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Brain Injury as a Neurodegenerative Disorder

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199013 Year: Pages: 102 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-901-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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It has been long assumed that following the resolution of acute injuries, traumatic brain injury represents a stable neural entity. However, there is growing evidence that a single moderate-severe brain injury may instead trigger an ongoing deteriorative process that commences sub-acutely, and occurs regardless of age. For scientists and clinicians, it is critical to examine this body of evidence and to explore its implications. Do the findings represent a neurodegenerative process or can they be alternatively explained? What are the neural, behavioural and functional characteristics of this progressive deterioration? Such information is needed to develop treatments to prevent or mitigate decline, and to inform the clinical care of brain injured patients. Research and clinical practice are influenced by the assumption that moderate-severe TBI is non-progressive, with few studies exploring treatments to prevent progression, and rehabilitation typically concentrated in the early stages of injury. Brain injuries can never be fully prevented. However, understanding that such progressive deterioration occurs opens a novel area of research - prevention of secondary decline - offering new possibilities for the improvement of long-term outcomes in people with traumatic brain injury.

The role of viable but non-infectious developmental forms in chlamydial biology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193219 Year: Pages: 119 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-321-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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The chlamydiae are Gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria with a complex developmental cycle comprising a metabolically less-active, infectious stage, the elementary body (EB), and a metabolically more active stage, the reticulate body (RB). They are responsible for many acute and chronic diseases in humans and animals. In order to play a causative role in chronic diseases, chlamydiae would need to persist and to re-activate within infected cells/tissues for extended periods of time. Persistence in vitro is defined as viable but non-cultivable chlamydiae involving morphologically enlarged, aberrant, and nondividing RBs, termed aberrant bodies (AB). In vitro, alterations of the normal developmental cycle of chlamydiae can be induced by the addition of Interferon-? (IFN-?), tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) and penicillin G exposure as well as amino acid or iron deprivation, monocyte infection and co-infection with viruses. In vivo, key questions include whether or not ABs occur in infected patients and animals and whether such ABs can contribute to prolonged, chronic inflammation, fibrosis, and scarring through continuing stimulation of the host immune system known from diseases such as trachoma, pelvic inflammatory disease, reactive arthritis and atherosclerosis. To date, the direct causal role in the pathogenesis of chlamydial infection and persistence in vivo has been questioned since there was no tractable animal model of chlamydial persistence so far. A very recent study was able to establish an experimental animal model of in vivo persistence, when C. muridarum vaginally-infected mice were gavaged with amoxicillin. Amoxicillin treatment induced C. muridarum to enter the persistent state in vivo. Recent in vivo data from patients indicate that viable but non-infectious developmental stages are present in the genital tract of chronically-infected women and that the gastrointestinal tract might be a reservoir for persistent chlamydial infections at other sites.

Pain Management in Clinical and Health Psychology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456666 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-666-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Chronic pain is a relevant health problem frequently associated with psychological distress, dysfunctions in physical and social functioning, reductions in quality of life and elevated direct and indirect costs. Medical approach is typically useful for treating chronic pain, but also psychological contributions play an important role in pain management. In fact psychological treatments are recognized as generally effective for pain. Psychological approaches in managing pain have evolved considerably and now understanding and managing the cognitions, emotions and behaviors that accompany the situation of discomfort can actually reduce the pain intensity and the interference of pain with daily life. Psychological therapies are highly indicated both for the treatment of painful conditions and for the treatment of pain related to several neurological diseases. The reviews and meta-analyses conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of different forms of psychotherapy across several disorders, although with different levels of experimental evidence, confirmed that psychological interventions can improve the experience of patients at every age (children, adolescents, adults, seniors). Similar positive results about psychotherapy efficacy were reported in specific pain disorders such as low back pain, fibromyalgia, tension-type headache and migraine, pain associated with rheumatoid arthritis, chronic abdominal pain in adolescents, chronic orofacial pain, etc. Clinical health psychology focuses also on the study of the psychological determinants in pain patients such as the role of depression, anxiety, pain-related disability, catastrophic thinking, psychological inflexibility, coping skills, beliefs, attitudes, expectations, self-efficacy, placebo and nocebo effects, etc. Different psychological models of pain and disability (such as Fear-avoidance, Acceptance and commitment, Misdirected problem solving, Self-efficacy and Stress-diathesis models) have tried to highlight the psychological processes behind pain. The major objective of the present Research Topic is to collect new scientific evidence, clinical experiences, reviews and opinion articles about clinical health psychology and psychotherapy in pain management and treatment. Moreover this RT will focus on psychological factors, basic psychological processes and theoretical models that could have an impact in the development of persistent pain and disability and implications for different therapies, considering psychological interventions in peri-operative pain and/or preventive interventions in sub-acute pain too.

Keywords

Pain --- Pain Management --- Chronic Pain

Dietary Pattern and Health

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ISBN: 9783038425953 9783038425960 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: X, 310 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-596-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-27 09:33:34
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Topics have a clear focus on overall dietary patterns and health outcomes. Potential topics may include, but are not limited to:* Dietary patterns and chronic diseases including obesity, diabetes, asthma, cardiovascular diseases, and mental health problems.* Dietary patterns and mortality* Dietary patterns and pregnancy outcomes* Association between dietary patterns and cognition* The mechanisms linking dietary patterns and chronic diseases.

Dietary Pattern and Health

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ISBN: 9783038425878 9783038425885 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: XII, 274 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-02 15:53:45
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Topics have a clear focus on overall dietary patterns and health outcomes. Potential topics may include, but are not limited to:* Dietary patterns and chronic diseases including obesity, diabetes, asthma, cardiovascular diseases, and mental health problems.* Dietary patterns and mortality* Dietary patterns and pregnancy outcomes* Association between dietary patterns and cognition* The mechanisms linking dietary patterns and chronic diseases.

Macrophages Role in Integrating Tissue Signals and Biological Processes in Chronic Inflammation and Fibrosis

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453320 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-332-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Macrophages comprehend a heterogeneous mononuclear phagocytic population with wide range phenotypes and roles in homeostasis maintenance and diseases, such as infections, autoimmunity and cancer. Technology improvements enable researchers to track different macrophage populations in different tissues and situations and hypothesize on their role in promoting inflammation or stimulating tissue repair. Through innate immune recognition system macrophages can launch several effector artilleries that culminate in the production of various types of inflammatory mediators as cytokines, chemokines, lipid mediators and oxygen reactive species, which in turn, influence the behavior of other cells. Furthermore, macrophages and interacting cells are also susceptible to metabolic changes that ultimately will define the outcome macrophage signaling and its effect in the tissue. Here, we present a concise series of discussions on the role of macrophages, its response to the microenvironment and effects on other cells during tissue injury and repair. Triggering of inflammasome in macrophage activation and function is of special interest in this issue. We will emphasize the role of different macrophage subpopulations and the plasticity of these cells during fibrotic process in different models of diseases.

Opioids: Addiction, Narrative, Freedom

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ISBN: 9781947447837 9781947447844 Year: Pages: 190 DOI: 10.21983/P3.0210.1.00 Language: English
Publisher: punctum books
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-26 11:21:04
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An epidemic is a feeling set within time as much as it is a matter of statistics and epidemiology: it is the feeling of many of us in the same desperate place at the same desperate time. Opioid epidemic thus names a present moment — at once historic and historical — centered on the substance of opioids as much as it names the urgency of all of us who are currently in proximity to these substances. What is the relationship between these historic and historical moments, the present moment, the history of pharmacological capitalism, and a set of repeated neurological activities, as well as human loss and desire, that has fueled the exponential rise in the rates of opioid use and abuse between 2000-2018? Opioids: Addiction, Narrative, Freedom is an auto-ethnography written from deep within—biologically within—this opioid epidemic. Tracing opioids around and through the bodies, governmental, and medical structures they are moving and being moved through, Opioids is an examination of what it means to live within an environment saturated with a substance of deep economic, political, neuroscientific, and pharmacological implications. From exploring media coverage of the epidemic and emerging medical narratives of addiction to detailing the legal inscription of differences between “pain patients” and people addicted to drugs, Opioids consistently asks: what is it like to live within an epidemic? What forms of freedom become possible when continually modulated by our physical experiences of the material proximities of an epidemic? How do you live with something for a long time

Aging and Mental Health

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451883 Year: Pages: 139 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-188-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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People are progressively ageing all over the world, and it is estimated that the number of persons aged 60 or over will more than triple by 2100. This emerging population will experience an inevitable rise in dementia, mental health problems and chronic diseases. According to GBD (2010), neuropsychiatric disorders among older adults account for 6.6% of the total disability (DALYs) for this age group, with 15% suffering from a mental disorder. Multiple social, psychological and biological factors are determinant of mental health, as well as life stressors. Among these, the lack of independence, limited mobility, chronic diseases, pain, frailty or other mental and physical problems require long-term care. Beyond this, the elderly are more prone to experience events such as bereavement, a drop in socio-economic status, disability, which leads to isolation, loss of independence, loneliness and psychological distress. Mental health problems and needs assessment by health-care professionals and older people themselves are under-recognised, and the stigma surrounding mental illness makes people reluctant to seek help. The early investigation and diagnosis of these situations are crucial, as well as prior management with an important combination of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions, in conjunction with caregivers' and families' support. The present book aims to contribute to the development of knowledge in Aging and Mental Health, taking different approaches from authors, coming from diverse scientific fields, with the final goal being the improvement of quality of life and healthy aging for this growing population.

Antioxidants in Health and Disease Volume 1

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ISBN: 9783038428855 9783038428862 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: X, 436 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-18 14:34:25
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Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress is associated with a number of health disorders, including cardiovascular malfunction, certain types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, many other auto-immune diseases, and even ageing. The body possesses multiple mechanisms to counteract oxidative stress, which employ antioxidant compounds that are either naturally generated in situ (endogenous antioxidants) or externally supplied through food (exogenous antioxidants). These antioxidants are able to counteract oxidative stress, thanks to their ability to neutralize excess free radicals and protect the cellular lipids, proteins, and DNA from molecular damage. Exogenous antioxidants from the diet are of increasing interest because of their beneficial role in maintaining good health and in preventing chronic diseases. Indeed, a diet rich in dietary antioxidants, especially from fruits and vegetables, has been correlated with a successful prevention and lower incidence of several degenerative pathologies, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer.This Special Issue of Nutrients welcomes the submission of manuscripts, either describing original research or reviewing scientific literature, examining the role of diets rich in antioxidant compounds in the prevention of chronic diseases and the characteristics of the antioxidants included in such diets.

Antioxidants in Health and Disease Volume 2

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ISBN: 9783038429395 9783038429401 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: VIII, 264 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-18 15:15:28
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Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress is associated with a number of health disorders, including cardiovascular malfunction, certain types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, many other auto-immune diseases, and even ageing. The body possesses multiple mechanisms to counteract oxidative stress, which employ antioxidant compounds that are either naturally generated in situ (endogenous antioxidants) or externally supplied through food (exogenous antioxidants). These antioxidants are able to counteract oxidative stress, thanks to their ability to neutralize excess free radicals and protect the cellular lipids, proteins, and DNA from molecular damage. Exogenous antioxidants from the diet are of increasing interest because of their beneficial role in maintaining good health and in preventing chronic diseases. Indeed, a diet rich in dietary antioxidants, especially from fruits and vegetables, has been correlated with a successful prevention and lower incidence of several degenerative pathologies, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer.This Special Issue of Nutrients welcomes the submission of manuscripts, either describing original research or reviewing scientific literature, examining the role of diets rich in antioxidant compounds in the prevention of chronic diseases and the characteristics of the antioxidants included in such diets.

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