Search results: Found 4

Listing 1 - 4 of 4
Sort by
The Claustrum: charting a way forward for the brain's most mysterious nucleus

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195428 Year: Pages: 141 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-542-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The claustrum is a long, band-like grey matter structure situated in the ventrolateral telencephalon of most, if not all, mammalian brains. Due to its shape and close proximity to white matter structures and insular cortex, the anatomy and behavioral relevance of the claustrum have proven difficult to study. As a result, disagreements in the literature exist over ontogeny, phylogeny, anatomical boundaries, and connectivity. Despite this, it is generally regarded that the claustrum contains excitatory projection neurons that reciprocally connect to most regions of the cerebral cortex, a feature that has fostered varying hypotheses as to its function. These hypotheses propose multisensory integration, coordination of cortical activity for the generation of conscious percepts, or saliency filtration. The articles of this e-book consider the historical and recent highlights in claustrum structure, hodology, and function and seek to provide a compelling way forward for this “hidden” nucleus.

Avoidance: From Basic Science to Psychopathology

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198283 Year: Pages: 227 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-828-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Coping has a myriad of facets: knowledge concerning the circumstances of threats to emotional and physical well being, the ability to meet immediate needs to mitigate, the potential for recurrence, the ability to apply efforts and resources to manage recurrence, and the complex assessment of competing motivations and changing circumstances. Successful coping is measured in the efficiency of efforts in balance with the degree of threat and likelihood of future occurrence. As one means of coping, avoidance encompass thoughts and efforts toward prevention of future aversive experiences and events. Anxiety disorders exemplify an extreme bias toward avoidance. A diathesis learning model focuses research efforts on individual vulnerabilities to acquire and express avoidance, the neurobiology of avoidance learning and its attendant circuitry. A fundamental understanding of avoidance through a diathesis learning model offers will facilitate the development of effective treatment protocols in alleviating anxiety disorders.

The neurobiology of emotion-cognition interactions

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195282 Year: Pages: 421 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-528-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

There is increasing interest in understanding the interplay of emotional and cognitive processes. The objective of the Research Topic was to provide an interdisciplinary survey of cutting-edge neuroscientific research on the interaction and integration of emotion and cognition in the brain. The following original empirical reports, commentaries and theoretical reviews provide a comprehensive survey on recent advances in understanding how emotional and cognitive processes interact, how they are integrated in the brain, and what their implications for understanding the mind and its disorders are. These works encompasses a broad spectrum of populations and showcases a wide variety of paradigms, measures, analytic strategies, and conceptual approaches. The aim of the Topic was to begin to address several key questions about the interplay of cognitive and emotional processes in the brain, including: what is the impact of emotional states, anxiety and stress on various cognitive functions? How are emotion and cognition integrated in the brain? Do individual differences in affective dimensions of temperament and personality alter cognitive performance, and how is this realized in the brain? Are there individual differences that increase vulnerability to the impact of affect on cognition—who is vulnerable, and who resilient? How plastic is the interplay of cognition and emotion? Taken together, these works demonstrate that emotion and cognition are deeply interwoven in the fabric of the brain, suggesting that widely held beliefs about the key constituents of ‘the emotional brain’ and ‘the cognitive brain’ are fundamentally flawed. Developing a deeper understanding of the emotional-cognitive brain is important, not just for understanding the mind but also for elucidating the root causes of its many debilitating disorders.

Neural Circuitry of Behavioral Flexibility: Dopamine and Related Systems

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197958 Year: Pages: 165 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-795-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Decades of research have identified a role for dopamine neurotransmission in prefrontal cortical function and flexible cognition. Abnormal dopamine neurotransmission underlies many cases of cognitive dysfunction. New techniques using optogenetics have allowed for ever more precise functional segregation of areas within the prefrontal cortex, which underlie separate cognitive functions. Learning theory predictions have provided a very useful framework for interpreting the neural activity of dopamine neurons, yet even dopamine neurons present a range of responses, from salience to prediction error signaling. The functions of areas like the Lateral Habenula have been recently described, and its role, presumed to be substantial, is largely unknown. Many other neural systems interact with the dopamine system, like cortical GABAergic interneurons, making it critical to understand those systems and their interactions with dopamine in order to fully appreciate dopamine's role in flexible behavior. Advances in human clinical research, like exome sequencing, are driving experimental hypotheses which will lead to fruitful new research directions, but how do (or should?) these clinical findings inform basic research? Following new information from these techniques, we may begin to develop a fresh understanding of human disease states which will inform novel treatment possibilities. However, we need an operational framework with which to interpret these new findings. Therefore, the purpose of this Research Topic is to integrate what we know of dopamine, the prefrontal cortex and flexible behavior into a clear framework, which will illuminate clear, testable directions for future research.

Listing 1 - 4 of 4
Sort by
Narrow your search

Publisher

Frontiers Media SA (4)


License

CC by (4)


Language

english (4)


Year
From To Submit

2016 (2)

2015 (2)