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LC-MS/MS Method for Mycotoxin Analysis

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ISBN: 9783038426066 9783038426073 Year: Pages: VIII, 186 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-22 11:28:33
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Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by some species of filamentous fungi belonging to Fusarium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Claviceps and Alternaria genera. The biochemical significance of mycotoxins in fungal metabolism has not always been fully clarified; however, the main concern for mycotoxins is driven by the deleterious effects they can exert on human and animal health. Structurally, the mycotoxins currently known belong to heterogeneous chemical classes, therefore the toxic effects they can induce are highly diverse (e.g., cancerogenic and immunosuppressive effects). The main route of human exposure to mycotoxins is by intake of contaminated food, either directly from contaminated agricultural products, or indirectly from residues and metabolites present in foods of animal origin. Immunochemical methods are generally used for the fast screening of mycotoxin presence; however, for confirmation purposes, analytical methods based on high-performance liquid chromatography (LC) are preferred, especially when coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), which allows the determination of multiclass mycotoxins in a single analysis. Moreover, the technical innovations available in LC-MS/MS instrumentation are prompting its application to the monitoring of contaminants in food and feed. The aim of this paper collection, constituted by ten research articles and one review, is to provide the reader with an overview on the novelties and capabilities in LC-MS/MS-based multi-mycotoxin methods, also including the investigation of emerging and modified mycotoxins.

Management of Fusarium Species and their Mycotoxins in Cereal Food and Feed

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452941 Year: Pages: 259 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-294-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Health and safety of food and feed are the most important criteria for their quality. The quality of feed is in turn important for animal health, the environment and for the safety of food from animal origin. Fungi belonging to the Fusarium genus are widespread in crops causing plant diseases and producing toxic metabolites. Fusarium species can colonize plants during their growth on the field and cause serious damage in terms of yield and quality of harvested grains. One of the most important fungal diseases of wheat and other cereals in the world is Fusarium head blight caused by the fungal pathogens Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum and others. In addition, these fungi produce mycotoxins, contaminating food and feed. The most important Fusarium mycotoxins include trichothecenes, zearalenone and fumonisins, primarily because of their prevalence, but also because of the toxic effect to humans and animals. However, these fungi produce also other mycotoxins such as moniliformin, beauvericin, enniantin or fusarins. Food and feed can be contaminated with mycotoxins at various stages in the production chain resulting in serious problems with health, safety and economic losses. It is estimated that 25% of the crop in the world each year are contaminated with these metabolites, the problem affects both industrialized countries and developing countries. The aim of this Research Topic of Frontiers in Microbiology is to publish state of the art research about occurrence and genomics of Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in the whole food and feed chain starting from the crops as well as implications for health and economic aspects. This research topic highlights the current knowledge on the plant diseases caused by Fusarium fungi as well as all aspects of Fusarium mycotoxin contamination of crops, food and feed, taking into account decontamination methods.

Soil Water Conservation. Dynamics and Impact

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ISBN: 9783038978527 9783038978534 Year: Pages: 258 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-853-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Human needs like food and clean water are directly related to good maintenance of healthy and productive soils. A good understanding of human impact on the natural environment is therefore necessary to preserve and manage soil and water resources. This knowledge is particularly important in semi-arid and arid regions, where the increasing demands on limited water supplies require urgent efforts to improve water quality and water use efficiency. It is important to keep in mind that both soil and water are limited resources. Thus, wise use of these natural resources is a fundamental prerequisite for the sustainability of human societies. This book collects 15 original scientific contributions addressing the state of the art of soil and water conservation research. Contributions cover a wide range of topics, including (1) recovery of soil hydraulic properties; (2) erosion risk; (3) novel modeling, monitoring and experimental approaches for soil hydraulic characterization; (4) improvement of crop yields; (5) water availability; and (6) soil salinity. This collection provides more insights into conservation strategies for effective and sustainable soil and water management.

Keywords

soil moisture storage --- van Genuchten model --- distributed model --- Xin’anjiang model --- TOPMODEL --- bimsoils --- critical hydraulic gradient (CHG) --- response surface methodology --- multi-parameter evaluation --- laboratory experiment --- soil block --- subsurface flow --- macropore network --- spatial scale --- polyurethane foam --- hillslope --- soil water content --- field observation --- three-dimensional model --- numerical model --- delta plain --- shallow groundwater --- unsaturated soil --- Richards equation --- the Trefftz method --- transient --- the meshless method --- vineyards --- infiltration rate --- age of planting --- saturated hydraulic conductivity --- Malawi --- conservation agriculture --- peer effects --- decision tree modeling --- olive grove --- sap flow --- relative transpiration --- FDR sensor --- EM38 --- fraction transpiration soil water --- transdisciplinary research --- Follow-the-Innovation --- innovation development --- electromagnetic induction meter (EM) --- The Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) software --- AquaCrop --- cereals --- DSSAT --- field scattering --- food security --- microdose fertilization --- rainfall variability --- tied ridges --- upgrading strategies --- soil properties --- saturated soil hydraulic conductivity --- soil infiltration --- Beerkan method --- post-fire soil hydraulic characterization --- infiltration --- bottomless bucket method --- single-ring infiltrometer --- field-saturated soil hydraulic conductivity --- data analysis procedures --- environmental change --- local perception --- food security --- adaptation --- soil tillage --- tillage erosion --- seedbed preparation --- water infiltration --- nitrogen use efficiency --- specific leaf water content --- vegetable production --- soil --- yield --- water and soil conservation --- sustainable land management --- soil erosion --- soil water storage --- water infiltration --- water availability --- crop yields

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