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Past research has comprehensively assessed the capabilities of satellite sensors operating at microwave frequencies, both active (SAR, scatterometers) and passive (radiometers), for the remote sensing of Earth’s surface. Besides brightness temperature and backscattering coefficient, microwave indices, defined as a combination of data collected at different frequencies and polarizations, revealed a good sensitivity to hydrological cycle parameters such as surface soil moisture, vegetation water content, and snow depth and its water equivalent. The differences between microwave backscattering and emission at more frequencies and polarizations have been well established in relation to these parameters, enabling operational retrieval algorithms based on microwave indices to be developed. This Special Issue aims at providing an overview of microwave signal capabilities in estimating the main land parameters of the hydrological cycle, e.g., soil moisture, vegetation water content, and snow water equivalent, on both local and global scales, with a particular focus on the applications of microwave indices.
active microwaves  snow  sea ice  copol ratio  dualfrequency ratios  snow water equivalent  passive microwave  radar  snow correlation length  soil moisture  SAR  scatterometer  data fusion  scale gap  soil moisture  Radarsat2  SAR  watercloud model  vegetation descriptor  Sentinel1  vegetation water content  microwave indices  crops  AMSR2  passive microwave soil moisture  soil moisture downscaling  microwaves  radiometer  radar  vegetation index  soil scattering  roughness  soil moisture  SMAP  SMOS  microwave radiometry  microwave indices  soil moisture content  vegetation biomass  snow cover characteristics  Sentinel1 backscatter  polarization  Terra MODIS  NDVI  soil moisture  Sentinel1 and Sentinel2  time series analysis  start of season, harvest, mountain region  Microwave Radiometry  Microwave Indices  Soil Moisture Content  Vegetation Biomass  Snow Depth and Snow Water Equivalent
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Computational intelligence is a general term for a class of algorithms designed by nature's wisdom and human intelligence. Computer scientists have proposed many computational intelligence algorithms with heuristic features. These algorithms either mimic the evolutionary processes of the biological world, mimic the physiological structure and bodily functions of the organism,
artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC)  cloud model  normal cloud model  Y conditional cloud generator  global optimum  evolution  computation  urban design  biology  shape grammar  architecture  SPEA 2  energyefficient job shop scheduling  dispatching rule  nonlinear convergence factor  mutation operation  whale optimization algorithm  particle swarm optimization  confidence term  random weight  benchmark functions  ttest  success rates  average iteration times  setunion knapsack problem  moth search algorithm  transfer function  discrete algorithm  evolutionary multiobjective optimization  convergence point  acceleration search  evolutionary computation  optimization  bat algorithm (BA)  bat algorithm with multiple strategy coupling (mixBA)  CEC2013 benchmarks  Wilcoxon test  Friedman test  facility layout design  single loop  monarch butterfly optimization  slicing tree structure  material handling path  integrated design  wireless sensor networks (WSNs)  DVHop algorithm  multiobjective DVHop localization algorithm  NSGAIIDVHop  firstarrival picking  fuzzy cmeans  particle swarm optimization  range detection  minimum total dominating set  evolutionary algorithm  genetic algorithm  local search  constrained optimization problems (COPs)  evolutionary algorithms (EAs)  firefly algorithm (FA)  stochastic ranking (SR)  Artificial bee colony  swarm intelligence  elite strategy  dimension learning  global optimization  DE algorithm  ?Hilbert space  topology structure  quantum uncertainty property  numerical simulation  whale optimization algorithm  flexible job shop scheduling problem  nonlinear convergence factor  adaptive weight  variable neighborhood search  elephant herding optimization  EHO  swarm intelligence  individual updating strategy  largescale  benchmark  diversity maintenance  particle swarm optimizer  entropy  large scale optimization  minimum load coloring  memetic algorithm  evolutionary  local search  particle swarm optimization  largescale optimization  adaptive multiswarm  diversity maintenance  deep learning  convolutional neural network  rock types  automatic identification  monarch butterfly optimization  greedy optimization algorithm  global position updating operator  01 knapsack problems
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Neutrosophy (1995) is a new branch of philosophy that studies triads of the form (,
generalized aggregation operators  interval neutrosophic set (INS)  multiattribute decision making (MADM)  Choquet integral  fuzzy measure  clustering algorithm  neutrosophic association rule  data mining  neutrosophic sets  big data  analytic hierarchy process (AHP)  SWOT analysis  multicriteria decisionmaking (MCDM) techniques  neutrosophic set theory  neutrosophic clustering  image segmentation  neutrosophic cmeans clustering  region growing  dermoscopy  skin cancer  neutosophic extended triplet subgroups  neutrosophic triplet cosets  neutrosophic triplet normal subgroups  neutrosophic triplet quotient groups  shopping mall  photovoltaic plan  decisionmaking trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL)  intervalvalued neutrosophic set  extended ELECTRE III  symmetry  single valued neutrosophic set (SVNS)  neutrosophic multiset (NM)  single valued neutrosophic multiset (SVNM)  cosine measure  multiple attribute decisionmaking  LNGPBM operator  LNGWPBM operator  Linguistic neutrosophic sets  generalized partitioned Bonferroni mean operator  multiple attribute group decisionmaking (MAGDM)  pseudoBCI algebra  hesitant fuzzy set  neutrosophic set  filter  action learning  school administrator  SVM  neutrosophic classification  neutrosophic set  soft set  totally dependentneutrosophic set  totally dependentneutrosophic soft set  generalized De Morgan algebra  complex neutrosophic set  complex neutrosophic graph  fuzzy graph  matrix representation  neutrosophic triplet groups  semigroup  semineutrosophic triplets  classical group of neutrosophic triplets  Ssemigroup of neutrosophic triplets  pseudo primitive elements  neutrosophic sets (NSs)  interval neutrosophic numbers (INNs)  exponential operational laws of interval neutrosophic numbers  interval neutrosophic weighted exponential aggregation (INWEA) operator  multiple attribute decision making (MADM)  typhoon disaster evaluation  simplified neutrosophic linguistic numbers  cloud model  Maclaurin symmetric mean  multicriteria decisionmaking  neutrosophy  DSmT  decisionmaking algorithms  robotic dexterous hands  grasping configurations  grasp type  generalized group  neutrosophic triplet set  neutrosophic triplet group  group  neutrosophic cubic set  neutrosophic cubic graphs  applications of neutrosophic cubic graphs  singlevalued neutrosophic multisets  medical diagnosis  probabilistic rough sets over two universes  threeway decisions  similarity measures  neutrosophic cubic set  decisionmaking  soft sets  support soft sets  interval valued neutrosophic support soft sets  sustainable supplier selection problems (SSSPs)  analytic network process  interdependency of criteria  TOPSIS  neutrosophic set  2inglevalued neutrosophic set  Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS)  integrated weight  maximizing deviation  multiattribute decisionmaking (MADM)  neutrosophic triplet set (NTS)  partial metric spaces (PMS)  fixed point theory (FPT)  neutrosophic triplet  quasi neutrosophic triplet loop  quasi neutrosophic triplet group  BEalgebra  CIalgebra  fuzzy time series  forecasting  twofactor fuzzy logical relationship  multivalued neutrosophic set  Hamming distance  neutrosophic set  prioritized operator  Muirhead mean  multicriteria decisionmaking  aggregation operators  dual aggregation operators  neutrosophic triplet group (NTG)  NTsubgroup  homomorphism theorem  weak commutative neutrosophic triplet group  neutrosophic rough set  MGNRS  dual domains  inclusion relation  decisionmaking  neutromonomorphism  neutroepimorphism  neutroautomorphism  fundamental neutrohomomorphism theorem  first neutroisomorphism theorem  and second neutroisomorphism theorem  linear and nonlinear neutrosophic number  deneutrosophication methods  neutrosophic set  bipolar fuzzy set  neutrosophic bipolar fuzzy set  neutrosophic bipolar fuzzy weighted averaging operator  similarity measure  algorithm  multiple attribute decision making problem  neutrosophic duplets  semigroup  neutrosophic triplet groups  neutrosophic set  fault diagnosis  normal distribution  defuzzification  simplified neutrosophic weighted averaging operator  (commutative) ideal  generalized neutrosophic set  generalized neutrosophic ideal  commutative generalized neutrosophic ideal  linguistic neutrosophic sets  multicriteria group decisionmaking  power aggregation operator  extended TOPSIS method  probabilistic singlevalued (interval) neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set  multiattribute decision making  aggregation operator  quasigroup  loop  BCIalgebra  BolMoufang  quasi neutrosophic loops  Fenyves identities  Gmetric  neutrosophic Gmetric  neutrosophic sets  clustering  neutrosophic big data  neutrosophic logic  aggregation operator  complement  intersection  membership  neutrosophic soft set  NC power dual MM operator (NCPDMM) operator  NCPMM operator  MADM  MM operator  Neutrosophic cubic sets  PA operator  interval neutrosophic sets  Bonferroni mean  power operator  multiattribute decision making (MADM)  multiple attribute group decision making (MAGDM)  2tuple linguistic neutrosophic sets (2TLNSs)  TODIM model  2TLNNs TODIM method  construction project  MCGDM problems  triangular fuzzy neutrosophic sets (TFNSs)  VIKOR model  TFNNs VIKOR method  potential evaluation  emerging technology commercialization  Qlinguistic neutrosophic variable set  vector similarity measure  cosine measure  Dice measure  Jaccard measure  decision making  inclusion relation  neutrosophic rough set  multiattribute group decisionmaking (MAGDM)  multigranulation neutrosophic rough set (MNRS)  two universes  single valued trapezoidal neutrosophic number  multicriteria group decision making  possibility degree  power aggregation operators  LAsemihypergroups  neutrosophic triplet set  neutrohomomorphism  algorithm  decision making  expert set  generalized neutrosophic set  neutrosophic sets  Qneutrosophic  soft sets  simplified neutrosophic sets (SNSs)  interval number  dependent degree  multicriteria group decisionmaking (MCGDM)  computability  oracle Turing machines  neutrosophic sets  neutrosophic logic  recursive enumerability  oracle computation  criterion functions  neutrosophic computation  neutrosophic logic  quantum computation  computation  logic
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Neutrosophy (1995) is a new branch of philosophy that studies triads of the form (,
generalized aggregation operators  interval neutrosophic set (INS)  multiattribute decision making (MADM)  Choquet integral  fuzzy measure  clustering algorithm  neutrosophic association rule  data mining  neutrosophic sets  big data  analytic hierarchy process (AHP)  SWOT analysis  multicriteria decisionmaking (MCDM) techniques  neutrosophic set theory  neutrosophic clustering  image segmentation  neutrosophic cmeans clustering  region growing  dermoscopy  skin cancer  neutosophic extended triplet subgroups  neutrosophic triplet cosets  neutrosophic triplet normal subgroups  neutrosophic triplet quotient groups  shopping mall  photovoltaic plan  decisionmaking trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL)  intervalvalued neutrosophic set  extended ELECTRE III  symmetry  single valued neutrosophic set (SVNS)  neutrosophic multiset (NM)  single valued neutrosophic multiset (SVNM)  cosine measure  multiple attribute decisionmaking  LNGPBM operator  LNGWPBM operator  Linguistic neutrosophic sets  generalized partitioned Bonferroni mean operator  multiple attribute group decisionmaking (MAGDM)  pseudoBCI algebra  hesitant fuzzy set  neutrosophic set  filter  action learning  school administrator  SVM  neutrosophic classification  neutrosophic set  soft set  totally dependentneutrosophic set  totally dependentneutrosophic soft set  generalized De Morgan algebra  complex neutrosophic set  complex neutrosophic graph  fuzzy graph  matrix representation  neutrosophic triplet groups  semigroup  semineutrosophic triplets  classical group of neutrosophic triplets  Ssemigroup of neutrosophic triplets  pseudo primitive elements  neutrosophic sets (NSs)  interval neutrosophic numbers (INNs)  exponential operational laws of interval neutrosophic numbers  interval neutrosophic weighted exponential aggregation (INWEA) operator  multiple attribute decision making (MADM)  typhoon disaster evaluation  simplified neutrosophic linguistic numbers  cloud model  Maclaurin symmetric mean  multicriteria decisionmaking  neutrosophy  DSmT  decisionmaking algorithms  robotic dexterous hands  grasping configurations  grasp type  generalized group  neutrosophic triplet set  neutrosophic triplet group  group  neutrosophic cubic set  neutrosophic cubic graphs  applications of neutrosophic cubic graphs  singlevalued neutrosophic multisets  medical diagnosis  probabilistic rough sets over two universes  threeway decisions  similarity measures  neutrosophic cubic set  decisionmaking  soft sets  support soft sets  interval valued neutrosophic support soft sets  sustainable supplier selection problems (SSSPs)  analytic network process  interdependency of criteria  TOPSIS  neutrosophic set  2inglevalued neutrosophic set  Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS)  integrated weight  maximizing deviation  multiattribute decisionmaking (MADM)  neutrosophic triplet set (NTS)  partial metric spaces (PMS)  fixed point theory (FPT)  neutrosophic triplet  quasi neutrosophic triplet loop  quasi neutrosophic triplet group  BEalgebra  CIalgebra  fuzzy time series  forecasting  twofactor fuzzy logical relationship  multivalued neutrosophic set  Hamming distance  neutrosophic set  prioritized operator  Muirhead mean  multicriteria decisionmaking  aggregation operators  dual aggregation operators  neutrosophic triplet group (NTG)  NTsubgroup  homomorphism theorem  weak commutative neutrosophic triplet group  neutrosophic rough set  MGNRS  dual domains  inclusion relation  decisionmaking  neutromonomorphism  neutroepimorphism  neutroautomorphism  fundamental neutrohomomorphism theorem  first neutroisomorphism theorem  and second neutroisomorphism theorem  linear and nonlinear neutrosophic number  deneutrosophication methods  neutrosophic set  bipolar fuzzy set  neutrosophic bipolar fuzzy set  neutrosophic bipolar fuzzy weighted averaging operator  similarity measure  algorithm  multiple attribute decision making problem  neutrosophic duplets  semigroup  neutrosophic triplet groups  neutrosophic set  fault diagnosis  normal distribution  defuzzification  simplified neutrosophic weighted averaging operator  (commutative) ideal  generalized neutrosophic set  generalized neutrosophic ideal  commutative generalized neutrosophic ideal  linguistic neutrosophic sets  multicriteria group decisionmaking  power aggregation operator  extended TOPSIS method  probabilistic singlevalued (interval) neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set  multiattribute decision making  aggregation operator  quasigroup  loop  BCIalgebra  BolMoufang  quasi neutrosophic loops  Fenyves identities  Gmetric  neutrosophic Gmetric  neutrosophic sets  clustering  neutrosophic big data  neutrosophic logic  aggregation operator  complement  intersection  membership  neutrosophic soft set  NC power dual MM operator (NCPDMM) operator  NCPMM operator  MADM  MM operator  Neutrosophic cubic sets  PA operator  interval neutrosophic sets  Bonferroni mean  power operator  multiattribute decision making (MADM)  multiple attribute group decision making (MAGDM)  2tuple linguistic neutrosophic sets (2TLNSs)  TODIM model  2TLNNs TODIM method  construction project  MCGDM problems  triangular fuzzy neutrosophic sets (TFNSs)  VIKOR model  TFNNs VIKOR method  potential evaluation  emerging technology commercialization  Qlinguistic neutrosophic variable set  vector similarity measure  cosine measure  Dice measure  Jaccard measure  decision making  inclusion relation  neutrosophic rough set  multiattribute group decisionmaking (MAGDM)  multigranulation neutrosophic rough set (MNRS)  two universes  single valued trapezoidal neutrosophic number  multicriteria group decision making  possibility degree  power aggregation operators  LAsemihypergroups  neutrosophic triplet set  neutrohomomorphism  algorithm  decision making  expert set  generalized neutrosophic set  neutrosophic sets  Qneutrosophic  soft sets  simplified neutrosophic sets (SNSs)  interval number  dependent degree  multicriteria group decisionmaking (MCGDM)  computability  oracle Turing machines  neutrosophic sets  neutrosophic logic  recursive enumerability  oracle computation  criterion functions  neutrosophic computation  neutrosophic logic  quantum computation  computation  logic  n/a
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