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Biogenic Amines on Food Safety

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ISBN: 9783039210541 9783039210558 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-055-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Abstract

Biogenic amines have been known for some time. These compounds are found in varying concentrations in a wide range of foods (fish, cheese, meat, wine, beer, vegetables, etc.) and their formations are influenced by different factors associated to those foods (composition, additives, ingredients, storage, microorganism, packaging, handing, conservation, etc.). The intake of foods containing high concentrations of biogenic amines can present a health hazard. Additionally, they have been used to establish indexes in various foods in order to signal the degree of freshness and/or deterioration of food. Nowadays, there has been an increase in the number of food poisoning episodes in consumers associated with the presence of these biogenic amines, mainly associated with histamines. Food safety is one of the main concerns of the consumer and safety agencies of different countries (EFSA, FDA, FSCJ, etc.), which have, as one of their main objectives, to control these biogenic amines, principally histamine, to assure a high level of food safety.Therefore, it is necessary to deepen our understanding of the formation, monitoring and reduction of biogenic amines during the development, processing and storage of food, even the effect of biogenic amines in consumers after digestion of foods with different levels of these compounds.With this aim, we are preparing a Special Issue on the topic of ""Biogenic Amines in Food Safety"", and we invite researchers to contribute original and unpublished research articles and reviews articles that involve studies of biogenic amines in food, which can provide an update to our knowledge of these compounds and their impacts on food quality and food safety.

Arctic Mineral Resources. Science and Technology

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ISBN: 9783038978244 9783038978251 Year: Pages: 432 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-825-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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The Arctic zone of the Earth is a major source of mineral and other natural resources for the future development of science and technology. It contains a large supply of strategic mineral deposits, including rare earths, copper, phosphorus, niobium, platinum-group elements, and other critical metals. The continued melting of the sea ice due to climate change makes these resources more accessible than ever before. However, the mineral exploration in the Arctic has always been a challenge due to the climatic restrictions, remote location, and vulnerability of Arctic ecosystems. This book covers a broad range of topics related to the problem of Arctic mineral resources, including geological, geochemical, and mineralogical aspects of their occurrence and formation; chemical technologies; and environmental and economic problems related to mineral exploration. The contributions can be tentatively classified into four major types: geodynamics and metallogeny, mineralogy and petrology, mineralogy and crystallography, and mining and chemical technologies associated with the exploration of mineral deposits and the use of raw materials for manufacturing new products. The book can be of interest for all those interested in Arctic issues and especially in Arctic mineral resources and associated problems of mineralogy, geology, geochemistry, and technology.

Keywords

forsterite --- typochemistry --- crystal structure --- Kovdor phoscorite–carbonatite complex --- pyrochlore supergroup minerals --- typochemistry --- crystal structure --- Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite complex --- pyrrhotite --- chalcopyrite --- pentlandite --- cobaltpentlandite --- typochemistry --- crystal structure --- Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite complex --- shkatulkalite --- titanosilicate --- crystal structure --- Kola Peninsula --- Lovozero alkaline massif --- transformation mineral species --- vuonnemite --- titanium --- niobium --- heap leaching --- bacterial leaching --- cryomineralogenesis --- low-grade copper-nickel ore --- raw materials --- apatite-nepheline-titanite ore --- sulfuric-acidic decomposition --- titanyl sulfate --- hydrothermal synthesis --- ivanyukite --- batievaite-(Y) --- hainite-(Y) --- titanosilicate --- rinkite group minerals --- Kola Peninsula --- Sakharjok massif --- Keivy alkaline province --- transformation mineral species --- vanadium mineralization --- mineralogy --- Paleoproterozoic --- Kola region --- Arctic zone --- Fennoscandian Shield --- zircon --- macrocrysts --- kimberlite --- trace elements --- geochronology --- cathodoluminescence --- Ti-in-zircon geothermometry --- antigorite --- ore dressing tailings --- mechanical activation --- alkali-activated binder --- Yenisei-Khatanga basin --- Siberian craton --- Arctic --- oil --- gas --- petroleum potential --- geodynamics --- apatite --- Khibiny --- apatite-nepheline deposit --- phase diagram apatite-nepheline-diopside --- silicocarbonatite --- melteigite --- calcite --- nepheline --- zeolite group minerals --- garnet --- crystal fractionation --- Breivikbotn --- Northern Norway --- saponite-containing waters --- diamond processing plants --- cryogenic treatment --- electrochemical separation --- saponite product applications --- U mineralization --- hydrothermal deposits --- U-Pb --- Rb-Sr --- Kola region --- evolution of the composition --- basic rocks --- Precambrian --- search of trend differences --- geodynamic evolution --- metallogeny --- beryllium minerals --- chemical composition --- mineral data --- alkaline rocks --- granite --- pegmatites --- hydrothermal veins --- Kola Peninsula --- Plume --- LIP --- PGE --- Palaeoproterozoic --- mafic intrusion --- U-Pb --- isotopes --- PGE --- South Reef --- West-Pana intrusion --- Fedorova-Pana Complex --- zircon dating --- U-Pb --- Khibiny promising structures --- conductive layers --- MHD-source “Khibiny”, Pechenga structure --- Kola Peninsula --- greenstone belt --- gold --- Kola Peninsula --- Northern Karelia --- rock alteration --- n/a

Advances in Food Analysis

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ISBN: 9783039217427 9783039217434 Year: Pages: 488 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-743-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This Topical Collection of Molecules provides the most recent advancements and trends within the framework of food analysis, confirming the growing public, academic, and industrial interest in this field. The articles broach topics related to sample preparation, separation science, spectroscopic techniques, sensors and biosensors, as well as investigations dealing with the characterization of macronutrients, micronutrients, and other biomolecules. It offers the latest updates regarding alternative food sources (e.g., algae), functional foods, effects of processing, chiral or achiral bioactive compounds, contaminants, and every topic related to food science that is appealing to readers. Nowadays, the increasing awareness of the close relation among diet, health, and social development is stimulating demands for high levels of quality and safety in agro-food production, as well as new studies to fill gaps in the actual body of knowledge about food composition. For these reasons, modern research in food science and human nutrition is moving from classical methodologies to advanced instrumental platforms for comprehensive characterization. Nondestructive spectroscopic and imaging technologies are also proposed for food process monitoring and quality control in real time.

Keywords

cuprous oxide nanoparticles --- reduced graphene oxide --- modified electrode --- sunset yellow --- second-derivative linear sweep voltammetry --- clenbuterol --- systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment --- real-time quantitative PCR --- high-throughput sequencing technology --- aptamers --- gold nanoparticles biosensor --- carbamates --- multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) --- enhanced product ion (EPI) --- mass fragmentation --- confirmatory method --- pesticide residues --- Croatian wines --- biogenic amines --- HPLC --- geographical origin --- polyelectrolyte composite film --- nitrite detection --- differential pulse voltammetry --- cyclic voltammetry --- mycotoxin --- dimerization --- HRMS --- NMR --- fruit jams --- food security --- phenolic acids --- quercetin --- agro-biodiversity --- HPLC fingerprint --- Polygonatum cyrtonema --- saccharides --- oligosaccharides --- fructose --- HPLC–QTOF–MS/MS --- steaming --- essential oil --- extraction techniques --- hops extracts --- hydrodistillation --- Marynka strain --- microwave-assisted hydrodistillation --- anthocyanins --- bioactive compounds --- Box–Behnken design --- microwave-assisted extraction --- myrtle --- Myrtus communis --- phenolic compounds --- Chia seed oil --- polyunsaturated fatty acid --- antioxidant --- lipid-lowering effect --- collagen peptide --- HPLC fingerprint --- antioxidant --- anti-inflammatory --- spectrum-effect relationship --- amino acids --- carbohydrates --- acidity --- polarity --- molecular weight --- Tricholoma matsutake --- Pol gene --- qualitative and quantitative PCR --- DNA extraction --- ?-blockers --- metabolites --- milk powder --- Q-Orbitrap --- rosé wines --- white wines --- bottle aging --- flavor profile --- closures --- anthocyanins --- bioactive compounds --- Box–Behnken design --- ultrasound-assisted extraction --- myrtle --- Myrtus communis L. --- phenolic compounds --- food safety --- kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) --- molecular identification --- phylogeny --- DNA barcode --- hard clams --- Meretrix lyrata --- lipid classes --- fatty acids --- phospholipids --- molecular species of phospholipid --- high resolution mass spectrometry --- impedimetric aptasensor --- screen-printed interface --- bifunctional polymer arms --- PAT detection --- apple juice --- chiral --- chiral stationary phases --- enantiomers --- food --- review --- Piper methysticum (kava) --- kavalactones --- flavokavains --- UHPLC-UV --- mass spectra --- isomerization --- single-laboratory validation --- quality control --- Lactarius deliciosus --- chemical composition --- antioxidant --- antihyperglycemic --- ?13C-IRMS --- fatty acids composition --- 1H-NMR --- walnut varieties --- poultry eggs --- thiamphenicol --- florfenicol --- florfenicol amine --- ASE --- UPLC-FLD --- Sojae semen praeparatum (SSP) --- fermentation --- conversion --- ultra-fast liquid chromatography (UFLC)–TripleTOF MS --- principal component analysis (PCA) --- microalgae --- Scenedesmus --- supercritical fluid extraction --- carotenoids --- fat-soluble vitamins --- antioxidants --- fruit juice --- blends --- adulteration --- 1H NMR --- PLS --- chemometrics --- natural mature honey --- immature honey --- chemometric analysis --- multi-physicochemical parameters --- food quality --- IMS --- food composition --- food process control --- food authentication --- food adulteration --- food safety --- antibiotics --- liquid chromatography mass spectrometry --- milk --- muscle --- validation

Ironmaking and Steelmaking

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039213290 9783039213306 Year: Pages: 464 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-330-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Abstract

Steel is a critical material in our societies and will remain an important one for a long time into the future. In the last two decades, the world steel industry has gone through drastic changes and this is predicted to continue in the future. The Asian countries (e.g. China, India) have been dominant in the production of steel creating global over-capacity, while the steel industry in the developed countries have made tremendous efforts to reinforce its global leadership in process technology and product development, and remain sustainable and competitive. The global steel industry is also facing various grand challenges in strict environmental regulation, new energy and materials sources, and ever-increasing customer requirements for high quality steel products, which has been addressed accordingly by the global iron and steel community. This Special Issue, “Ironmaking and Steelmaking”, released by the journal Metals, published 33 high quality articles from the international iron and steel community, covering the state-of-the-art of the ironmaking and steelmaking processes. This includes fundamental understanding, experimental investigation, pilot plant trials, industrial applications and big data utilization in the improvement and optimization of existing processes, and research and development in transformative technologies. It is hoped that the creation of this special issue as a scientific platform will help drive the iron and steel community to build a sustainable steel industry.

Keywords

ironmaking --- microwaves --- carbothermal reduction --- iron oxides --- emission spectrum --- ore-carbon briquette --- CO–CO2 atmosphere --- simulation --- re-oxidation --- reduction --- electroslag cladding --- high speed steel --- ductile cast iron --- composite roll --- bonding interface --- high-phosphorus iron ore --- fluorapatite --- carbothermal reduction --- vaporization dephosphorization --- iron ore pellets --- compressive strength (CS) --- prediction model --- artificial neural network --- principal component analysis --- crystallization behaviors --- crystallization rate --- anosovite crystals --- silicate crystals --- titanium slag --- blast furnace --- copper stave --- hydrogen attack --- slag crust --- heat-affected zone --- high heat input welding --- Ca deoxidation --- inclusion control --- intragranular acicular ferrite --- concentrate --- iron ore --- agglomerate --- structure --- phase analysis --- Mg deoxidation --- inclusions --- Al addition --- high-heat-input welding --- heat-affected zone --- toughness --- shot peening --- Barkhausen noise --- crystallite size --- carbon composite pellet --- direct reduction --- shrinkage --- kinetics --- rotary hearth furnace --- hydrogen plasma --- smelting reduction --- HPSR --- iron oxide --- plasma arc --- ionization degree --- sulfur distribution ratio --- liquid area --- carbon-saturated iron --- phosphate capacity --- sulfide capacity --- phosphorus distribution ratio --- sulfur distribution ratio --- evaluation of coupling relationship --- secondary refining process, CaO–based slags --- iron sulfate --- TG analysis --- thermal treatment --- iron oxide --- kinetics --- activation energy --- high-aluminum iron ore --- synergistic reduction --- high-manganese iron ore --- hercynite --- fayalite --- flow velocity --- casting speed --- gas flow rate --- flow pattern --- continuous casting --- Cr recovery --- self-reduction briquette --- reaction mechanism --- mold flux --- low fluorine --- internal crack --- surface roughness --- slag film --- vanadium titano-magnetite --- gas-based reduction --- carbon monoxide --- hydrogen --- and nitrogen --- kinetics --- pellet size --- liquid steel --- non-contact measurement --- oxides --- steel-making --- blast furnace --- solid flow --- cold experiment --- direct element method --- Wilcox–Swailes coefficient --- viscosity --- BaO --- CaO/Al2O3 ratio --- modified NPL model --- ultrafine particles exposure --- steelmaking factory --- chemical composition --- devolatilization --- torrefied biomass --- bio-coal --- volatile matter --- iso-conversional method --- Al-TRIP steel --- surface depression --- cracks --- non-metallic inclusion --- mold flux --- reactivity --- hot metal pre-treatment --- desiliconisation --- dephosphorisation --- solid and gaseous oxygen --- fork --- flat steel --- inclusions --- 33MnCrTiB --- slag --- carbon dioxide --- injection --- blast furnace --- converter --- combustion --- oxygen steelmaking --- refining kinetics --- slag formation --- penetration theory --- oxygen blast furnace --- COREX --- static process model --- integrated steel plant --- material flow --- energy consumption --- CO2 emissions --- oil-pipeline steel --- Ca-treatment --- non-metallic inclusions --- electrolytic extraction --- corrosion --- n/a

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2019 (4)