Search results: Found 6

Listing 1 - 6 of 6
Sort by
Stem Cell Genetic Fidelity

Author:
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194902 Year: Pages: 110 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-490-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Genetics --- Science (General) --- Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The vision of this Frontiers in Oncology Research Topic on "Stem Cell Genetic Fidelity" had the goal of steeping a diverse range of research perspectives to a first comprehensive synthesis of thought on the questions of how tissue stem cells manage gene mutation rate and the significance of that management in mammalian evolution and biology, in particular as it relates to tissue cell renewal, carcinogenesis, and aging. The primary focus was determinants of mutation rate in distributed stem cells (DSCs), which encompass all naturally occurring stem cells at all stages of mammalian development. In particular, contributions were sought that considered a broad range of aspects of the immortal DNA strand hypothesis for DSC genetic fidelity. Though proposed in 1975, only in the last decade has this landmark concept in tissue cell biology emerged as a central discussion in DSC research with increasing scrutiny and discussion by an increasing number of laboratories of diverse research perspectives and experimental approaches. With this hypothesis presenting a formidable technical challenge for experimental investigation, as would be expected, both supportive and unsupportive reports have been lining up. In the case of supportive studies, neither the range of applicable tissues nor the responsible molecular mechanisms are known; and the essential genomic process, non-random DNA template strand inheritance by asymmetrically self-renewing DSCs, has been suggested to potentially have other cellular roles besides reducing mutation rate. A major aspiration of this Research Topic was to create the first comprehensive, critical synthesis of current insights and viewpoints on the impact of the immortal DNA strand hypothesis in the history of DSC mutation research. A wide range of article types was considered including historical perspectives, critical reviews, critical commentaries, new hypotheses, new research perspectives, technical advances, and original research reports. Although treatments of the immortal DNA strand hypothesis were the major focus, the desired synthesis required integration of related ideas on mechanisms of DSC mutagenesis and its impact in the evolution of mammals, the emergence of cancers, and stem cell aging. As such, investigators focused on issues in e.g., germ stem cell mutagenesis, effects of environmental mutagens on DSC mutation rate, DSC mutation and tissue aging, determinations of types of mutations in DSCs, and the role of DSC mutation in cancer initiation were invited. Similarly, although the specific goal of the Research Topic was to enlighten DSC genetic fidelity in humans and other mammalians, informing contributions based on studies in other model organisms were also welcomed. To achieve even better representation of current experience, advances, and ideas in this field of investigation, these early contributors were encouraged to extend the opportunity to others who shared their interest in advancing our understanding of the mutability of DSCs and its significance in human biology.

Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038977827 9783038977834 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-783-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several fungal species. They can contaminate human food and animal feed, and have been a threat for thousands of years. The gastrointestinal tract is the first target when ingesting mycotoxin-contaminated food or feed. As unlikely as it sounds, the investigations concerning the effects of mycotoxins on the intestine are still in their early stages. This book gathers the most recent advances related to the characterization of the intestinal toxicity of mycotoxins. Substantial data assembled on the damage caused to a number of histological structures and functions of the intestine remove any remaining doubt about this organ being a primary target for the toxicity of mycotoxins. An interesting overview of the detrimental effects of mycotoxins on the gut-hosted microbiota—now regarded as a fully-fledged organ associated with the gut—is also given. Finally, outstanding contributions in this book address questions relating to the suitability of current regulations to protect against alterations of the intestine, and to the efficacy assessment of new detoxification strategies using the intestinal toxicity of mycotoxins as a relevant endpoint.

Keywords

mice --- aflatoxin B1 --- intestinal bacterial flora --- response --- Clostridium sp. WJ06 --- deoxynivalenol --- pig --- intestinal morphology --- microbial diversity --- aflatoxin M1 --- ochratoxin A --- intestinal epithelial cells --- tight junction --- permeability --- ileum --- jejunum --- deoxynivalenol --- piglet --- contaminated feed --- tight junction --- aflatoxin B1 --- small intestine --- histopathological lesions --- ultrastructural changes --- toll-like receptors --- T-2 toxin --- enteric nervous system --- pig --- vasoactive intestinal polypeptide --- mycotoxins --- zearalenone --- deoxynivalenol --- histology --- ultrastructure --- large intestine --- pig --- Claviceps --- liver --- digestive tract --- mycotoxin --- sclerotia --- ergot alkaloids --- toxicity --- deoxynivalenol --- Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii CNCM I-1079 --- intestine --- transcriptome --- inflammation --- oxidative stress --- lipid metabolism --- fumonisin --- microbiota --- pigs --- MiSeq 16S rDNA sequencing --- intestinal microbiota --- hydrogen-rich water --- lactulose --- Fusarium mycotoxins --- piglets --- functional oligosaccharides --- mycotoxins --- swine --- explant technique --- intestinal morphology --- goblet cells --- deoxynivalenol --- zearalenone --- pig --- colon microbiota --- Lactobacillus --- detoxification --- zearalenone --- doses --- caecal water --- genotoxicity --- pre-pubertal gilts --- atlantic salmon --- deoxynivalenol --- feed --- intestine --- PCR --- proliferating cell nuclear antigen --- suppressor of cytokine signaling --- tight junctions --- Zearalenone --- N-acetylcysteine --- SIEC02 cells --- Mitochondrial apoptosis --- n/a

Biogenic Amines on Food Safety

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039210541 / 9783039210558 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-055-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Biogenic amines have been known for some time. These compounds are found in varying concentrations in a wide range of foods (fish, cheese, meat, wine, beer, vegetables, etc.) and their formations are influenced by different factors associated to those foods (composition, additives, ingredients, storage, microorganism, packaging, handing, conservation, etc.). The intake of foods containing high concentrations of biogenic amines can present a health hazard. Additionally, they have been used to establish indexes in various foods in order to signal the degree of freshness and/or deterioration of food. Nowadays, there has been an increase in the number of food poisoning episodes in consumers associated with the presence of these biogenic amines, mainly associated with histamines. Food safety is one of the main concerns of the consumer and safety agencies of different countries (EFSA, FDA, FSCJ, etc.), which have, as one of their main objectives, to control these biogenic amines, principally histamine, to assure a high level of food safety.Therefore, it is necessary to deepen our understanding of the formation, monitoring and reduction of biogenic amines during the development, processing and storage of food, even the effect of biogenic amines in consumers after digestion of foods with different levels of these compounds.With this aim, we are preparing a Special Issue on the topic of ""Biogenic Amines in Food Safety"", and we invite researchers to contribute original and unpublished research articles and reviews articles that involve studies of biogenic amines in food, which can provide an update to our knowledge of these compounds and their impacts on food quality and food safety.

Nutrition in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

Author:
ISBN: 9783039214396 / 9783039214402 Year: Pages: 370 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-440-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The purpose of this Special Issue “Nutrition in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)” is to increase knowledge regarding the role of dietary composition and effects in IBD, describing the prevalence of malnutrition in IBD and the effect on clinical outcomes, discussing methods of nutrition risk screening and assessment in IBD, and reviewing mechanisms through which diet and dietary components may affect disease severity. The articles focus on the following areas: Dietary Composition/Therapy Interventions in Ulcerative Colitis and effects on outcomes; Dietary Composition/Therapy Interventions in Crohn’s Disease and effects on outcomes; Nutrition Risk Screening and Assessment in IBD; Mechanisms of Diet in the pathogenesis of IBD.

Keywords

body composition --- obesity --- visceral adipose tissue --- fat --- osteoporosis --- osteopenia --- sarcopenia --- inflammatory bowel disease --- Crohn’s disease --- dietary intake --- malnutrition --- Mediterranean diet --- exclusive enteral nutrition --- children --- IBD --- remission --- mucosal cytokines --- dietary protein level --- colitis --- epithelial repair --- mucosa-adherent microbiota --- intestinal inflammation --- inflammatory bowel disease --- epithelial adherens junctions --- bioactive peptides --- synbiotic --- prebiotic --- probiotic --- IBD --- Bacillus spores --- dietary fibre --- sugar cane fibre --- ulcerative colitis --- colon --- high-sulfur foods --- inflammation --- metagenomics --- microbiota --- sulfur reducing --- inflammatory bowel disease --- Crohn --- ulcerative colitis --- diet --- nutrition --- exclusive enteral nutrition --- intestinal epithelial cells --- inflammation --- probiotics --- Lactobacillus acidophilus --- Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis --- vitamin D --- IBD --- Crohn’s disease --- ulcerative colitis --- supplementation --- deficiency --- Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) --- Mediterranean Diet --- Western-style Diet (WSD) --- Nutritional Approach --- vitamin D --- Crohn’s disease --- ulcerative colitis --- faecal calprotectin --- C-reactive protein --- diet --- inflammatory bowel disease --- microbiota --- intestinal barrier --- nutrients --- immunity --- colitis --- food additive --- diet --- emulsifiers --- high salt diet --- inflammatory bowel diseases --- inflammatory bowel disease --- dietary modification --- exclusive enteral nutrition --- lifestyle modification --- Mediterranean diet --- colorectal cancer --- inflammatory bowel disease --- colorectal cancer --- dysplasia --- berries --- chemoprevention --- Inflammatory Bowel Disease --- micronutrients --- vitamin --- mineral --- deficiency --- inflammatory bowel disease --- dietary habits --- food components --- gut microbiota --- immune homeostasis --- epigenetic changes --- inflammatory bowel disease --- malnutrition --- Mediterranean diet --- older age --- diet --- inflammatory bowel disease --- ulcerative colitis --- inflammatory bowel disease --- Westernisation --- genotypes --- nutrient deficiency --- food intolerance --- FODMAPs --- gluten --- fructose --- lactose --- brassica --- mushrooms --- n/a

Marine Anti-inflammatory Agents

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039215720 / 9783039215737 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-573-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Acute inflammation is a highly regulated process, and its dysregulation can lead to the development of a chronic inflammatory state which is believed to play a main role in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cancer. In recent years, the need to find new anti-inflammatory molecules has raised the scientific community´s interest for marine natural products. In this regard, the marine environment represents a source for isolating a wealth of bioactive compounds. In this Special Issue, the reported products have been obtained from microalgae, sea cucumber, octopus, squid, red alga-derived fungus, cnidarians, hard-shelled mussel, and sponges.

Keywords

THP-1 macrophages --- anti-inflammatory --- TLR4 --- NF-?B --- MAPK --- SPR analysis --- glycolipids --- MGDG --- skin --- inflammation --- epidermal hyperplasia --- microalgae --- Isochrysis galbana --- Frondanol --- Cucumaria frondosa --- DSS colitis --- colon inflammation --- zoantharia --- Tropical Eastern Pacific --- Zoanthus pulchellus --- zoanthamine --- inflammation --- fucoxanthin --- inflammation --- epidermal hyperplasia --- UVB --- photoprotection --- 6-bromoindole --- Geodia barretti --- anti-inflammatory activity --- dendritic cells --- T cell differentiation --- poor blood circulation --- Ecklonia cava --- phlorotannins --- pyrogallol-phloroglucinol-6,6-bieckol --- functional ingredients --- endothelial cell death --- vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration --- inflammation --- anti-inflammatory --- bioactive molecules --- microalgae --- polysaccharides --- carotenoids --- polyunsaturated fatty acids --- fucoxanthin --- ultraviolet B --- denervation --- seafood waste --- polyunsaturated fatty acid --- NO inhibition --- fish oil --- marine nutraceuticals --- fish oil --- omega-3 --- eicosapentaenoic acid --- docosahexaenoic acid --- inflammation --- eicosanoid --- cytokine --- surgery --- critical illness --- parenteral nutrition --- signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) --- matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) --- interleukin (IL) --- lipopolysaccharide (LPS) --- acute sickness behavior --- acute lung injury (ALI) --- prostaglandins --- clavulones --- punaglandins --- thromboxane --- inflammation --- marine vertebrates --- marine invertebrates --- diatoms --- macroalgae --- fucoxanthin --- rosmarinic acid --- NRLP3 --- inflammasome --- anti-oxidative --- anti-inflammatory --- photo-protection --- UVB

Protective and Detrimental Role of Heme Oxygenase-1

Author:
ISBN: 9783039218066 / 9783039218073 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-807-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The book “Protective and Detrimental Role of Heme Oxygenase-1”, includes a selection of original research papers and reviews aimed at understanding the dual role (protective and detrimental) of HO-1 and the involved signaling pathways. Original research papers and reviews aimed at the identification of natural molecules or new synthetic compounds able to modulate HO-1 activity/expression help make HO-1 a potential therapeutic target for the amelioration of various diseases.

Keywords

ferroptosis --- heme oxygenase-1 --- iron --- reactive oxygen species --- glutathione --- chemotherapy --- paracetamol --- Myristica fragrans kernels --- heme oxygenase 1 --- liver --- glucocorticoid receptor --- GR --- heme oxygenase 1 --- HO-1 --- prostate cancer --- ANTIGEN presenting cell --- tolerance --- Tet-ON system --- antigen presentation --- analgesia --- carbon monoxide --- heme oxygenase 1 --- inflammatory pain --- locus coeruleus --- nitric oxide --- bilirubin --- Gunn rats --- hyperbilirubinemia --- inflammation --- LPS --- NF-?B --- caloric restriction --- Sirtuin 1 --- Heme Oxygenase-1 --- PGC-1? --- cardiomyopathy --- diabetes mellitus --- Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) --- Pancreatic oxidative damage --- Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inducers --- Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) --- Reactive oxygen species (ROS) --- Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1 (DDAH-1) --- Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) --- Gamma-Glutamyl-Cysteine Ligase (GGCL) --- prostate cancer --- heme oxygenase --- metformin --- apoptosis --- ER stress --- HO-1 activity inhibitor --- carbon monoxide --- lung preservation --- ischemia–reperfusion injury --- high-pressure gas --- Colon cancer --- Betula etnensis Raf. --- oxidative stress --- heme oxigenase-1 --- ferroptosis --- thiol groups --- angiotensin II --- mineralocorticoid receptor --- heme oxygenase 1 --- sirtuin 1 --- adipocytes --- oxidative stress --- heme oxygenase-1 --- atherosclerosis --- coronary artery disease --- peripheral artery disease --- carotid plaque --- heme oxygenase --- endoplasmic reticulum stress --- hemoglobin --- heme --- n/a

Listing 1 - 6 of 6
Sort by
Narrow your search