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How to improve immune reconstitution in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194919 Year: Pages: 86 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-491-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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Abstract

Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is widely used in the treatment of haematological malignancies as a form of immunotherapy acting through a graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) reaction. This curative allogeneic response can be associated with severe drawbacks, such as frequent and severe graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and a long-lasting immunodeficiency, especially now with the development of innovative strategies such as umbilical cord blood transplantation or transplants from haplo-identical family donors (Haplo-HSCT). In the long-term follow-up of these patients, severe post-transplant infections, relapse or secondary malignancies may be directly related to persistent immune defects.Reconstitution of the different lymphocyte populations (B, T, NK, NKT) and antigen presenting cells of myeloid origin (monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells) should be considered not only quantitatively but especially qualitatively, in terms of functional subsets. Immune deficiency leading to an increased susceptibility to infections lasts for more than a year. Although infections that occur in the first month mostly result from a deficiency in both granulocytes and mononuclear cells (MNC), later post-engraftment infections are due to a deficiency in MNC subsets, primarily CD4 T-cells and B-cells. T-cell reconstitution has been extensively studied because of the central role of T-cells in mediating both GvHD, evidenced by the reduced incidence of this complication following T-Cell depletion, and a GvL effect as shown by DLI. In the recent years there has been renewed interest in the role of NK-cells, especially in the context of Haplo-HSCT, and in B-cell reconstitution.This Frontiers Research Topic will provide state of the art knowledge of the mechanisms of immune reconstitution in an allogeneic environment, in order to improve monitoring and therapeutic intervention in allo-HSCT patients.

Perspektiven des Medizinrechts im 21. Jahrhundert

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ISBN: 9783940344083 Year: Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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Series "Göttinger Schriften zum Medizinrecht" (medicine law), which deals with several important debates in modern medicine such as gene therapy, research with embryonic stem cells, bio databases, living organ donation, and in general the economisation of the health system.

NK Cell-Based Cancer Immunotherapy

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199341 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-934-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells that have a significant role in regulating the defenses against cancer development and certain viral infections. They are equipped with an array of activating and inhibitory receptors that stimulate or diminish NK cell activity, respectively. Inhibitory receptors include, among others, the MHC class I ligands killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) in humans, and members of the Ly49 family of receptors in mice, and CD94/NKG2A. Activating receptors include cytokine and chemokine receptors, and those that interact with ligands expressed on target cells, such as the natural cytotoxicity receptors or NCRs (NKp30, NKp44 and NKp46), NKG2D, CD244 and DNAM-1. In addition, NK cells express Fc?RIIIA or CD16, the receptor that exerts antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). NK cells also express the death ligands FasL and TRAIL. The killing or sparing of target cells depends on the integration of distinct signals that originate from NK cell receptors. NK cells spare healthy cells that express normal levels of MHC class I molecules and low amounts of stress-induced self-molecules, whereas they kill target cells that down-regulate MHC class I molecules and/or up-regulate stress-induced self-molecules. The latter are common signatures of virus-infected cells and tumors. All the accumulated knowledge on NK cell biology, along with many clinical observations, is driving multiple efforts to improve the arsenal of NK cell-based therapeutic tools in the fight against malignant diseases. Indeed, NK cell-based immunotherapy is becoming a promising approach for the treatment of many cancers. It is well known that NK cells have a significant role in the anti-tumor effect of therapeutic antibodies that use ADCC as a mechanism of action. In addition to this, administration of autologous and allogeneic NK cells after activation and expansion ex vivo is used in the treatment of cancer. Moreover, adoptive transfer of NK cell lines has been tested in humans, and genetically modified NK cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors are being studied in preclinical models for potential use in the clinic.

Therapeutic Strategies to Spinal Cord Injury

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ISBN: 9783038974062 9783038974079 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-407-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-12-12 10:33:09
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ca. 200 words; this text will present the book in all promotional forms (e.g. flyers). Please describe the book in straightforward and consumer-friendly terms.This Special Issue gathers eight research articles covering a broad range of strategies on how to combat spinal cord injuries, from searching for therapeutic target molecules, tackling inflammatory reactions, utilizing cell therapy or cell-based products, combined strategies for axonal plasticity assessment, and prevention of post-surgical epidural adhesions. Moreover, four reviews cover recent findings about the role of stress-activated protein kinases in SCI; progress in stem cell therapies; the mechanisms and benefits of activity-based physical rehabilitation therapies with adjuvant testosterone; and, finally, translational regenerative therapies for chronic spinal cord injury.

Adult neurogenesis twenty years later: physiological function versus brain repair

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194940 Year: Pages: 120 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-494-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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The discovery that mammalian brains contain neural stem cells which perform adult neurogenesis - the production and integration of new neurons into mature neural circuits - has provided a fully new vision of neural plasticity. On a theoretical basis, this achievement opened new perspectives for therapeutic approaches in restorative and regenerative neurology. Nevertheless, in spite of striking advancement concerning the molecular and cellular mechanisms which allow and regulate the neurogenic process, its exploitation in mammals for brain repair strategies remains unsolved. In non-mammalian vertebrates, adult neurogenesis also contributes to brain repair/regeneration. In mammals, neural stem cells do respond to pathological conditions in the so called "reactive neurogenesis", yet without substantial regenerative outcome. Why, even in the presence of stem cells in the brain, we lack an effective reparative outcome in terms of regenerative neurology, and which factors hamper the attainment of this goal? Essentially, what remains unanswered is the question whether (and how) physiological functions of adult neurogenesis in mammals can be exploited for brain repair purposes.

Fungal Infections in Immunocompromised Hosts

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ISBN: 9783038977162 Year: Pages: 212 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-717-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Microbiology --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue Fungal Infections in Immunocompromised Hosts that was published in JoF

Keywords

Candida auris --- Aspergillus fumigatus --- antifungal resistance --- multidrug resistance --- mechanisms of antifungal resistance --- liver disease --- hepatic impairment --- invasive fungal infection --- antifungal agent --- antifungal drug --- toxicity --- Immunotherapy --- invasive aspergillosis --- Aspergillus fumigatus --- fungal infections --- innate immunity --- adaptive immunity --- cell therapy --- cytokine therapy --- taxonomy --- fungal nomenclature --- phylogenetics --- species complex --- invasive fungal infections --- mycoses --- immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome --- fungal immunity --- prognostic risk model --- prediction models --- risk score --- invasive mold disease --- hematological malignancy --- risk assessment --- antifungal stewardship --- paracoccidioidomycosis --- HIV --- cancer --- lymphoma --- kidney transplant --- TNF inhibitors --- literature review --- MALDI-ToF MS --- yeast --- fungus --- AIDS --- IRIS --- cat-transmitted sporotrichosis --- immunocompromised hosts --- mycoses of implantation --- sporotrichosis --- Sporothrix brasiliensis --- Sporothrix schenckii --- subcutaneous mycoses --- invasive fungal infection --- non-culture-based diagnostics --- aspergillosis --- candidiasis --- Aspergillus PCR --- galactomannan --- lateral flow --- beta-d-glucan --- T2 Candida --- candidemia --- Candida meningoencephalitis --- (1?3)-?-d-glucan --- T2Candida --- PCR --- liposomal amphotericin B --- micafungin --- anidulafungin --- Aspergillus --- anti-fungal agents --- hematological malignancies

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