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Dietary and Non-Dietary Phytochemicals and Cancer

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ISBN: 9783038423799 9783038423782 Year: Pages: XII, 144 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-379-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-06-09 09:53:53
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The role of many phytochemicals in the modulation of the carcinogenesis process has been well documented by combining in vitro and animal studies, as well as epidemiological evidence. When acting in synergy, phytochemicals exert potential anti-cancer properties and much progress has been made in defining their many biological activities at the molecular level. However, an interesting feature in the field of phytochemicals and cancer is the role of some phytochemicals in promoting cancer development. This Special Issue of Toxins aims to provide a comprehensive look at the contribution of dietary and non-dietary phytochemicals to cancer development and at the molecular mechanisms by which phytochemicals inhibit or promote cancer. These aspects are extremely useful for the definition of efficient preventive measures against cancer.

Recent Advances and Perspectives in Deoxynivalenol Research

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ISBN: 9783038424703 9783038424710 Year: Pages: X, 290 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-23 08:50:49
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Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by molds. Although the primary role of these toxins is thought to be related to the colonisation of the environment by the fungi—mycotoxins are able to kill other micro-organisms (antimicrobial effect) and/or plant cells (mycotoxin-producing fungi being necrophagic)—the exposure of animals and humans to mycotoxins through the consumption of mycotoxin-contaminated food and feeds leads to diseases and death. Among the different mycotoxins described (more than 350 mycotoxins have been identified), deoxynivalenol (DON or vomitoxin) produced by Fusarium species has attracted the most attention due to its prevalence and toxicity. DON is part of a family of mycotoxins called trichothecenes that are small sesquiterpenoids with an epoxide group at positions 12–13 allowing their binding to ribosomes causing the so-called ribosome stress response, characterized by the activation of various protein kinases that lead to alterations in gene expression and cellular toxicity in animals, humans and plants. Here, we compiled very recent findings regarding DON and its derivatives: i) their prevalence in human food; ii) the estimation of the exposure of humans to them using biological markers; iii) their roles during plant–fungi interaction; iv) the alteration caused by them in animals and humans, particularly at low doses that are close to those observed in farm animals and human consumers; v) possible strategies to decrease their presence in food and feeds. Overall, this book will give the reader a clear and global view on this important mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species which is responsible for huge economic loss and health issues.

Metabolism and Immune Tolerance

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457250 Year: Pages: 116 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-725-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Historically the study of the immune system and metabolism have been two very separate fields. In recent years, a growing literature has emerged illustrating how the multiple processes of cellular metabolism are intricately linked to several aspects of immune function and development. This Research Topic covers recent progress in the field now known as “Immunometabolism” and the role of metabolism in immune tolerance. Immune tolerance is operationally defined as a state where a host’s immune system is balanced such that although self-reactive lymphocytes are present, they are kept in check by immune regulation. Perturbations to this homeostasis may result in self-reactive lymphocytes gaining the upper hand and mediating auto-immune disease. Maintenance of immune tolerance involves a large cast of different cell types including effector T cells, regulatory T cells, B cells, stromal cells, dendritic cells and macrophages.Intracellular pathways and individual enzymes of metabolism have been shown to be harnessed by cells of both the adaptive and innate immune system to allow particular immune functions to be achieved. Examples include metabolic enzymes serving ‘moonlighting’ functions in mRNA translation, gene splicing, and kinase activation. Other examples include the requirement for de novo fatty acid synthesis for differentiation into Th17 effectors and CD8 memory T cells or products of the TCA cycle promoting pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Likewise, the availability of extracellular metabolic substrates has a large impact on the maintenance of local immune tolerance. For example, there are different requirements for glucose, glutamine and fatty acids for effector versus regulatory T cell development. Also tolerogenic dendritic cells mediate lowering of extracellular essential amino acids by their enhanced catabolism, promoting the induction of regulatory T cells. The purpose of this Research Topic is to provide an update on the current understanding of the multiple roles for metabolism in regulating the immune system.

Advances in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Research

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ISBN: 9789533079301 Year: Pages: 478 DOI: 10.5772/1203 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Cytology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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This book provides a comprehensive overview in our understanding of the biology and therapeutic potential of hematopoietic stem cells, and is aimed at those engaged in stem cell research: undergraduate and postgraduate science students, investigators and clinicians. Starting from fundamental principles in hematopoiesis, Advances in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Research assemble a wealth of information relevant to central mechanisms that may regulate differentiation, and expansion of hematopoietic stem cells in normal conditions and during disease.

Umbilical Cord Blood Banking for Clinical Application and Regenerative Medicine

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ISBN: 9789535128656 9789535128663 Year: Pages: 258 DOI: 10.5772/62607 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Cytology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Umbilical cord blood (UCB) and, more recently, umbilical cord tissue (UCT) have been stored cryopreserved in private and public cord blood and tissue banks worldwide, since the umbilical cord blood was used for the first time in a child with Fanconi anemia with his HLA-identical sibling, following strict guidelines that imply high-quality standards and total rastreability of these units. The hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are clinically used in hematopoietic treatments for blood disorders and hemato-oncological diseases. Also, the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from the UCT and UCB, nowadays, can be used as coadjuvants of hematopoietic transplants. In the near future, these stem cells will have a crucial role in regenerative medicine. For this reason, these cells have been tested in several clinical trials and compassive treatments in children and adults, concerning a wide range of pathologies and diseases, for instance, for the treatment of cerebral paralysis. Considering the worldwide availability of UCB and UCT units and the absence of ethical concerns will probably become the best sources for cell-based therapies for hematological and nonhematological pathologies. The UCB will also have a crucial role in neonatology-predictive analysis in the near future.

Stromal Cells - Structure, Function, and Therapeutic Implications

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ISBN: 9781789849844 9781789849851 Year: Pages: 260 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.71899 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Cytology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Stromal cells are connective tissue cells of any organ, and they support the function of the parenchymal cells of that particular organ. Stromal/stromal stem cells are fundamentally a heterogeneous population of cells with contradictory differentiation potential depending upon their environmental niche. Stromal cell biology is not only intriguing, but equally stromal cell ontogeny in vivo remains challenging. In recent years there has been substantial advances in our understanding of stromal cell biology, especially stromal cell isolation, characterization, differentiation, and interactions in physiological (epithelial-stromal interactions) as well as pathophysiological (stromal-cancer interactions) contexts. In addition, stromal cells are also utilized more and more as a therapeutic tool not only in the field of gene therapy but also in the translational field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Therefore, the goal of this book is to consolidate the recent advances in the area of stromal/stromal stem cell biology covering a broad range of interrelated topics in a timely fashion and to disseminate that knowledge in a lucid way to a greater scientific audience. This book will prove highly useful for students, researchers, and clinicians in stem cell biology, developmental biology, cancer biology, pathology, oncology, as well as tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This quick reference will benefit anyone desiring a thorough overview of stromal cell structure, function, and its therapeutic implications.

Innovative Medicine: Basic Research and Development

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9784431556503 9784431556510 Year: Pages: 339 DOI: 10.1007/978-4-431-55651-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-06-30 12:46:49
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This book is devoted to innovative medicine, comprising the proceedings of the Uehara Memorial Foundation Symposium 2014. It remains extremely rare for the findings of basic research to be developed into clinical applications, and it takes a long time for the process to be achieved. The task of advancing the development of basic research into clinical reality lies with translational science, yet the field seems to struggle to find a way to move forward. To create innovative medical technology, many steps need to be taken: development and analysis of optimal animal models of human diseases, elucidation of genomic and epidemiological data, and establishment of “proof of concept”. There is also considerable demand for progress in drug research, new surgical procedures, and new clinical devices and equipment. While the original research target may be rare diseases, it is also important to apply those findings more broadly to common diseases. The book covers a wide range of topics and is organized into three complementary parts. The first part is basic research for innovative medicine, the second is translational research for innovative medicine, and the third is new technology for innovative medicine. This book helps to understand innovative medicine and to make progress in its realization.

Novel Prospects in Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress

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ISBN: 9781789230864 9781789230871 Year: Pages: 156 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.70102 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Cytology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of various diseases when there is a disruption of the intracellular redox balance and the homeostatic balance between cellular oxidants and antioxidants. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) react with molecular targets including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids contributing to mitochondrial injury and cellular dysfunction. This book intends to provide the readers with an extensive overview of the novel approaches and prospects based on oxidative and nitrosative stress in the pathophysiology of various diseases and in the current treatment strategies with antioxidants.

Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in Living Cells

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ISBN: 9781789231342 9781789231359 Year: Pages: 216 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69697 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Cytology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Oxygen represents only 20% of the Earth's atmosphere, yet it is vital for the survival of aerobic organisms. There is a dark part of the use of oxygen that consists in generating reactive species that are potentially harmful to living organisms. Moreover, reactive oxygen species can combine with nitrogen derivatives and generate many other reactive species. Thus, living organisms are continuously assaulted by reactive species from external or internal sources. However, the real danger comes in the case of high concentrations and prolonged exposure to these species. This book presents an image of the mechanisms of action of reactive species and emphasizes their involvement in diseases. Inflammation and cancer are examined to determine when and how reactive species turn the evolution of a benign process to a malignant one. Some answers may come from recent studies indicating that reactive species are responsible for epigenetic changes.

Multidimensional Flow Cytometry Techniques for Novel Highly Informative Assays

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ISBN: 9781789233445 9781789233452 Year: Pages: 108 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68879 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Cytology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Flow cytometry's informative potential has been underestimated for many years because of a lack of adequate instruments, automation, reagents, and know-how to approach, integrate, and also substitute other techniques giving single information per assay. In the last decade, flow cytometers have become capable of performing high-throughput screening and high content analysis, evaluating tens of different samples' features in a single run up to 1536 formats on multiple cell populations. The introduction of imaging flow cytometry has filled the gap between flow cytometry and conventional high content imaging screening, putting flow cytometry at the center of many laboratories, which can now cover with a single instrument the vast majority of needs in research programs. The flow cytometry community is a multidisciplinary and diversified group with many different interests and fields of action. These characteristics have prompted the evolution of the techniques, applications, and instruments that allow the use of complex, sophisticated, and standardized and reliable flow cytometric assays in academic and industrial programs.

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