other in terms of context sensitive changes and directed coupling – and therefore may provide mechanistic insights into the neural basis of psychopathology.Established models of effective connectivity include psychophysiological interaction (PPI), structural equation modeling (SEM) and dynamic causal modelling (DCM). DCM is unique because it explicitly models the interaction among brain regions in terms of latent neuronal activity. Moreover, recent advances in DCM such as stochastic and spectral DCM, make it possible to characterize the interaction between different brain regions both at rest and during a cognitive task.

Budgetary Policy Modelling

Authors: ---
Book Series: Routledge New International Studies in Economic Modelling ISBN: 9780203979372 9780415142359 9781134766055 9781134766048 9781134766000 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203979372 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Business and Management --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:29
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The focus of this volume is on the European context of public budget policy and a variety of different approaches are used - theoretical modelling, econometrics and applied general equilibrium modelling. Empirical evidence and case studies of European countries are contained in all the papers. The papers cover the four general themes of public budget policy: * economic stabilization, in view of the Economic and Monetary Union in the European Community * reinforcing structural change, involved in market liberalization and harmonization of economic structures * its distributional effects and implications for social equity * endogenous economic growth.

Transfer Entropy

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ISBN: 9783038429197 9783038429203 Year: Pages: VIII, 326 Language: Englisch
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-24 17:15:19
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Statistical relationships among the variables of a complex system reveal a lot about its physical behavior. Therefore, identification of the relevant variables and characterization of their interactions are crucial for a better understanding of a complex system. Linear methods, such as correlation, are widely used to identify these relationships. However, information-theoretic quantities, such as mutual information and transfer entropy, have been proven to be superior in the case of nonlinear dependencies. Mutual information quantifies the amount of information obtained about one random variable through the other random variable, and it is symmetric. As an asymmetrical measure, transfer entropy quantifies the amount of directed (time-asymmetric) transfer of information between random processes and, thus, it is related to concepts, such as the Granger causality. This Special Issue includes 16 papers elucidating the state of the art of data-based transfer entropy estimation techniques and applications, in areas such as finance, biomedicine, fluid dynamics and cellular automata. Analytical derivations in special cases, improvements on the estimation methods and comparisons between certain techniques are some of the other contributions of this Special Issue. The diversity of approaches and applications makes this book unique as a single source of invaluable contributions from experts in the field.

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