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Therapeutic Implications of Circadian Rhythms

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196654 Year: Pages: 96 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-665-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Circadian rhythms are biological processes displaying endogenous and entrainable oscillations of about 24 hours. They are driven by a group of genes called clock genes that have been widely observed in plants, animals and even in bacteria. In mammals, the core clock genes are rhythmically expressed in both the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master clock residing in the hypothalamus, and almost all peripheral tissues where they control numerous target genes in a circadian manner, and thus affect many physiological and biochemical processes. Evidence suggests that disruption of the circadian rhythms (or desynchronization) is a significant risk factor for the development of metabolic diseases, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and sleep disorders. Evidence also suggests that the disruption suppresses immune function and increases vulnerability to infectious diseases. Restoring or strengthening the circadian rhythm may be therapeutic for these conditions. This becomes exceptionally important in modern societies because many people are suffering from frequent desynchronization due to shift working, exposure to artificial light, travel by transmeridian air flight, and involvement in social activities. Besides, the temporal variations in the incidence and severity of many diseases, such as the onset of cardiovascular events, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), inflammatory diseases and mental disorders have also drawn increasing attention to the circadian clock. The circadian rhythms affect not only the health status, but also the drug efficiency. The effects (and side effects) of many drugs vary with biological timing. The tolerance of many medications displays circadian variation as well. The timing of medical treatment in coordination with the body clock may significantly increase the desired effects of drugs, and lower the dose and toxicity. In addition, circadian rhythms can also be modulated by some therapeutic drugs, for example, melatonin and modafinil, which are used to treat circadian rhythm sleep disorders. In this Research Topic, we assemble a series of critical review and research articles that focus on the therapeutic implications of circadian rhythms. Topics include, but are not limited to: • Circadian disruption caused diseases or disorders and related intervention • Temporal manifestation of diseases or disorders and therapeutic implications • The effects of circadian rhythms on drugs • The effects of drugs on circadian rhythms

Improving Practice and Performance in Basketball

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ISBN: 9783039216949 / 9783039216956 Year: Pages: 106 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-695-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Sports Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Despite being one of the most popular sports worldwide, basketball has received limited research attention compared to other team sports. Establishing a strong evidence base with high-quality and impactful research is essential in enhancing decision-making processes to optimize player performance for basketball professionals. Consequently, the book entitled Improving Performance and Practice in Basketball provides a collection of novel research studies to increase the available evidence on various topics with strong translation to practice in basketball. The book includes work by 40 researchers from 16 institutions or professional organizations from 9 countries. In keeping with notable topics in basketball research, the book contains 2 reviews focused on monitoring strategies to detect player fatigue and considerations for travel in National Basketball Association players. In addition, 8 applied studies are also included in the book, focused on workload monitoring, game-related statistics, and the measurement of physical and skill attributes in basketball players. This book also has a strong focus on increasing the evidence available for female basketball players, who have traditionally been under-represented in the literature. The outcomes generated from this book should provide new insights to inform practice in many areas for professionals working in various roles with basketball teams.

Protection Strategy against Spruce Budworm

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ISBN: 9783039280964 / 9783039280971 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-097-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Forestry --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.)) outbreaks are a dominant natural disturbance in the forests of Canada and northeastern USA. Widespread, severe defoliation by this native insect results in large-scale mortality and growth reductions of spruce (Picea sp.) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) forests, and largely determines future age–class structure and productivity. The last major spruce budworm outbreak defoliated over 58 million hectares in the 1970s–1980s, and caused 32–43 million m3/year of timber volume losses from 1978 to 1987, in Canada. Management to deal with spruce budworm outbreaks has emphasized forest protection, spraying registered insecticides to prevent defoliation and keep trees alive. Other tactics can include salvage harvesting, altering harvest schedules to remove the most susceptible stands, or reducing future susceptibility by planting or thinning. Chemical insecticides are no longer used, and protection strategies use biological insecticides Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) or tebufenozide, a specific insect growth regulator. Over the last five years, a $30 million research project has tested another possible management tactic, termed an ‘early intervention strategy’, aimed at area-wide management of spruce budworm populations. This includes intensive monitoring to detect ‘hot spots’ of rising budworm populations before defoliation occurs, targeted insecticide treatment to prevent spread, and detailed research into target and non-target insect effects. The objective of this Special Issue is to compile the most recent research on protection strategies against spruce budworm. A series of papers will describe results and prospects for the use of an early intervention strategy in spruce budworm and other insect management.

Keywords

forest pests --- defoliation --- spruce budworm --- multi-spectral remote sensing --- Acadian region --- Maine --- Quebec --- Choristoneura fumiferana --- Abies balsamea --- hardwood content --- defoliation prediction --- Choristoneura fumiferana --- annual defoliation --- spatial autocorrelation --- spatial-temporal patterns --- mixed effect models --- intertree variance --- insect population management --- spruce budworm --- early intervention --- defoliation --- economic losses --- decision support system --- optimized treatment design --- insect population management --- spruce budworm --- early intervention --- defoliation --- economic losses --- decision support system --- computable general equilibrium model --- Pinaceae --- endophytic fungi --- plant tolerance --- Phialocephala scopiformis --- Picea glauca --- spruce budworm --- phenology --- insect susceptibility --- spruce budworm --- forest protection --- early intervention strategy --- egg recruitment --- apparent fecundity --- growth rate --- spruce budworm --- Choristoneura fumiferana --- forest protection --- early intervention strategy --- survival --- apparent fecundity --- immigration --- growth rate --- treatment threshold --- insecticides --- spruce budworm --- moth --- tortricidae --- Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens) --- forest protection --- early intervention strategy --- pheromone mating disruption --- migration --- dispersal --- spruce budworm --- Choristoneura fumiferana --- moth --- Lepidoptera --- forest protection --- early intervention strategy --- migration --- simulation --- aerobiology --- moths --- migration --- forest protection --- spruce budworm --- Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.) --- early intervention strategy --- modelling --- circadian rhythm --- foliage protection --- population control --- monitoring --- area-wide management --- science communication --- economic and ecological cost: benefit analyses --- early intervention strategy --- foliage protection --- defoliation --- monitoring --- insecticide application

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