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Update on Dementia

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ISBN: 9789535126546 9789535126553 9789535141785 Year: Pages: 558 DOI: 10.5772/61983 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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The dementia challenge is the largest health effort of the times we live in. The whole society has to move to a realization of the significance of prioritization to make an attempt in the direction of mental health promotion and dementia risk reduction. New priorities for research are needed to go far beyond the usual goal of constructing a disease course-modifying medication. Moreover, a full empowerment and engagement of men and women living with dementia and their caregivers, overcoming stigma and discrimination should be promoted. The common efforts and the final aim will have to be the progress of a ''dementia-constructive'' world, where people with dementia can take advantage of equal opportunities.

Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation

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ISBN: 9789535134510 9789535134527 Year: Pages: 318 DOI: 10.5772/66067 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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""Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation"" book explains how the neuronal cells become swollen at the moment of the blood-brain barrier disruption and how they lose their immunological isolation. A cascade of cytokines and immune cells from the bloodstream enters the nervous system, inflaming neurons and activating the glia. This produces a neuroinflammatory process that can generate different neurodegenerative diseases. Better understanding of mechanisms that are activated at the time when the damage to the brain occurs could lead to the development of suitable therapies that revert the neuronal inflammation and thus prevent further damage to the nervous system.

The Amygdala - A Discrete Multitasking Manager

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ISBN: 9789535109082 9789535142621 Year: Pages: 420 DOI: 10.5772/2973 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 09:47:09

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Among the components of the limbic system, the amygdala is a fascinating structure that is involved in the processes of liking and disliking and in the ways our emotions drive our actions and affect the strength of our memories. Combined with new conceptual breakthroughs, the very latest data obtained by leading world experts in amygdala function that are reviewed in this book have helped to understand how the amygdala contribute to these processes and also to a variety of neurological and neuropsychiatric pathologies. Of course, due to the rate of research advancement, all the chapters presented here correspond to precise questions addressed by experts using highly specific techniques. Therefore, each chapter should be viewed as pieces of a puzzle that represent all the different research areas that have to be taken into consideration in discussing the role of the amygdala in emotion and memory. Although the primary goal of this book is to inform experts and newcomers of some of the latest data in the field of brain structures involved in mechanisms underlying emotional learning and memory, we hope it will also help to stimulate discussion on the functional role of the amygdala and connected brain structures in these mechanisms.

High-Resolution Neuroimaging - Basic Physical Principles and Clinical Applications

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ISBN: 9789535138655 9789535138662 9789535140450 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68268 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Dr. Ahmet Mesrur Halefoğlu mostly deals with research fields in body imaging and neuroradiology with multidetector computed tomography and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. He has served as postdoctoral research fellow at Johns Hopkins Hospital. Currently, he is working as an associate professor of radiology in Istanbul, Turkey. He has more than 50 high-impact-factor publications and has written 3 book chapters. He is a member of Turkish Society of Radiology and European Society of Radiology. During the recent years, there have been major breakthroughs in MRI due to developments in scanner technology and pulse sequencing. These important achievements have led to remarkable improvements in neuroimaging and advanced techniques, including diffusion imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, perfusion imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and functional MRI. These advanced neuroimaging techniques have enabled us to achieve invaluable insights into tissue microstructure, microvasculature, metabolism, and brain connectivity.

Alzheimer's Disease - The 21st Century Challenge

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ISBN: 9781789234626 9781789234633 Year: Pages: 162 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.71628 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Alzheimer's disease was discovered over 100 years ago and still belongs to incurable neurological diseases; its pharmacotherapy is considered to be ineffective. This book presents contemporary views on the genetic, biochemical, and immunological determinants of this disease. This book also concerns the issue of Alzheimer's disease prevention through lifestyle and physical activity. Moreover, it describes the therapies used in Alzheimer's disease to slow the progression of the disease and delay its onset. Subsequently, the authors discuss experimental and clinical trials used now and in the near future. We hope that this book will help the readers to understand the complex mechanism leading to the development of Alzheimer's disease and indicate effective ways to prevent this disorder.

Prefrontal Cortex

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ISBN: 9781789239034 9781789239041 Year: Pages: 132 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73226 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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The prefrontal cortex reaches its greatest development in the human brain, making up nearly one third of the neocortex. Due to its remarkable evolution, the prefrontal cortex plays an important role in higher integrative functions such as information processing, thinking, understanding, attention, behavior, motivation, emotions, working memory, and analysis. This book brings together theoretical and technical research advances on the prefrontal cortex, from the basic explanations of the neuronal architecture of the prefrontal cortex and its anatomy, presenting it as a morphological substrate for many psychological conditions, through normal and altered connectivity and its manifestation in different behavior and identification of organizational levels inside the prefrontal cortex through different neuroimaging methods. It also provides an interdisciplinary view of the prefrontal cortex and its issues and discovers the main role of this part of brain in psychosocial, economic, and cultural adaptation.

Cognitive and Computational Neuroscience - Principles, Algorithms and Applications

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ISBN: 9781789231885 9781789231892 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68377 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 09:47:13

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The book ""Cognitive and Computational Neuroscience - Principles, Algorithms and Applications"" will answer the following question and statements: System-level neural modeling: what and why? We know a lot about the brain! Need to integrate data: molecular/cellular/system levels. Complexity: need to abstract away higher-order principles. Models are tools to develop explicit theories, constrained by multiple levels (neural and behavioral). Key: models (should) make novel testable predictions on both neural and behavioral levels. Models are useful tools for guiding experiments. The hope is that the information provided in this book will trigger new researches that will help to connect basic neuroscience to clinical medicine.

Mental Practice - Clinical and Experimental Research in Imagery and Action Observation

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198399 Year: Pages: 208 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-839-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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There is now strong evidence demonstrating that the brain simulates action and other functions. Such action simulation can be evoked through conscious mental rehearsal of movement or imagery, but also through passive action observation watching movements in others. Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that mental rehearsal of movement, or mental practice, can produce improvements normally attributed to practising actual movements. It is currently assumed that such improvements are due to neural activation associated with action simulation. However the neuroscience of mental practice efficacy is still poorly understood. The aim of this research topic is to clarify the underlying mechanisms of mental practice, bringing evidence from cognitive neuroscience, experimental neuropsychology, sport and movement science, and clinical neurology. It also attempts to address confusion regarding the concepts of imagery and observation, which has hampered the progression of mental practice research both scientifically and applied. As well as reviews, theoretical, and position articles, this research topic includes original neuroimaging, experimental, and patient research addressing, among others, the following issues. Neuroimaging studies provide strong evidence for action simulation, but the link to behavioural change and functional outcome is weak. What is the evidence that mental practice efficacy is driven by neuroplasticity processes evoked by action simulation? This research topic includes contributions on neural correlates and behaviour with regards to imagery and action observation. Much of the mental practice efficacy evidence comes from longstanding research within sport science. However, what does mental practice entail in these contexts, and to what extent is it compatible with the cognitive neuroscience perspective of action simulation? This research topic will include contributions that consider both evidence and concepts with regards to imagery and action observation, in an attempt to build an interdisciplinary consensus on the nature and application of mental practice. Mental practice is perceived as a promising motor rehabilitation technique, but critically there is lack of clarity or consensus on what mental practice treatment should entail. It is also not clear what are the most appropriate outcomes to measure imagery ability and cognitive or behavioural change following mental practice. A further important issue that needs consideration as part of this research topic is dosage, as it is currently unclear how much mental practice is appropriate and whether this depends on patient variables such as age, cognitive functioning, motor function, or pathophysiology.

Representation in Cognitive Science

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ISBN: 9780198812883 Year: Pages: 304 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: H2020 European Research Council - 681422
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:11
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"Our thoughts are meaningful. We think about things in the outside world; how can that be so? This is one of the deepest questions in contemporary philosophy. Ever since the 'cognitive revolution', states with meaning-mental representations-have been the key explanatory construct of the cognitive sciences. But there is still no widely accepted theory of how mental representations get their meaning. Powerful new methods in cognitive neuroscience can now reveal information processing in the brain in unprecedented detail. They show how the brain performs complex calculations on neural representations. &#xD;&#xD;Drawing on this cutting-edge research, Nicholas Shea uses a series of case studies from the cognitive sciences to develop a naturalistic account of the nature of mental representation. His approach is distinctive in focusing firmly on the 'subpersonal' representations that pervade so much of cognitive science. The diversity and depth of the case studies, illustrated by numerous figures, make this book unlike any previous treatment. It is important reading for philosophers of psychology and philosophers of mind, and of considerable interest to researchers throughout the cognitive sciences."

Near-Infrared Spectroscopy: Recent Advances in Infant Speech Perception and Language Acquisition Research

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194155 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-415-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is a novel and increasingly popular optical imaging technique that has revolutionarized brain research in the youngest developmental populations. After nearly a decade of technological development, NIRS has become a reliable, easy-to-use and efficient tool to explore the linguistic and cognitive abilities of neonates and young infants, opening new vistas for the investigation of language acquisition and cognitive development. This Research Topic covers the latest advances in these areas brought about by NIRS imaging. The main focus is to highlight innovative and foundational studies that go beyond methodological issues and advance our theoretical understanding of infant and child development. Contributions from the pioneers of this method are selected, illustrating how NIRS has allowed developmental researchers to ask theoretically relevant questions that more traditional methods couldn't address. These works further our understanding of language and cognitive development and bring us closer to bridging the gap between brain, mind and behavior at the very beginning of life.

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