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In vivo Cell Biology of Cerebral Cortical Development and Its Related Neurological Disorders: Cellular Insights into Neurogenesis and Neuronal Migration

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199624 Year: Pages: 268 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-962-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The brain consists of a complex but precisely organized neural network, which provides the structural basis of higher order functions. Such a complex structure originates from a simple pseudostratified neuroepithelium. During the developing mammalian cerebral cortex, a cohort of neural progenitors, located near the ventricle, differentiates into neurons and exhibits multi-step modes of migration toward the pial surface. Tight regulation of neurogenesis and neuronal migration is essential for the determination of the neuron number in adult brains and the proper positioning of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in a specific layer, respectively. In addition, defects in neurogenesis and neuronal migration can cause several neurological disorders, such as microcephaly, periventricular heterotopia and lissencephaly. Recent advances in genetic approaches to study the developing cerebral cortex, as well as the use of a number of novel techniques, particularly in vivo electroporation and time-lapse analyses using explant slice cultures, have significantly increased our understanding of cortical development. These novel techniques have allowed for cell biological analyses of cerebral cortical development in vivo or ex vivo, showing that many cellular events, including endocytosis, cell adhesion, microtubule and actin cytoskeletal regulation, neurotransmitter release, stress response, the consequence of cellular crowding (physical force), dynamics of transcription factors, midbody release and polarity transition are required for neurogenesis and/or neuronal migration. The aim of this research topic is to highlight molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying cerebral cortical development and its related neurological disorders from the cell biological point of views, such as cell division, cell-cycle regulation, cytoskeletal organization, cell adhesion and membrane trafficking. The topic has been organized into three chapters: 1) neurogenesis and cell fate determination, 2) neuronal migration and 3) cortical development-related neurological disorders. We hope that the results and discussions contributed by all authors in this research topic will be broadly useful for further advances in basic research, as well as improvements in the etiology and care of patients suffering from neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Quantitative Biology: Dynamics of Living Systems

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452132 Year: Pages: 136 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-213-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biology --- Neurology --- Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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With the emergence of Systems Biology, there is a greater realization that the whole behavior of a living system may not be simply described as the sum of its elements. To represent a living system using mathematical principles, practical quantities with units are required. Quantities are not only the bridge between mathematical description and biological observations; they often stand as essential elements similar to genome information in genetics. This important realization has greatly rejuvenated research in the area of Quantitative Biology. Because of the increased need for precise quantification, a new era of technological development has opened. For example, spatio-temporal high-resolution imaging enables us to track single molecule behavior in vivo. Clever artificial control of experimental conditions and molecular structures has expanded the variety of quantities that can be directly measured. In addition, improved computational power and novel algorithms for analyzing theoretical models have made it possible to investigate complex biological phenomena. This research topic is organized on two aspects of technological advances which are the backbone of Quantitative Biology: (i) visualization of biomolecules, their dynamics and function, and (ii) generic technologies of model optimization and numeric integration. We have also included articles highlighting the need for new quantitative approaches to solve some of the long-standing cell biology questions. In the first section on visualizing biomolecules, four cutting-edge techniques are presented. Ichimura et al. provide a review of quantum dots including their basic characteristics and their applications (for example, single particle tracking). Horisawa discusses a quick and stable labeling technique using click chemistry with distinct advantages compared to fluorescent protein tags. The relatively small physical size, stability of covalent bond and simple metabolic labeling procedures in living cells provides this type of technology a potential to allow long-term imaging with least interference to protein function. Obien et al. review strategies to control microelectrodes for detecting neuronal activity and discuss techniques for higher resolution and quality of recordings using monolithic integration with on-chip circuitry. Finally, the original research article by Amariei et al. describes the oscillatory behavior of metabolites in bacteria. They describe a new method to visualize the periodic dynamics of metabolites in large scale cultures populations. These four articles contribute to the development of quantitative methods visualizing diverse targets: proteins, electrical signals and metabolites. In the second section of the topic, we have included articles on the development of computational tools to fully harness the potential of quantitative measurements through either calculation based on specific model or validation of the model itself. Kimura et al. introduce optimization procedures to search for parameters in a quantitative model that can reproduce experimental data. They present four examples: transcriptional regulation, bacterial chemotaxis, morphogenesis of tissues and organs, and cell cycle regulation. The original research article by Sumiyoshi et al. presents a general methodology to accelerate stochastic simulation efforts. They introduce a method to achieve 130 times faster computation of stochastic models by applying GPGPU. The strength of such accelerated numerical calculation are sometimes underestimated in biology; faster simulation enables multiple runs and in turn improved accuracy of numerical calculation which may change the final conclusion of modeling study. This also highlights the need to carefully assess simulation results and estimations using computational tools.

Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae Bacterial Superphylum: New Model Organisms for Evolutionary Cell Biology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452798 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-279-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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The Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, Chlamydiae (PVC) and related phyla have recently emerged as fascinating subjects for research in evolutionary cell biology, ecology, biotechnology, evolution and human health. This interest is prompted by particular characteristics observed in the PVC superphylum that are otherwise rarely observed in bacteria but are however still poorly described or understood, such as the presence of a complex endomembrane system, or compacted DNA throughout most of the cell cycle. Therefore, the members of the PVC superphylum represent an excellent example of the value of studying bacteria other than ‘classical’ models.

Self-Eating on Demand: Autophagy in Cancer and Cancer Therapy

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454228 Year: Pages: 111 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-422-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Macroautophagy, the major lysosomal pathway for recycling intracellular components including whole organelles, has emerged as a key process modulating tumorigenesis, tumor–stroma interactions, and cancer therapy. An impressive number of studies over the past decade have unraveled the plastic role of autophagy during tumor development and dissemination. The discoveries that autophagy may either support or repress neoplastic growth and contextually favor or weaken resistance and impact antitumor immunity have spurred efforts from many laboratories trying to conceptualize the complex role of autophagy in cancer using cellular and preclinical models. This complexity is further accentuated by recent findings highlighting that various autophagy-related genes have roles beyond this catabolic mechanism and interface with oncogenic pathways, other trafficking and degradation mechanisms and the cell death machinery. From a therapeutic perspective, knowledge of how autophagy modulates the tumor microenvironment is crucial to devise autophagy-targeting strategies using smart combination of drugs or anticancer modalities. This eBook contains a collection of reviews by autophagy researchers and provides a background to the state-of-the-art in the field of autophagy in cancer, focusing on various aspects of autophagy regulation ranging from its molecular components to its cell autonomous role, e.g. in cell division and oncogenesis, miRNAs regulation, cross-talk with cell death pathways as well as cell non-autonomous role, e.g. in secretion, interface with tumor stroma and clinical prospects of autophagy-based biomarkers and autophagy modulators in anticancer therapy. This eBook is part of the TransAutophagy initiative to better understand the clinical implications of autophagy in cancer.

The Bacterial Cell: Coupling between Growth, Nucleoid Replication, Cell Division and Shape

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198177 Year: Pages: 324 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-817-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Bacterial Physiology was inaugurated as a discipline by the seminal research of Maaløe, Schaechter and Kjeldgaard published in 1958. Their work clarified the relationship between cell composition and growth rate and led to unravel the temporal coupling between chromosome replication and the subsequent cell division by Helmstetter et al. a decade later. Now, after half a century this field has become a major research direction that attracts interest of many scientists from different disciplines. The outstanding question how the most basic cellular processes - mass growth, chromosome replication and cell division - are inter-coordinated in both space and time is still unresolved at the molecular level. Several particularly pertinent questions that are intensively studied follow: (a) what is the primary signal to place the Z-ring precisely between the two replicating and segregating nucleoids? (b) Is this coupling related to the structure and position of the nucleoid itself? (c) How does a bacterium determine and maintain its shape and dimensions? Possible answers include gene expression-based mechanisms, self-organization of protein assemblies and physical principles such as micro-phase separations by excluded volume interactions, diffusion ratchets and membrane stress or curvature. The relationships between biochemical reactions and physical forces are yet to be conceived and discovered. This e-book discusses the above mentioned and related questions. The book also serves as an important depository for state-of-the-art technologies, methods, theoretical simulations and innovative ideas and hypotheses for future testing. Integrating the information gained from various angles will likely help decipher how a relatively simple cell such as a bacterium incorporates its multitude of pathways and processes into a highly efficient self-organized system. The knowledge may be helpful in the ambition to artificially reconstruct a simple living system and to develop new antibacterial drugs.

Mechanisms of Mitotic Chromosome Segregation

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ISBN: 9783038424031 9783038424024 Year: Pages: VIII, 332 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-05-10 09:52:09
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This book describes current knowledge about the mechanisms by which cells segregate their already duplicated chromosomes in preparation for cell division. Experts in the field treat several important aspects of this subject: (1) the history of research on mitotic mechanisms, to serve as a background; (2) assembly of the mitotic spindle; (3) Kinetochore assembly and function; (4) the mechanisms of chromosome congression to the metaphase plate; (5) the spindle assembly checkpoint; (6) mechanisms to avoid and correct erroneous chromosome attachments to the spindle; (7) a molecular perspective on spindle assembly in land plants; (8) chromosome segregation in anaphase A; (9) spindle elongation in anaphase B; and (10) the consequences of errors in chromosome segregation. Each chapter provides the reader with a comprehensive and accurate picture of current research in a form that is both readable and authoritative. The volume is suitable for scholars in this and related fields and for teaching at an advanced level.

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