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Drug Development for Parasite-Induced Diarrheal Diseases

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452484 Year: Pages: 177 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-248-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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One of the top four contributors to the global burden of disease is diarrheal infections. Intestinal parasites are major causes of morbidity and mortality associated with diarrheal diseases in both the developed and developing world. Amebiasis is responsible for 50 million cases of invasive disease and 70,000 deaths annually in the world. Giardiasis has an estimated worldwide prevalence of 280 million cases annually. In developed countries, Giardia lamblia infects about 2% of adults and 6-8% of children. The prevalence of G. lamblia infection is generally higher in developing countries, ranging from 3% to 90%. Furthermore, giardial infections contribute substantially to the 2.5 million annual deaths from diarrheal disease. In Asia, Africa, and Latin America, about 500,000 new giardiasis cases are reported each year. Cryptosporidium accounts for 20% and 9% of diarrheal episodes in children in developing and developed countries, respectively. Infection with Cryptosporidium can be chronic and especially debilitating in immunosuppressed individuals and malnourished children. A recent study to measure disease burden, based on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), found that cryptosporidiosis and amebiasis produce about 10.6 million DALYs. This exceeds the DALYs of any helminth infection currently being targeted by the World Health Organization for preventive chemotherapy. Because of its link with poverty, Giardia and Cryptosporidium were included in the WHO Neglected Diseases Initiative in 2004. E. histolytica, G. lamblia, and C. parvum have been listed by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) as category B priority biodefense pathogens due to low infectious dose and potential for dissemination through compromised food and water supplies in the United States. Despite the prevalence of amebiasis, giardiasis, and cryptosporidiosis there are no vaccines or prophylactic drugs. The first-line drugs for invasive amebiasis and giardiasis chemotherapy are nitroimidazoles, with the prototype, metronidazole, being the most common drug used worldwide. Metronidazole has been shown to be both mutagenic in a microbiological system and carcinogenic to rodents, and frequently causes gastrointestinal side effects. In spite of the efficacy of nitroimidazole drugs, treatment failures in giardiasis occur in up to 20% of cases. Clinical resistance of G. lamblia to metronidazole is proven and cross resistance is a concern with all commonly used antigiardial drugs. Nitazoxanide, the only FDA-approved drug for the treatment of cryptosporidiosis, is effective in the treatment of immunocompetent patients and partially effective for immunosuppressed patients. Therefore, it is critical to search for more effective drugs to treat amebiasis, giardiasis, and cryptosporidiosis. This Research Topic for Frontiers in Microbiology will explore the recent progress in drug development for parasitic diarrheal diseases. This includes an understanding of drug resistance mechanisms. We would also welcome submissions on the drug development for other diarrheal parasites. We hope that this research topic will include a comprehensive survey of various attempts by the parasitology research community to create effective drugs for these diseases.

Adverse Effects of Cancer Chemotherapy: Anything New to Improve Tolerance and Reduce Sequelae?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454822 Year: Pages: 245 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-482-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Therapeutics --- Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Advances in anti-cancer chemotherapy over recent years have led to improved efficacy in curing or controlling many cancers. Some chemotherapy-related side-effects are well recognized and include: nausea, vomiting, bone marrow suppression, peripheral neuropathy, cardiac and skeletal muscle dysfunction and renal impairment. However, it is becoming clearer that some chemotherapy-related adverse effects may persist even in long term cancer survivors. Problems such as cognitive, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal dysfunction, and neuropathy may lead to substantial long term morbidity. Despite improvements in treatments to counteract acute chemotherapy-induced adverse effects, they are often incompletely effective. Furthermore, counter-measures for some acute side-effects and many potential longer term sequelae of anti-cancer chemotherapy have not been developed. Thus, new insights into prevalence and mechanisms of cancer chemotherapy-related side effects are needed and new approaches to improving tolerance and reduce sequelae of cancer chemotherapy are urgently needed.The present Research Topic focuses on adverse effects and sequelae of chemotherapy and strategies to counteract them.

Molecular mechanisms of cellular stress responses in cancer and their therapeutic implications

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194964 Year: Pages: 159 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-496-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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In response to stress, cells can activate a myriad of signalling pathways to bring about a specific cellular outcome, including cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, senescence and apoptosis. This response is pivotal for tumour suppression as all of these outcomes result in restriction of the growth and/or elimination of damaged and pre-malignant cells. Thus, a large number of anti-cancer agents target specific components of stress response signalling pathways with the aim of causing tumour regression by stimulating cell death. However, the efficacy of these agents is often impaired due to mutations in genes that are involved in these stress-responsive signalling pathways and instead the oncogenic potential of a cell is increased leading to the initiation and/or progression of tumourigenesis. Moreover, these genetic defects can increase or contribute to resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and/or radiotherapy. Modulating the outcome of cellular stress responses towards cell death in tumour cells without affecting surrounding normal cells is thus one of the ultimate aims in the development of new cancer therapeutics. To achieve this aim, a detailed understanding of cellular stress response pathways and their aberrations in cancer is required.This Research topic aims to reflect the broadness and complexity of this important area of cancer research.

Cardiovascular Toxicities of Breast Cancer Treatment: Emerging Issues in Cardio-Oncology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195695 Year: Pages: 83 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-569-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-03 17:04:57
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Cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are the two most common causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The incidence of both cancer and cardiovascular disease increases with age. With increased life expectancy, the burden of both these diseases will increase substantially in coming years. Patients with CVD share multiple common risk factors and lifestyle behaviors in addition to frequently suffering from multiple comorbid conditions. Tobacco use, hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes, physical inactivity, and poor nutrition are all established risk factors of heart disease. Patients with diseases such as breast cancer may develop CVD from treatment, such as use of chemotherapy and RT. Effects on the heart are a potentially significant and serious clinical problem in radiation therapy treatment of breast cancer. Over the course of the past 50 years, there have been great advances in the delivery of RT due to the development of new techniques, beam energy, improvement in imaging modalities, and development of image registration strategies. It is hypothesized that cardiac damage from RT is correlated to the dose absorbed by the heart and differs between left- and right-breast radiotherapy. The damage to cardiac micro- and macro-vasculature is the pathophysiological cause of RT-related heart disease. Given the growing clinical relevance of cardio-oncology, this Frontiers in Oncology Research Topic provides a venue for disseminating focused reviews and cutting edge research in this quickly growing field. We encourage submission of original papers and reviews dealing with cardiac toxicity after breast cancer treatment, motion management to reduce cardiac exposure, imaging to evaluate potential cardiac toxicities and primary prevention of cardiac disease in the breast cancer patient.

Nutrition and Cancer

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ISBN: 9783038428916 9783038428923 Year: Pages: VIII, 206 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Oncology --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 11:04:15
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The development and treatment of cancer presents a complex interaction between tumor and host. Provision of nutrients not only enables the maintenance of nutritional status, but also provides substrates and signals for immunity, tumor metabolism and protection of the host from treatment toxicities. Fat is one dietary element that has been explored for its role in cancer development. While the bulk of these studies have been observational or experimental, the evidence assembled suggests that dietary lipids behave uniquely to prevent or promote cancers. An additional aspect of cancer development is the role of adipose tissue as a source of, and a responder to, inflammatory signals that may be involved in tumor development. This Special Issue of Nutrients focuses on fat and cancer. The contributors to this Special Issue are well-recognized leaders in the field of cancer and have unique areas of focus including metabolism, immunology, biochemistry, epidemiology and nutrition. Each contribution highlights the latest research in these areas and what is known about fat and cancer with topics ranging from diet and cancer prevention, mechanisms of n-3 fatty acids on tumor development and the role of adipose tissue in cancer development and progression.

Chemically-Induced DNA Damage, Mutagenesis, and Cancer

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ISBN: 9783038971290 9783038971306 Year: Pages: X, 264 Language: Englisch
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-27 13:43:27
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Human cancers frequently arise from exposure to chemicals, although radiation, oxidation, and genetic factors play critical roles as well. DNA damage by these agents in a cell is an important first step in the process of carcinogenesis. DNA repair processes have evolved to repair these damages. However, the replication of damaged DNA may occur frequently prior to repair, resulting in gene mutations and the generation of altered proteins. Mutations in an oncogene, a tumor-suppressor gene, or a gene that controls the cell cycle give rise to a clonal cell population with an advantage in proliferation. The complex process of carcinogenesis includes many such events, but has been generally considered to be comprised of the three main stages known as initiation, promotion, and progression, which ultimately give rise to the induction of human cancer. The articles published in this book entitled “Chemically-Induced DNA Damage, Mutagenesis, and Cancer” provide an overview on the topic of the “consequence of DNA damage” in the context of human cancer with their challenges and highlights.

Chemical and Molecular Approach to Tumor Metastases

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ISBN: 9783038428954 9783038428961 Year: Pages: VIII, 256 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Oncology --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-05 12:45:05
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Dear Colleagues, Malignant tumors develop distant metastases, e.g., small clusters of cells that detach from the primitive site and colonize distant organs and tissues. Unlike the primary masses, metastases are often difficult to fully eradicate by surgery ablation and are almost always the primary object of chemo- and/or immune-therapies. The presence of metastases at tumor diagnosis is responsible for the unfavorable prognosis and of relapses even after initially successful tumor therapies. The lack of success of chemo- and immune-therapy approaches depends on many factors among which, the inadequate capacity of the anti-tumor drugs of reaching appropriate concentrations in the organs and tissues involved in the metastatic growth is a major concern. Another factor is the complexity of the metastasis biology and of their molecular behavior, evidencing a population of tumor cells with a genetic compartment different from that of the tumor of origin. The involvement of host cells and factors recruited by the metastatic cells and committed to support the metastatic growth is also an event crucial for the lack of success of the anti-tumor therapy. The knowledge of the molecular biology of metastases is mandatory to support the search for chemical agents to treat the metastatic determinants and to control of the neoplastic disease. This Special Issue on “Chemical and Molecular Approach to Tumor Metastases” will explore the impact of biology, molecular medicine and chemistry on all aspects related to tumor metastases from the biological and molecular aspects of the metastatic growth, including the relationships between the metastatic cells and the host environment, and the search for druggable determinants useful for the chemical analysis of agents selectively active against tumor metastases. With the combination of invited reviews and original papers from prominent scientists working on all aspects of molecular medicine and cancer therapy, such as, but not limited to: drug delivery, genomics, chemoprevention, drug discovery, we aim to sample recent progress in molecular and chemical aspects of therapy of malignant tumors. Clinical success studies and evidences of novel compounds are particularly welcome.

Neglected and Emerging Tropical Diseases in South and Southeast Asia and Northern Australia

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783038970897 9783038970903 Year: Pages: VIII, 154 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-15 11:15:00
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This Special Issue focuses on recent research on the important emerging and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in South and South East Asia and Northern Australia. This region stretches from Afghanistan in the west to Papua New Guinea in the east, and includes the Indian subcontinent, mainland South-East Asia (Indo China), maritime South East Asia, and the tropical regions of Australia. Many of these areas are highly endemic for important NTDs and emerging infectious diseases including lymphatic filariasis, leprosy, soil-transmitted helminthiases (hookworm, Trichuris, Ascaris, and Strongyloides), food-borne trematodiases, schistosomiasis, dengue/chikungunya/zika, leptospirosis, meloidosis, scabies, trachoma, and yaws. Several of these diseases are targeted for elimination or enhanced control by the World Health Organization in the next 5 to 10 years, although some have chronic lasting sequelae needing lifelong management. Control methods used include preventive chemotherapy, enhanced screening and treatment, intensified disease management, vector control, interruption of human to animal transmission, environmental/sanitation improvements and disability prevention/mitigation.

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