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Advances in Chitin/Chitosan Characterization and Applications

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ISBN: 9783038978022 9783038978039 Year: Pages: 414 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-803-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Functional advanced biopolymers have received far less attention than renewable biomass (cellulose, rubber, etc.) used for energy production. Among the most advanced biopolymers known is chitosan. The term chitosan refers to a family of polysaccharides obtained by partial de-N-acetylation from chitin, one of the most abundant renewable resources in the biosphere. Chitosan has been firmly established as having unique material properties as well as biological activities. Either in its native form or as a chemical derivative, chitosan is amenable to being processed&mdash;typically under mild conditions&mdash;into soft materials such as hydrogels, colloidal nanoparticles, or nanofibers. Given its multiple biological properties, including biodegradability, antimicrobial effects, gene transfectability, and metal adsorption&mdash;to name but a few&mdash;chitosan is regarded as a widely versatile building block in various sectors (e.g., agriculture, food, cosmetics, pharmacy) and for various applications (medical devices, metal adsorption, catalysis, etc.). This Special Issue presents an updated account addressing some of the major applications, including also chemical and enzymatic modifications of oligos and polymers. A better understanding of the properties that underpin the use of chitin and chitosan in different fields is key for boosting their more extensive industrial utilization, as well as to aid regulatory agencies in establishing specifications, guidelines, and standards for the different types of products and applications.

Keywords

aerogels --- chitosan --- ionic liquids --- ionogels --- zinc–chitosan complexes --- characterization --- bio-sorbent --- phosphate --- adsorption --- mechanism --- thermodynamic --- chitosan --- hydrogel --- phase transition --- gelation mechanism --- chitosan --- defense responses --- fruits --- nanoparticles --- plant growth --- pesticides --- Boron --- chitosan --- iron(III) hydroxide --- neodymium --- sorption --- chitin --- chitosan --- chitosan derivative --- chitin derivative --- oral care --- skin care --- hear care --- marine resources --- over-the counter-drug --- polymer carrier --- chitin --- chitosan --- nanostructured biomaterial --- polymer --- self-masking nanosphere lithography --- cicada --- chitosan --- self-assembled --- polyelectrolyte complex --- nanoparticle --- drug delivery --- Citrobacter --- biosynthesis --- bioflocculant --- chitosan --- metabolic pathway --- PEO/chitosan blend --- swelling --- mechanical properties --- wet and dried states --- chitosan --- biological activity --- medical applications --- chitosan --- PCL --- strontium --- scaffolds --- craniofacial engineering --- chitin --- chitosan --- derivatization --- controlled functionalization --- click chemistry --- graft copolymer --- cyclodextrin --- dendrimer --- ionic liquids --- chitin deacetylases --- chitosan --- chitooligosaccharides --- carbohydrate esterases --- structure --- substrate specificity --- deacetylation pattern --- binary --- chitosan --- desorption --- iron --- lead --- mercury --- salt effects --- single --- sorption competition --- chitosan supported copper --- heterogeneous catalyst --- organosilicon compound --- easily recyclable --- chitosan --- papermaking --- wet-end --- coating --- wastewater --- ionic cross-linking --- eco-friendly formulations --- thermal transition sol-gel --- drug delivery systems --- MTDSC --- DSC --- gene delivery --- non-viral vectors --- chitosan structure --- pDNA --- siRNA --- TEOS --- methylene blue --- chitosan --- modelling --- cross-linking --- interpenetrating --- XRD --- FTIR

Marine Chitin 2019

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ISBN: 9783039360727 / 9783039360734 Year: Pages: 288 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03936-073-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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In 2019, we sent out a call for submissions to a Special Issue of Marine Drugs entitled “Marine Chitin 2019”, and we are pleased that this issue has now been published. Over 16 high-impact papers were included in this issue, which we now plan to publish as a book. In addition, we now seek to publish a further Special Issue of Marine Drugs, “Marine Chitin 2020–2021”. As before, we plan to produce an authoritative and exciting issue that will encompass breakthroughs in scientific and industrial chitin and chitosan research. Significant advances in chitin and chitosan research have been made since the 1970s, and current overviews in recent publications involving chitin and chitosan research advances are in need of an update.

Keywords

chitosan --- cytotoxicity --- polymer film --- sodium carbonate --- soluble chitosan complex --- chitin --- chitosan --- protease --- chitinase --- chitosan oligomers --- chitooligosaccharides --- anti-inflammatory action --- RAW264.7 macrophage --- chitosan oleate salt --- amphiphilic polymer --- PLGA --- nanoparticles --- mucoadhesion --- Caco-2 cell culture --- nile red --- curcumin --- chitooligosaccharide --- immunostimulatory activity --- RAW 264.7 cells --- mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) --- phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt --- chitosan oligosaccharides --- streptomycin --- Pseudomonas aeruginosa --- biofilms --- conjugation --- chitin --- marine sponges --- scaffolds --- Aplysina archeri --- express method --- bromotyrosines --- crude oil --- blood --- methylene blue --- chitin --- chitosan --- Paenibacillus --- chitosanase --- chitosan oligomers --- ?-glucosidase inhibitor --- antioxidant --- Polybius henslowii --- marine resources --- chitosan --- chitooligosaccharides --- antifungal activity --- antioxidant activity --- chitin --- collagen --- electrospinning --- mechanical property --- 2D correlation spectroscopy --- polymorph --- chitosan lactate --- chitosan tartrate --- chitosan citrate --- Eudragit® S100 --- layer-by-layer film --- mucoadhesive film --- Tenofovir controlled release --- pH responsive release --- vaginal preexposure prophylaxis --- HIV sexual transmission --- chitin --- chitosan --- wound treatment --- derivatization --- nanocomposites --- chitosan --- antibacterial activity --- Clostridium perfringens --- pork sausage --- chitin --- chitosan --- chitooligosaccharides --- enzymatic modification --- biotechnology --- chitinase --- chitosanase --- lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase --- chitin deacetylase --- chitosan-coated liposomes --- chitosan hydrogel --- mucoadhesion --- vaginal infections --- antibacterial activity --- Staphylococcus epidermidis --- Staphylococcus aureus --- chitin --- roller compaction --- ball milling --- direct compression --- compression work --- crushing strength --- Hausner ratio --- Kawakita analysis --- bulk density --- dissolution

Advances in Marine Chitin and Chitosan

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ISBN: 9783038421306 9783038421290 Year: Pages: XIV, 470 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-129-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-20 15:15:59
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Recently, biomass-based polymers from renewable resources have received increasing focus owing to the depletion of petroleum resources. Natural polysaccharides such as cellulose,hemicellulose, and starch are among the candidates from natural resources for biomass polysaccharide products including bioplastics. Although several kinds of neutral or anionicpolysaccharides such as chitin, alginic acid, hyaluronic acid, heparin, and chondroitin sulfate exist in nature, natural cationic polysaccharides are quite limited. Chitin is second only tocellulose as the most natural abundant polysaccharide in the world. Chitosan, the product from the N-deacetylatation of chitin, appears to be the only natural cationic polysaccharide.Therefore, chitin and chitosan due to their unique properties are expected to continue to offer a vast number of possible applications for not only chemical or industrial use, but alsobiomedicine. The research history on chitins, one of the most major and abundant natural polysaccharides on earth, started around 1970. Since the 1980s, chitin and chitosan research(including D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and their oligomers) has progressed significantly over several stages in both fundamental research and industrial fields.

Marine Polysaccharides Volume 3

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ISBN: 9783038429012 9783038429029 Year: Volume: 3 Pages: X, 564 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-24 09:32:36
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The field of marine polysaccharides is constantly evolving, due to progress in the discovery and production of new marine polysaccharides. Seaweed remains the most abundant source of polysaccharides, but recent advances in biotechnology have allowed the production of large quantities of polysaccharides from a variety of micro-algae, by controlling growth conditions and tailoring the production of bioactive compounds in a bioreactor. Of particular interest are polysaccharides produced by micro-organisms from extreme marine environments, due to their recognized different biochemistry. Extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) with unique properties produced by a number of micro-algae are known. The first volume is a collection of papers concerning the identification and characterization of novel marine polysaccharides. It is divided into three chapters; the first two are dedicated to polysaccharides from different marine sources (algae, micro-algae, animals), while the third one gathers information on the isolation, characterization and bioactivity of new EPSs.

Marine Polysaccharides Volume 2

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ISBN: 9783038428992 9783038429005 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: X, 290 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-24 09:35:54
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The field of marine polysaccharides is constantly evolving, due to progress in the discovery and production of new marine polysaccharides. Seaweed remains the most abundant source of polysaccharides, but recent advances in biotechnology have allowed the production of large quantities of polysaccharides from a variety of micro-algae, by controlling growth conditions and tailoring the production of bioactive compounds in a bioreactor. Of particular interest are polysaccharides produced by micro-organisms from extreme marine environments, due to their recognized different biochemistry. Extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) with unique properties produced by a number of micro-algae are known. The first volume is a collection of papers concerning the identification and characterization of novel marine polysaccharides. It is divided into three chapters; the first two are dedicated to polysaccharides from different marine sources (algae, micro-algae, animals), while the third one gathers information on the isolation, characterization and bioactivity of new EPSs.

Marine Polysaccharides Volume 1

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ISBN: 9783038428978 9783038428985 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: VIII, 224 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-24 09:38:37
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The field of marine polysaccharides is constantly evolving, due to progress in the discovery and production of new marine polysaccharides. Seaweed remains the most abundant source of polysaccharides, but recent advances in biotechnology have allowed the production of large quantities of polysaccharides from a variety of micro-algae, by controlling growth conditions and tailoring the production of bioactive compounds in a bioreactor. Of particular interest are polysaccharides produced by micro-organisms from extreme marine environments, due to their recognized different biochemistry. Extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) with unique properties produced by a number of micro-algae are known. The first volume is a collection of papers concerning the identification and characterization of novel marine polysaccharides. It is divided into three chapters; the first two are dedicated to polysaccharides from different marine sources (algae, micro-algae, animals), while the third one gathers information on the isolation, characterization and bioactivity of new EPSs.

Advances in Marine Chitin and Chitosan II, 2017

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ISBN: 9783038426776 9783038426783 Year: Pages: 410 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-678-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-16 09:37:31
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As a result of our call in 2014 for submissions to a Special Issue, Advances in Marine Chitin and Chitosan in Marine Drugs, we are now pleased to tell you that this issue has been published. Twenty high class papers were included in this issue, which we now plan to publish as a book. In addition we now seek to publish a further Special Issue, Advances in Marine Chitin and Chitosan II, 2017, in Marine Drugs. As before, we plan to produce a strong, very exciting issue that will encompass breakthroughs in high value, scientific and industrial chitin and chitosan research. Despite significant advances in chitin and chitosan research since the 1970s, current overviews in recent publications involving chitin and chitosan research advances need reporting.

Advances in Mucoadhesive Polymers and Formulations for Transmucosal Drug Delivery

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ISBN: 9783039287529 / 9783039287536 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-753-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Mucoadhesive polymers are widely used in the design of dosage forms for transmucosal drug delivery to the eye, respiratory, gastrointestinal and reproductive tracts. These routes of drug administration offer a number of advantages including improved drug bioavailability, reduced frequency of administration, and the avoidance for the use of injections.

Keywords

furosemide --- electrospinning --- hydroxypropyl cellulose --- poly (vinylpyrrolidone) --- storage and loss moduli --- scanning electron microscopic images --- gellan gum --- pectin --- resveratrol --- mucoadhesive microspheres --- cytotoxicity --- in vitro permeability --- Caco-2 cells --- triple co-culture model --- Carbopol --- clobetasol --- Eudragit® E PO --- interpolyelectrolyte complex --- mucoadhesion --- oral lichen planus --- oral lyophilisates --- maltodextrin --- resuspendibility --- chitosan --- acrylated chitosan --- nanoparticles --- mucoadhesion --- mucosal membranes --- mucoadhesive polymers --- retention --- buccal mucosa drug delivery --- cyclodextrins --- films --- l-arginine --- mucoadhesive polymer --- omeprazole --- paediatric --- clotrimazole --- liposphere --- alkyl lactate --- xanthan gum --- Candida albicans --- mucoadhesion --- poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) --- Carbopol® --- mucoadhesion --- interpolymer complexes --- thiolated hyaluronic acid --- hydrogel --- mucoadhesive --- biocompatibility --- controlled release --- drug delivery --- wound healing --- pluronic f127 --- thermoresponsive polymers --- thermogelling polymers --- detachment force --- rheology --- texture profile analysis --- chitosan derivatives --- mucosal drug delivery --- mucoadhesion --- trimethyl chitosan --- thiolated chitosan --- chitosan-catechol --- acrylated chitosan --- nanoparticles --- pioglitazone --- PLGA-PEG --- transmucosal permeations --- Alzheimer’s disease

Food Packaging. Materials and Technologies

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ISBN: 9783038977667 9783038977674 Year: Pages: 216 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-767-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Because of the increasing pressure on both food safety and packaging/food waste, the topic is important both for academics, applied research, industry and also for environment protection. Different materials, such as glass, metals, paper and paperboards, and non-degradable and degradable polymers, with versatile properties, are attractive for potential uses in food packaging. Food packaging is the largest area of application within the food sector. Only the nanotechnology-enabled products in the food sector account for ~50% of the market value, with and the annual growth rate is 11.65%. Technological developments are also of great interest. In the food sector, nanotechnology is involved in packaging materials with extremely high gas barriers, antimicrobial properties, and also in nanoencapsulants for the delivery of nutrients, flavors, or aromas, antimicrobial, and antioxidant compounds. Applications of materials, including nanomaterials in packaging and food safety, are in forms of: edible films, polymer nanocomposites, as high barrier packaging materials, nanocoatings, surface biocides, silver nanoparticles as potent antimicrobial agents, nutrition and neutraceuticals, active/bioactive packaging, intelligent packaging, nanosensors and nanomaterial-based assays for the detection of food relevant analytes (gasses, small organic molecules and food-borne pathogens) and bioplastics.

Designing Hydrogels for Controlled Drug Delivery

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ISBN: 9783039283569 9783039283576 Year: Pages: 162 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-357-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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The aim of this book is to provide an analysis of the main characteristics and applications of hydrogels. Hydrogels are frequently used for manufacturing contact lenses, hygiene products, tissue engineering scaffolds, drug delivery systems, and wound dressings. These materials are useful in everyday life, so publicizing them in both academic and pharmaceutical fields is essential.

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