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The Delft Sand, Clay and Rock Cutting Model

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ISBN: 9781614994534 9781614994541 Year: Pages: 572 DOI: 10.3233/978-1-61499-454-1-i Language: English
Publisher: IOS Press
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2014-11-21 14:14:51
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Sand, clay and rock have to be excavated for a variety of purposes, such as dredging, trenching, mining (including deep sea mining), drilling, tunnel boring and many other applications. Many excavations take place on dry land, but they are also frequently required in completely saturated conditions, and the methods necessary to accomplish them consequently vary widely.This book provides an overview of cutting theories. It begins with a generic model, valid for all types of soil (sand, clay and rock), and continues with the specifics of dry sand, water-saturated sand, clay, atmospheric rock and hyperbaric rock. Small blade angles and large blade angles are discussed for each soil type, and for each case considered the equations/model for cutting forces, power and specific energy are given.With models verified by laboratory research, principally from the Delft University of Technology, and data from other recognized sources, this book will prove an invaluable reference for anybody whose work involves major excavations of any kind.

Keywords

sand --- clay --- rock --- excavations

Polymer Nanocomposites

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ISBN: 9783038973263 9783038973270 Pages: 232 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-327-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemical Technology --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-14 10:53:00
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ca. 200 words; this text will present the book in all promotional forms (e.g. flyers). Please describe the book in straightforward and consumer-friendly terms.[In the last decades, nanoscience and nanotechnologies have offered new opportunities for producing materials with structural and functional properties. The possibility to manipulate the matter, on an atomic or molecular level, can allow the obtainment of structures having unique characteristics and completely new functionalities. The use of structural and functional nanoparticles to be added to polymer nanocomposites is a nice way to manipulate the matter’s properties following a bottom-up approach. The hybrid fillers can be used, not only as for structural purposes, but also as functional nano-structures in many fields, such as microelectronics, packaging, drug delivery, flame retardant materials, and environmental issues. A number of interesting nanoparticles, such as clays (lamellar or tubular), silica, carbon nanotubes, siloxanes, and, more recently, graphenes, have emerged as peculiar nanofillers for enhancing the performance of polymer matrices for a wide variety of technological applications. The present chapter aims to present the last research and novelty in the field of polymeric nanocomposites’ materials. Methods of productions, as well as polymers and type and shape of the fillers and their functionalities are widely reported. Structural organization and physical properties of the polymer matrix are correlated with the nature of filler]

Keywords

nanocomposites --- clay --- polymers --- nanoparticles

New Insights in Stability, Structure and Properties of Porous Materials

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038424512 9783038424505 Year: Pages: VIII, 136 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-14 08:13:16
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Porous materials (such as zeolites, clay minerals, and assemblies of oxide nanoparticles) are of great importance for the progress of many technological and environmental fields, such as catalysis, adsorption, separation, and ion exchange, because of their unique pore topologies, tunable structures, and the possibility of introducing active reaction sites.The major goal of this Special Issue was to provide a platform for scientists to discuss new insights in the stability, structure, and properties of porous materials, as well as in innovative aspects of their processing and applications. The emphasis was given as the relationships between the structure and/or chemical composition and the specific physical properties of these materials, as well as their role in mineralogical, technological, green, and sustainable processes. In this Special Issue of Minerals, we provide an up-to-date selection of high-quality original and review papers concerning the physical, chemical, and structural characterization of porous materials, the synthesis of crystalline phases with pores in the appropriate range, structure–property relationships at ambient conditions, but also at high temperatures and/or at high pressures, adsorption, and diffusion of mobile species in porous materials, host–guest interactions and confinement effects, ion exchange, modeling in geological and environmental processes, and new insights in processing and applications. In total, eight topical contributions reflect both the diversity and interdisciplinary of modern mineralogy, bridging together experimentalists and computational approaches.

Current Topics in the Utilization of Clay in Industrial and Medical Applications

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ISBN: 9781789237283 9781789237290 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.71295 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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This book presents recent developments and research activities that highlight the importance of clay science and engineering in the environment and medical and civil engineering. The book contains nine chapters separated into three main sections: (1) Clay for the Environment, (2) Clay in Civil Engineering, and (3) Clay in Medical Applications. There are four chapters in the first section and the focus is made on the topics related to an introduction to the natural sources and chemical structure of one of the important clay types, montmorillonite. The application of waste recycling and the removal of arsenic and fluoride are the focus of next two chapters. In addition, a technique for corrosion protection is presented as the fourth chapter within this section. In the second section, special emphasis has been placed on the importance and application of clay in civil engineering, which is demonstrated in two chapters. In the third section, new research and development on utilizing clay minerals in medical applications is presented. Intended for readers wishing to acquire an understanding of the current trends in clay science and engineering and comprehension of the issue, this book addresses exciting topics in this field.

Clay Minerals in Nature - Their Characterization, Modification and Application

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9789535107385 9789535142775 Year: Pages: 328 DOI: 10.5772/2708 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 09:47:09

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Clay is an abundant raw material which has a variety of uses and properties depending on their structure and composition. Clay minerals are inexpensive and environmentally friendly naturally occurring nanomaterials, thanks to their 1 nm thick silicate layers, in all types of sediments and sedimentary rocks. The book chapters have been classified according to their characteristics in topics and applications. Therefore, in the first section five chapters is dedicated to the characterization and utilization of clay minerals in deposits. The second section includes four chapters about the significance of clay minerals in soils. Third section is devoted to different aspects of clay minerals research, especially to the characterization of structure and modifications for their application.

Women Workers And Technological Change In Europe In The Nineteenth And twentieth century

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9780203991084 9780748402601 9781135747558 9781135747541 9781135747503 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203991084 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:03
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From the traditional stereotyped viewpoint, femininity and technology clash. This negative association between women and technology is one of the features of the sex-typing of jobs. Men are seen as technically competent and creative; women are seen as incompetent, suited only to work with machines that have been made and maintained by men. Men identify themselves with technology, and technology is identified with masculinity. The relationship between technology, technological change and women's work is, however, very complex.; Through studies examining technological change and the sexual division of labour, this book traces the origins of the segregation between women's work and men's work and sheds light on the complicated relationship between work and technology. Drawing on research from a number of European countries England, Sweden, Denmark and the Netherlands, international contributors present detailed studies on women's work spanning two centuries. The chapters deal with a variety of work environments - office work, textiles and pottery, food production, civil service and cotton and wool industries.; This work rejects the idea that women were mainly employed as unskilled labour in the industrial revolutions, asserting that skill was required from the women, but that both the historical record about women's work and the social construction of the concept of "skill" have denied this.

Structural Control of Mineral Deposits. Theory and Reality

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ISBN: 9783038977841 / 9783038977858 Year: Pages: 256 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-785-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 10:09:00
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""Structural Control"" remains a crucial point that frequently lacks in any scientific and/or economic analysis of ore deposits, whatever their type and class. The case of lode deposits is exemplary, although also other deposits, like breccia pipe, stockwerk, massive sulphides, skarn, etc., can, surprisingly, be concerned. Several concepts like the gold-bearing shear zone have not proven valid during the last few decades in terms of our understanding of gold deposit and have been totally abandoned. Additionally, the relationships between magmatism, regional tectonic context, and mineralization remain uncertain and have been debated in several recent publications. This demonstrates that this issue is still relevant, and its solution may help in the distinction between intrusion-related and orogenic deposits. In this Special Issue, we particularly invite any case study of mineral deposits, in which it has been demonstrated that structural geology may have a significant role in the establishment of the deposit model of formation and/or on exploration and exploitation programs. Examples in which the structural model diverges from those described in the classical literature are particularly welcomed, including studies in which relationships with magmatism can be suspected and/or demonstrated. Indeed, all cases that illustrate concepts that differ from the classic ones and from theoretical models may represent significant contributions to this volume.

Recent Advances in Water Management: Saving, Treatment and Reuse

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038970316 / 9783038970323 Year: Pages: 208 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-032-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:28
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue Recent Advances in Water Management: Saving, Treatment and Reuse that was published in Water

Keywords

guidelines --- contaminated sites --- risk assessment --- China --- ferrous iron --- ferrous sulfide --- hydrogen sulfide --- odor control --- pumping mains --- sewerage --- pharmaceuticals --- micropollutant removal --- tezontle --- filter media --- active sites --- trickling filter --- anaerobic digester --- swine wastewater --- organic matter --- COD --- decomposition analysis --- global patent data --- research and development strategy --- water treatment technology --- anammox bacteria --- wastewater treatment --- nitrification --- denitrification --- zeolite --- combined sewer --- wastewater treatment --- microbiological quality --- surface water --- river --- lignin --- delignification --- pulp-and-paper-mill c --- wastewater --- white rot fungi --- B. adusta --- P. crysosporium --- foreign countries --- agricultural occupations --- water --- environmental education --- surveys --- sustainability --- milk production --- water --- footprint --- water recycling --- conservation --- partitioning --- efficiency --- forest waste --- palm mulch --- constructed wetlands --- vertical flow --- water treatment --- passive treatment systems --- anaerobic processes --- constructed wetlands --- ornamental plants --- treated wastewater reuse --- advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) --- activated carbon adsorption --- carbamazepine toxicity --- conventional treatment processes --- membrane technology --- occurrence --- food industry --- anticorrosive agent --- benzotriazole --- emerging contaminant --- oxygen injection --- Pb(II) --- nano illite/smectite clay --- adsorption kinetics --- adsorption thermodynamic

Flow and Transport Properties of Unconventional Reservoirs 2018

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039211166 / 9783039211173 Year: Pages: 364 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-117-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Unconventional reservoirs are usually complex and highly heterogeneous, such as shale, coal, and tight sandstone reservoirs. The strong physical and chemical interactions between fluids and pore surfaces lead to the inapplicability of conventional approaches for characterizing fluid flow in these low-porosity and ultralow-permeability reservoir systems. Therefore, new theories and techniques are urgently needed to characterize petrophysical properties, fluid transport, and their relationships at multiple scales for improving production efficiency from unconventional reservoirs. This book presents fundamental innovations gathered from 21 recent works on novel applications of new techniques and theories in unconventional reservoirs, covering the fields of petrophysical characterization, hydraulic fracturing, fluid transport physics, enhanced oil recovery, and geothermal energy. Clearly, the research covered in this book is helpful to understand and master the latest techniques and theories for unconventional reservoirs, which have important practical significance for the economic and effective development of unconventional oil and gas resources.

Keywords

fracturing fluid --- rheology --- chelating agent --- viscosity --- polymer --- fluid-solid interaction --- velocity profile --- the average flow velocity --- flow resistance --- pore network model --- shale gas --- volume fracturing --- finite volume method --- production simulation --- multi-scale flow --- multi-scale fracture --- shale gas reservoir --- fractured well transient productivity --- succession pseudo-steady state (SPSS) method --- complex fracture network --- multi-scale flow --- analysis of influencing factors --- tight sandstones --- spontaneous imbibition --- remaining oil distributions --- imbibition front --- imbibition recovery --- NMR --- slip length --- large density ratio --- contact angle --- pseudo-potential model --- lattice Boltzmann method --- micro-fracture --- dissolved gas --- experimental evaluation --- reservoir depletion --- recovery factor --- tight oil --- Lucaogou Formation --- tight oil --- pore structure --- prediction by NMR logs --- tight oil reservoir --- SRV-fractured horizontal well --- multiporosity and multiscale --- flow regimes --- productivity contribution degree of multimedium --- equilibrium permeability --- non-equilibrium permeability --- matrix–fracture interaction --- effective stress --- coal deformation --- porous media --- non-linear flow --- conformable derivative --- fractal --- hydraulic fracturing --- tight reservoirs --- fracture diversion --- extended finite element method --- fracture network --- gas adsorption capacity --- shale reservoirs --- influential factors --- integrated methods --- sulfonate gemini surfactant --- thickener --- temperature-resistance --- clean fracturing fluid --- low-salinity water flooding --- clay mineral composition --- enhanced oil recovery --- wetting angle --- pH of formation water --- fractional diffusion --- fractal geometry --- analytical model --- shale gas reservoir --- carbonate reservoir --- petrophysical characterization --- pore types --- pore structure --- permeability --- fractal dimension --- reservoir classifications --- deep circulation groundwater --- groundwater flow --- geothermal water --- faults --- isotopes --- shale permeability --- local effect --- global effect --- matrix-fracture interactions --- nanopore --- pore structure --- shale --- tight sandstone --- mudstone --- nitrogen adsorption --- fractal --- enhanced geothermal system --- well-placement optimization --- fracture continuum method --- 0-1 programming --- unconventional reservoirs --- petrophysical characterization --- fluid transport physics

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