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Fundamentals of Galaxy Dynamics, Formation and Evolution

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ISBN: 9781911307617 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.14324/111.9781911307617 Language: English
Publisher: UCL Press
Subject: Sports Science --- Mathematics --- Astronomy (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-14 11:21:02
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Galaxies, along with their underlying dark matter halos, constitute the building blocks of structure in the Universe. Of all fundamental forces, gravity is the dominant one that drives the evolution of structures from small density seeds at early times to the galaxies we see today. The interactions among myriads of stars, or dark matter particles, in a gravitating structure produce a system with fascinating connotations to thermodynamics, with some analogies and some fundamental differences.&#xD;&#xD;Ignacio Ferreras presents a concise introduction to extragalactic astrophysics, with emphasis on stellar dynamics, and the growth of density fluctuations in an expanding Universe. Additional chapters are devoted to smaller systems (stellar clusters) and larger ones (galaxy clusters). Fundamentals of Galaxy Dynamics, Formation and Evolution is written for advanced undergraduates and beginning postgraduate students, providing a useful tool to get up to speed in a starting research career. Some of the derivations for the most important results are presented in detail to enable students appreciate the beauty of maths as a tool to understand the workings of galaxies. Each chapter includes a set of problems to help the student advance with the material.&#xD;

Fungal Jewels: Secondary Metabolites

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451364 Year: Pages: 203 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-136-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Fungal natural products are friends and foes of humans such as deleterious mycotoxins, cytotoxic, carcinogenic compounds or beneficial compounds such as antibiotics, fungicides, insecticides, antiviral and antitumor metabolites. Understanding fungal diversity and estimation of fungal species on our planet poses a great challenge to researchers. This complexity is further multiplied by secondary metabolite diversity of fungi, which requires interdisciplinary studies. It is extremely important to understand the fungal secondary metabolism to stop human, animal and plant diseases caused by fungi and harvest their valuable metabolites. Furthermore, many secondary metabolite gene clusters are silenced under laboratory conditions. It is vital to develop effective methods to activate those clusters in order to discover novel potent metabolites. This e-book is a compilation of original review articles contributed by leading fungal secondary metabolite researchers with a wide range of expertise. Important aspects of fungal secondary metabolism, including regulation, genome mining, evolution, synthetic biology and novel methods have been discussed. This book will be a great source to those people, who are interested in understanding overall structure, diversity and regulation of production of these tiny but precious chemicals.

On the Origin (and Evolution) of Baryonic Galaxy Halos

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ISBN: 9783038427223 9783038427216 Year: Pages: 230 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-16 08:49:06
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This book covers aspects and achievements of the baryonic (star and gas) component of galaxy halos as presented at the successful conference “On the Origin (and Evolution) of Baryonic Galaxy Halos”, held on the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, March 13–17, 2017. It can be regarded as a compendium of the prominent results in this field. The main focus is the latest simulations and observations of galaxy halos. This compendium is recommended to researchers, and advanced students, as it contains peer-reviewed high quality papers that will meet their scientific needs and help to initiate new research directions. Everything described in this book is the result of a truly collective effort from the participants of the Galapagos conference.

Nanoparticles for Catalysis

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ISBN: 9783038425366 9783038425373 Year: Pages: X, 154 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-25 13:21:26
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The present book is aimed at illustrating the width of applications of metal nanoparticles in catalysis. It covers aspects such as metal nanoparticles preparation using natural biomolecules to the catalytic, photocatalytic and electrocatalytic activity of supported metal nanoparticles. In catalysis, metal nanoparticles exhibit general activity in oxidation and reduction reactions and the book contains examples of both types of processes in which the nanoparticles are on carbon supports or embedded inside the voids of microporous crystalline metal organic frameworks. Metal nanoparticles are also widely used in photocatalysis to enhance light absorption through plasmon band and the efficiency of the photochemical process. Besides classical applications, the use of metal nanoparticles is expanding rapidly in the field of renewable energies, going from catalysts for solid fuels electrodes to novel Li-O2 batteries.

Zweikomponentige Methoden im Rahmen der zeitabhängigen Dichtefunktionaltheorie - Theorie, Implementierung und Anwendung

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ISBN: 9783731504283 Year: Pages: 215 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000048734 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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This book reports on the derivation, implementation and application of two-component methods in the framework of time-dependent density functional theory. These methods allow the calculation of electronic transitions as well as the calculation of the correlation contribution to the electronic ground-state energy (RPA) and to the orbital energies (GW) including spin-orbit coupling. The focus of the applications is put on organic light-emitting diodes and clusters of heavy metals.

Nucleation of Minerals: Precursors, Intermediates and Their Use in Materials Chemistry

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ISBN: 9783038970354 9783038970361 Year: Pages: X, 236 Language: english
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-09 13:19:56
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Nucleation is the key event in mineralisation, but a general molecular understanding of phase separation mechanisms is still missing, despite more than 100 years of research in this field. In recent years, many studies have highlighted the occurrence of precursors and intermediates, which seem to challenge the assumptions underlying classical theories of nucleation and growth. This is especially true for the field of biomineralisation, where bio-inspired strategies take advantage of the special properties of the precursors and intermediates for the generation of advanced materials. All of this has led to the development of "non-classical" frameworks, which, however, often lack quantitative expressions for the evaluation and prediction of phase separation, growth and ripening processes, and are under considerable debate. It is thus evident that there is a crucial need for research into the early stages of mineral nucleation and growth, designed for the testing, refinement, and expansion of the different existing notions. This Special Issue of Minerals aims to bring together corresponding studies from all these areas, dealing with precursors and intermediates in mineralisation with the hope that it may contribute to the achievement of a better understanding of nucleation precursors and intermediates, and their target-oriented use in materials chemistry.

Integrating Innovation: South Australian Entrepreneurship Systems and Strategies

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ISBN: 9781922064912 Year: Pages: 406 DOI: 10.20851/integrating-innovation Language: English
Publisher: University of Adelaide Press
Subject: Business and Management --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2015-05-06 09:11:41
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South Australia is a small economy that faces a fundamental need to re-shape its approach to innovation. The manufacturing sector, as the backbone of the state’s economy, has and will continue to change in its nature and form. This necessitates a re-think about how innovation happens and how the respective actors within an economy interact and engage with each other. In effect, innovation relies on intersections between people, knowledge, information sharing, ideas, financial and other resources. Innovation happens through regional social and economic system dynamics; innovation relies on a system view of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship can be taken as a study of the entrepreneur and new business creation. However, this conception of entrepreneurship misses the critical link to economic outcomes; the ebb and flow of social and economic fortunes that are underpinned by the actions, reactions and engagement of individuals in a specific social and economic system that brings about innovation and change. In this book the authors are exploring how the linkages within the system can be conceptualised and made transparent.

Molecular Magnets

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ISBN: 9783038977100 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-711-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 14:08:22
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Molecular magnets show many properties not met in conventional metallic magnetic materials, i.e. low density, transparency to electromagnetic radiation, sensitivity to external stimuli such as light, pressure, temperature, chemical modification or magnetic/electric fields, and others. They can serve as “functional” materials in sensors of different types or be applied in high-density magnetic storage or nanoscale devices. Research into molecule-based materials became more intense at the end of the 20th century and is now an important branch of modern science. The articles in this Special Issue, written by physicists and chemists, reflect the current work on molecular magnets being carried out in several research centers. Theoretical papers in the issue concern the influence of spin anisotropy in the low dimensional lattice of the resulting type of magnet, as well as thermodynamics and magnetic excitations in spin trimers. The impact of external pressure on structural and magnetic properties and its underlying mechanisms is described using the example of Prussian blue analogue data. The other functionality discussed is the magnetocaloric effect, investigated in coordination polymers and high spin clusters. In this issue, new molecular magnets are presented: (i) ferromagnetic high-spin [Mn6] single-molecule magnets, (ii) solvatomagnetic compounds changing their structure and magnetism dependent on water content, and (iii) a family of purely organic magnetic materials. Finally, an advanced calorimetric study of anisotropy in magnetic molecular superconductors is reviewed.

Novel Photoactive Materials

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ISBN: 9783038976509 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-651-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-05 14:29:32
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Photoactivity represents the ability of a material, generally speaking a semiconductor, to become active when interacting with light. It can be declined in many ways, and several functionalities arising from this behavior of materials can be exploited, all leading to positive repercussions on our environment. There are several classes of effects of photoactivity, all of which have been deeply investigated in the last few decades, allowing to develop more and more efficient materials and devices. All of them share a common point, that is, the interaction of a material with light, although many different materials are taken into account depending on the effect desired—from elemental semiconductors like silicon, to more complex compounds like CdTe or GaAs, to metal oxides like TiO2 and ZnO. Given the broadness of the field, a huge number of works fall within this topic, and new areas of discovery are constantly explored. The special issue “Novel Photoactive Materials” has been proposed as a means to present recent developments in the field, and for this reason the articles included touch different aspects of photoactivity, from photocatalysis to photovoltaics to light emitting materials.

Mineral Surface Reactions at the Nanoscale

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ISBN: 9783038978961 / 9783038978978 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-897-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Reactions at mineral surfaces are central to all geochemical processes. As minerals comprise the rocks of the Earth, the processes occurring at the mineral–aqueous fluid interface control the evolution of the rocks and hence the structure of the crust of the Earth during processes such as metamorphism, metasomatism, and weathering. In recent years focus has been concentrated on mineral surface reactions made possible through the development of advanced analytical methods such as atomic force microscopy (AFM), advanced electron microscopies (SEM and TEM), phase shift interferometry, confocal Raman spectroscopy, and advanced synchrotron-based applications, to enable mineral surfaces to be imaged and analyzed at the nanoscale. Experiments are increasingly complemented by molecular simulations to confirm or predict the results of these studies. This has enabled new and exciting possibilities to elucidate the mechanisms that govern mineral–fluid reactions. In this Special Issue, “Mineral Surface Reactions at the Nanoscale”, we present 12 contributions that highlight the role and importance of mineral surfaces in varying fields of research.

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