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Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195268 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-526-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Antibiotics represent one of the most successful forms of therapy in medicine. But the efficiency of antibiotics is compromised by the growing number of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Antibiotic resistance, which is implicated in elevated morbidity and mortality rates as well as in the increased treatment costs, is considered to be one of the major global public health threats (www.who.int/drugresistance/en/) and the magnitude of the problem recently prompted a number of international and national bodies to take actions to protect the public (http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/health_consumer/docs/road-map-amr_en.pdf: http://www.who.int/drugresistance/amr_global_action_plan/en/; http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/docs/carb_national_strategy.pdf). Understanding the mechanisms by which bacteria successfully defend themselves against the antibiotic assault represent the main theme of this eBook published as a Research Topic in Frontiers in Microbiology, section of Antimicrobials, Resistance, and Chemotherapy. The articles in the eBook update the reader on various aspects and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. A better understanding of these mechanisms should facilitate the development of means to potentiate the efficacy and increase the lifespan of antibiotics while minimizing the emergence of antibiotic resistance among pathogens.

Inhibiting PARP as a Strategic Target in Cancer

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199556 Year: Pages: 97 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-955-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) proteins are critical mediators of DNA repair. Many traditional anti-cancer chemotherapy agents overwhelm a cell’s ability to repair DNA damage in order to kill proliferating malignant cells. Recent evidence suggests that cancers within and across tissue types have specific defects in DNA repair pathways, and that these defects may predispose for sensitivity and resistance to various classes of cytotoxic agents. Breast, ovarian and other cancers develop in the setting of inherited DNA repair deficiency, and these cancers may be more sensitive to cytotoxic agents that induce DNA strand breaks, as well as to inhibitors of PARP activity. A series of recent clinical trials has tested whether PARP inhibitors can achieve synthetic lethality in hereditary DNA repair-deficient tumors. At the current time, mutation of BRCA serves as a potential, but not comprehensive, biomarker to predict response to PARP inhibitor therapy. Mechanisms of resistance to PARP inhibitors are only recently being uncovered. Future studies seek to identify sporadic cancers that harbor genomic instability rendering susceptibility to PARP inhibitors that compound lethal DNA damage.

Computational and Experimental Approaches in Multi-Target Pharmacology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452521 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-252-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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The next frontier in pharmacology is the development of multi-target strategies in which pathological processes are controlled by pharmacologically manipulating them at many different points at once. Designing multi-target strategies will require deep understanding of the complex physiology that underlies pathological processes. It will also require the development of single drugs with multiple targets, or combinations of drugs with compatible pharmacokinetics that work synergistically to maximize desirable effects while minimizing unwanted side effects. This e-Book contains ten original articles, each addressing a different aspect of this challenge. Together they open new perspectives and show the way forward in the development of multi-target therapeutics.

Marine Compounds and Cancer

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038427650 9783038427667 Year: Pages: VI, 112 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-26 13:37:12
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In Western countries, cancer is among the most frequent causes of death. Despite striking advances in cancer therapy, especially by the so called “targeted agents”, there is still an urgent need for new drugs in oncology. Hope comes from the marine environment, which is a rich source of natural compounds showing anti-cancer activity. To date, four marine cytotoxic substances, namely cytarabine, trabectidine, eribulin, and monomethyl auristatin E (as a drug-antibody conjugate named vedotin) have made it into clinical routine. Many more are in all phases of clinical testing, and a plethora of substances has already been examined for in vitro and in vivo activity.Interestingly, more and more precise research tools allow the dissection of the molecular mode of action of these cytotoxic substances, thereby uncovering the specific drug targets in cancer cells. This development will blur the edges between “targeted” and “untargeted” therapy, and will hopefully lead to a more directed use of cancer medicine (based on a molecular rationale of activity) in the future.This Topical Collection will cover the whole scope from agents with cancer-preventive activity, to novel and previously characterized compounds with anti-cancer activity, both in vitro and in vivo, and the latest status of clinical development from drug trials. Of note, compounds possessing pro-carcinogenic activity or mediating cancer cell survival are also within the scope of this Topical Collection. In addition, a special focus will be placed on current shortfalls and possible strategies to overcome obstacles in the area of marine anti-cancer drug development.

Acoustic and Elastic Waves: Recent Trends in Science and Engineering

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038422976 9783038422969 Year: Pages: XVI, 448 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-297-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mathematics --- Physics (General) --- Acoustics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-20 08:51:20
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The present Special Issue intends to explore new directions in the field of acoustics and ultrasonics. The interest includes, but is not limited to, the use of acoustic technology for condition monitoring of materials and structures.Topics of interest (among others):• Acoustic emission in materials and structures (without material limitation)• Innovative cases of ultrasonic inspection• Wave dispersion and waveguides• Monitoring of innovative materials• Seismic waves• Vibrations, damping and noise control• Combination of mechanical wave techniques with other types for structural health monitoring purposes.Experimental and numerical studies are welcome.

Dynamical Models of Biology and Medicine

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039212170 / 9783039212187 Year: Pages: 294 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-218-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Mathematical and computational modeling approaches in biological and medical research are experiencing rapid growth globally. This Special Issue Book intends to scratch the surface of this exciting phenomenon. The subject areas covered involve general mathematical methods and their applications in biology and medicine, with an emphasis on work related to mathematical and computational modeling of the complex dynamics observed in biological and medical research. Fourteen rigorously reviewed papers were included in this Special Issue. These papers cover several timely topics relating to classical population biology, fundamental biology, and modern medicine. While the authors of these papers dealt with very different modeling questions, they were all motivated by specific applications in biology and medicine and employed innovative mathematical and computational methods to study the complex dynamics of their models. We hope that these papers detail case studies that will inspire many additional mathematical modeling efforts in biology and medicine

Keywords

hemodynamic model --- microcirculation load --- liquid-solid-porous media seepage coupling --- 2-combination --- graphical representation --- cell-based vector --- numerical characterization --- phylogenetic analysis --- intraguild predation --- random perturbations --- persistence --- stationary distribution --- global asymptotic stability --- quorum sensing --- chemostat --- mathematical model --- differential equations --- delay --- bifurcations --- dynamical system --- numerical simulation --- predator-prey model --- switched harvest --- limit cycle --- rich dynamics --- algae growth models --- uncertainty quantification --- asymptotic theory --- bootstrapping --- model comparison tests --- Raphidocelis subcapitata --- Daphnia magna --- spotting --- wildfire --- transport equations --- spotting distribution --- obesity --- mechano-electrochemical model --- articular cartilage --- cartilage degeneration --- cartilage loading --- optimal control --- hepatitis B --- delay differential equations (DDE) --- immune response --- drug therapy --- dynamic model --- flocculation --- global stability --- uniform persistence --- epidermis --- mathematical model --- bacterial inflammation --- bacterial competition --- chronic myeloid leukemia --- tyrosine kinase inhibitors --- immunomodulatory therapies --- combination therapy --- equilibrium points --- mathematical modeling --- prostate cancer --- androgen deprivation therapy --- data fitting --- generalized pseudo amino acid composition --- numerical characterization --- phylogenetic analysis --- identification of DNA-binding proteins --- n/a

Electrospun and Electrosprayed Formulations for Drug Delivery

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038979128 / 9783038979135 Year: Pages: 190 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-913-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 10:09:00
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This book is comprised of important reviews and cutting-edge original research papers concerning electrospun and electrosprayed formulations in drug delivery. Electrospinning and electrospraying have, in recent years, attracted increasing attention in the pharmaceutical sector, with research in the area advancing rapidly. It is now possible to prepare extremely complex systems using multi-fluid processes, and to increase production rates to an industrial scale. Electrospun formulations can be produced under GMP conditions and are in clinical trials. In this volume, we explore a range of topics around electrospinning and electrospraying in controlled drug delivery. Four reviews cover the exciting potential of cyclodextrin-containing fibers and the many potential biomedical applications of electrospun fibers. The use of electrospinning to prepare amorphous systems and improve the dissolution rate and solubility of poorly soluble active ingredients is addressed, and the possibilities of such materials in tissue engineering are comprehensively covered. The six original research papers cover the effect of molecular properties on API release from Eudragit-based electrospun fibers; ferulic acid solid dispersions; electrospun medicines to treat psoriasis; scale up of electrospinning and its use to produce low-dose tablets; transepithelial permeation of drugs released from electrospun fibers, and the possibilities for the synergistic chemophotothermal treatment of cancer.

Aging and Age-related Disorders: From Molecular Mechanisms to Therapies

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ISBN: 9783039213559 / 9783039213566 Year: Pages: 322 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-356-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Aging of unicellular and multicellular eukaryotic organisms is a convoluted biological phenomenon, which is manifested as an age-related functional decline caused by progressive dysregulation of certain cellular and organismal processes. Many chronic diseases are associated with human aging. These aging-associated diseases include cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, sarcopenia, stroke, neurodegenerative diseases (including Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and Huntington’s diseases), and many forms of cancer. Studies in yeast, roundworms, fruit flies, fishes, mice, primates, and humans have provided evidence that the major aspects and basic mechanisms of aging and aging-associated pathology are conserved across phyla. The focus of this International Journal of Molecular Sciences Special Issue is on molecular and cellular mechanisms, diagnostics, and therapies and diseases of aging. Fifteen original research and review articles in this Special Issue provide important insights into how various genetic, dietary, and pharmacological interventions can affect certain longevity-defining cellular and organismal processes to delay aging and postpone the onset of age-related pathologies in evolutionarily diverse organisms. These articles outline the most important unanswered questions and directions for future research in the vibrant and rapidly evolving fields of mechanisms of biological aging, aging-associated diseases, and aging-delaying therapies.

Marine Biotoxins and Seafood Poisoning

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039218189 / 9783039218196 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-819-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Marine biotoxins may pose a threat to the human consumption of seafood and seafood products. The increasing global trade and higher demand for seafood products worldwide represents a challenge for food safety authorities, policy makers, food business operators, and the scientific community, in particular, researchers devoted to environmental sciences, toxicology, and analytical chemistry. In addition, due to changes in climate conditions and technological developments, new and emerging marine toxins are being detected in regions where they were previously unknown. This Special Issue highlight studies aiming to the develop detection methods for marine biotoxins for better understanding the dynamics of accumulation/elimination of marine biotoxins and their effects on marine organisms, as well as toxin exposure studies that aim to evaluate the risks associated with the consumption of contaminated seafood.

Cognitive Aspects of Human-Computer Interaction for GIS

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ISBN: 9783039215683 / 9783039215690 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-569-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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The book is dealing with recent progress in human–computer interaction (HCI) related to geographic information science (GIS). The Editorial starts with an overview about the evolution of the Internet and first HCI concepts and stimulates recent HCI developments using 3D and 4D apps, running on all mobile devices with OS Android, iOS, Linus, and Windows. Eight research articles present the state-of-the-art in HCI–GIS-related issues, starting with gender and age differences in using indoor maps via the estimation of building heights from space to an efficient visualization method for polygonal data with dynamic simplification. The review article deals with progress and challenges on entity alignment of geographic knowledge bases.

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