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Analysis and Design of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems

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ISBN: 9783039286867 / 9783039286874 Year: Pages: 180 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-687-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The most important environmental challenge today's society is facing is to reduce the effects of CO2 emissions and global warming. Such an ambitious challenge can only be achieved through a holistic approach, capable of tackling the problem from a multidisciplinary point of view. One of the core technologies called to play a critical role in this approach is the use of energy storage systems. These systems enable, among other things, the balancing of the stochastic behavior of Renewable Sources and Distributed Generation in modern Energy Systems; the efficient supply of industrial and consumer loads; the development of efficient and clean transport; and the development of Nearly-Zero Energy Buildings (nZEB) and intelligent cities. Hybrid Energy Storage Systems (HESS) consist of two (or more) storage devices with complementary key characteristics, that are able to behave jointly with better performance than any of the technologies considered individually. Recent developments in storage device technologies, interface systems, control and monitoring techniques, or visualization and information technologies have driven the implementation of HESS in many industrial, commercial and domestic applications. This Special Issue focuses on the analysis, design and implementation of hybrid energy storage systems across a broad spectrum, encompassing different storage technologies (including electrochemical, capacitive, mechanical or mechanical storage devices), engineering branches (power electronics and control strategies; energy engineering; energy engineering; chemistry; modelling, simulation and emulation techniques; data analysis and algorithms; social and economic analysis; intelligent and Internet-of-Things (IoT) systems; and so on.), applications (energy systems, renewable energy generation, industrial applications, transportation, Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS) and critical load supply, etc.) and evaluation and performance (size and weight benefits, efficiency and power loss, economic analysis, environmental costs, etc.).

Optimum Choice of Energy System Configuration and Storages for a Proper Match between Energy Conversion and Demands

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ISBN: 9783039280360 9783039280377 Year: Pages: 362 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-037-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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This Special Issue addresses the general problem of a proper match between the demands of energy users and the units for energy conversion and storage, by means of proper design and operation of the overall energy system configuration. The focus is either on systems including single plants or groups of plants, connected or not to one or more energy distribution networks. In both cases, the optimum design and operation involve decisions about thermodynamic processes, about the type, number, design parameters of components/plants, and storage capacities, and about mutual interconnections and the interconnections with the distribution grids. The problem is absolutely general, encompassing design and operation of energy systems for single houses, groups of houses, industries, industrial districts, municipal areas, regions and countries. The presented papers show that similar approaches can be used in different applications, although a general standard has not been achieved yet.

Keywords

advanced exergy-based analysis --- superstructure-based --- superstructure-free --- mathematical programming --- flowsheet synthesis --- multi-objective optimization --- thermal power plants --- gas supply chain --- optimization --- distributed energy --- liquefied natural gas (LNG) --- compressed natural gas (CNG) --- small-scale compressed-air energy storage (SS-CAES) --- energy storage --- exergy analysis --- optimization --- Real Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA) --- Violation Constraint-Handling (VCH) --- oil palm --- palm oil mills --- palm oil residues --- value-added products --- supply chains optimization --- spatial analysis --- techno-economic analysis --- wave energy --- battery storage --- price estimation --- hourly distribution --- electricity production --- electricity demand --- synthesis/design optimization --- cycle configuration --- absorption technology --- absorption refrigerator --- district energy system --- optimization --- renewable energy systems --- combined heat and power --- operating cost --- uncertainty --- reliability --- sustainability --- IEEE-RTS --- uncertainties --- MONA --- energy storage --- thermo-electric --- supercritical CO2 --- solar energy --- thermal energy storage --- mixed integer linear programming --- rolling-horizon --- combined heat and power --- optimization --- energy systems --- integrated ship energy systems --- synthesis --- design and operation optimization --- intertemporal optimization --- dynamic optimization --- smart energy systems --- Mixed-Integer NonLinear/Linear Programming (MINLP/MILP) --- dynamic modelling --- design and operation optimization --- fleet of energy conversion and storage units --- smart power systems --- multi-energy systems --- optimization of energy systems design and operation

Optimisation Models and Methods in Energy Systems

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ISBN: 9783039211180 9783039211197 Year: Pages: 192 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-119-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Challenging problems arise in all segments of energy industries—generation, transmission, distribution and consumption. Optimization models and methods play a key role in offering decision/policy makers better information to assist them in making sounder decisions at different levels, ranging from operational to strategic planning.

Process Modelling and Simulation

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ISBN: 9783039214556 9783039214563 Year: Pages: 298 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-456-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Since process models are nowadays ubiquitous in many applications, the challenges and alternatives related to their development, validation, and efficient use have become more apparent. In addition, the massive amounts of both offline and online data available today open the door for new applications and solutions. However, transforming data into useful models and information in the context of the process industry or of bio-systems requires specific approaches and considerations such as new modelling methodologies incorporating the complex, stochastic, hybrid and distributed nature of many processes in particular. The same can be said about the tools and software environments used to describe, code, and solve such models for their further exploitation. Going well beyond mere simulation tools, these advanced tools offer a software suite built around the models, facilitating tasks such as experiment design, parameter estimation, model initialization, validation, analysis, size reduction, discretization, optimization, distributed computation, co-simulation, etc. This Special Issue collects novel developments in these topics in order to address the challenges brought by the use of models in their different facets, and to reflect state of the art developments in methods, tools and industrial applications.

Keywords

process model validation --- partial least square regression --- phytochemicals --- natural extracts --- wheat germ --- fluidized bed drying --- mathematical model --- moisture content --- condensation --- simulation --- Pharmaceutical Processes --- Mammalian Cell Culture --- sensitivity analysis --- parameter estimation --- Design of Experiments --- algebraic modeling language --- dynamic optimization --- model predictive control --- moving horizon estimation --- fluid bed granulation --- heat and mass balance --- population balance model --- binder dissolution --- kernel development --- robust optimization --- uncertainty --- point estimation method --- equality constraints --- parameter correlation --- barley --- simulation --- hydration --- swelling --- cooking --- porridge --- extents --- graph theory --- model identification --- observability --- optimal clustering --- parameter estimation --- state decoupling --- data-mining --- machine learning --- neural networks --- chemistry --- materials --- engineering --- energy --- grey-box model --- machine learning --- SOS programming --- process modeling --- scrap dissolution --- scrap melting --- thermodynamics --- kinetics --- dynamic converter modelling --- Combined Heat and Power --- gray-box model --- utility management --- CHP legislation --- optimization --- polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fiber --- coagulation bath --- dry-jet wet spinning process --- computational fluid dynamics --- wave resonance --- maximum wave amplitude --- reactor coolant pump --- vane --- costing stopping --- mathematical model --- idling test --- n/a

Alternative Sources of Energy Modeling and Automation

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ISBN: 9783039283743 9783039283750 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-375-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Micro-power domestic organic Rankine cycle (ORC) systems and the selection of the expander and the working fluid are presented, analyzed thoroughly, and numerically evaluated. A promising decentralized hybrid PV-SOFC system is investigated for providing useful energy supply to commercial buildings, capable of power and heat generation at a lower cost. A hybrid solar-combined cycle power plant integrated with a packed-bed thermal energy storage system with a novel recycling configuration enables robust control of collector temperature and net power during times of high solar activity. An automated hybrid (solar and biomass) power plant for thermal energy production for indoor space heating loads coverage is presented. A comprehensive and up-to-date literature review is presented of non-iterative methods for the extraction of the single diode model parameters of photovoltaic modules. A prototype custom built two-speed gearbox with a single stage transmission electric vehicle achieves significant reductions in the overall energy consumption. Two new fuzzy models are presented of high concentrator photovoltaics using the high-accuracy Takagi–Sugeno–Kang approach and the ease of interpreting the Mamdani linguistic rules. Finally, the impact of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in the primary frequency regulation is studied and the effects of PHEVs in non-interconnected isolated power systems with significant renewable energy source (RES) penetration are demonstrated through simulations of the isolated power system of Cyprus Island.

Control and Nonlinear Dynamics on Energy Conversion Systems

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ISBN: 9783039211104 9783039211111 Year: Pages: 438 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-111-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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The ever-increasing need for higher efficiency, smaller size, and lower cost make the analysis, understanding, and design of energy conversion systems extremely important, interesting, and even imperative. One of the most neglected features in the study of such systems is the effect of the inherent nonlinearities on the stability of the system. Due to these nonlinearities, these devices may exhibit undesirable and complex dynamics, which are the focus of many researchers. Even though a lot of research has taken place in this area during the last 20 years, it is still an active research topic for mainstream power engineers. This research has demonstrated that these systems can become unstable with a direct result in increased losses, extra subharmonics, and even uncontrollability/unobservability. The detailed study of these systems can help in the design of smaller, lighter, and less expensive converters that are particularly important in emerging areas of research like electric vehicles, smart grids, renewable energy sources, and others. The aim of this Special Issue is to cover control and nonlinear aspects of instabilities in different energy conversion systems: theoretical, analysis modelling, and practical solutions for such emerging applications. In this Special Issue, we present novel research works in different areas of the control and nonlinear dynamics of energy conversion systems.

Keywords

data-driven --- prediction --- neural network --- air-handling unit (AHU) --- supply air temperature --- pulverizing system --- soft sensor --- inferential control --- moving horizon estimation --- multi-model predictive control --- micro-grid --- droop control --- virtual impedance --- harmonic suppression --- power quality --- combined heat and power unit --- two-stage bypass --- dynamic model --- coordinated control system --- predictive control --- decoupling control --- power conversion --- model–plant mismatches --- disturbance observer --- performance recovery --- offset-free --- electrical machine --- electromagnetic vibration --- multiphysics --- rotor dynamics --- air gap eccentricity --- calculation method --- magnetic saturation --- corrugated pipe --- whistling noise --- Helmholtz number --- excited modes --- switched reluctance generator --- capacitance current pulse train control --- voltage ripple --- capacitance current --- feedback coefficient --- distributed architecture --- maximum power point tracking --- sliding mode control --- overvoltage --- permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) --- single artificial neuron goal representation heuristic dynamic programming (SAN-GrHDP) --- single artificial neuron (SAN) --- reinforcement learning (RL) --- goal representation heuristic dynamic programming (GrHDP) --- adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) --- sliding mode observer (SMO) --- permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) --- extended back electromotive force (EEMF) --- position sensorless --- bridgeless converter --- discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) --- high step-up voltage gain --- power factor correction (PFC) --- space mechanism --- multi-clearance --- nonlinear dynamic model --- planetary gears --- vibration characteristics --- new step-up converter --- ultrahigh voltage conversion ratio --- small-signal model --- average-current mode control --- slope compensation --- monodromy matrix --- current mode control --- boost-flyback converter --- explosion-magnetic generator --- plasma accelerator --- current-pulse formation --- DC-DC buck converter --- contraction analysis --- global stability --- matrix norm --- DC micro grid --- efficiency optimization --- variable bus voltage MG --- variable switching frequency DC-DC converters --- centralized vs. decentralized control --- local vs. global optimization --- buck converter --- DC motor --- bifurcations in control parameter --- sliding control --- zero average dynamics --- fixed-point inducting control --- DC-DC converters --- quadratic boost --- maximum power point tracking (MPPT) --- nonlinear dynamics --- subharmonic oscillations --- photovoltaic (PV) --- steel catenary riser --- rigid body rotation --- wave --- the load of suspension point in the z direction --- Cable3D

Methods and Concepts for Designing and Validating Smart Grid Systems

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039216482 9783039216499 Year: Pages: 408 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-649-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Energy efficiency and low-carbon technologies are key contributors to curtailing the emission of greenhouse gases that continue to cause global warming. The efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions also strongly affect electrical power systems. Renewable sources, storage systems, and flexible loads provide new system controls, but power system operators and utilities have to deal with their fluctuating nature, limited storage capabilities, and typically higher infrastructure complexity with a growing number of heterogeneous components. In addition to the technological change of new components, the liberalization of energy markets and new regulatory rules bring contextual change that necessitates the restructuring of the design and operation of future energy systems. Sophisticated component design methods, intelligent information and communication architectures, automation and control concepts, new and advanced markets, as well as proper standards are necessary in order to manage the higher complexity of such intelligent power systems that form smart grids. Due to the considerably higher complexity of such cyber-physical energy systems, constituting the power system, automation, protection, information and communication technology (ICT), and system services, it is expected that the design and validation of smart-grid configurations will play a major role in future technology and system developments. However, an integrated approach for the design and evaluation of smart-grid configurations incorporating these diverse constituent parts remains evasive. The currently available validation approaches focus mainly on component-oriented methods. In order to guarantee a sustainable, affordable, and secure supply of electricity through the transition to a future smart grid with considerably higher complexity and innovation, new design, validation, and testing methods appropriate for cyber-physical systems are required. Therefore, this book summarizes recent research results and developments related to the design and validation of smart grid systems.

Keywords

adaptive control --- fuzzy logic --- cell --- frequency containment control (FCC) --- power frequency characteristic --- droop control --- smart grids --- substation automation system (SAS) --- high-availability seamless redundancy (HSR) --- seamless communications --- traffic reduction technique --- Power Hardware-in-the-Loop (PHIL) --- interface algorithm (IA) --- operational range of PHIL --- linear/switching amplifier --- cyber-physical energy system --- co-simulation --- conceptual structuration --- coupling method --- linear decision rules --- optimal reserve allocation --- robust optimization --- web of cells --- demand response --- real-time balancing market --- elastic demand bids --- shiftable loads --- market design --- market design elements --- Web-of-Cells --- procurement scheme --- remuneration scheme --- pricing scheme --- cascading procurement --- real-time simulation --- hardware-in-the-Loop --- synchrophasors --- micro-synchrophasors --- distribution phasor measurement units --- distribution grid --- time synchronization --- PHIL (power hardware in the loop) --- simulation initialization --- synchronization --- time delay --- synchronous power system --- stability --- accuracy --- peer-to-peer --- distributed control --- device-to-device communication --- voltage control --- experimentation --- smart grid --- cyber physical co-simulation --- information and communication technology --- 4G Long Term Evolution—LTE --- network reconfiguration --- fault management --- power loss allocation --- plug-in electric vehicle --- smart grid --- locational marginal prices --- microgrid --- resilience --- investment --- underground cabling --- network outage --- battery energy storage system (BESS) --- micro combined heat and power (micro-CHP) --- electricity distribution --- solar photovoltaics (PV) --- islanded operation --- distributed control --- microgrid --- hardware-in-the-loop --- average consensus --- multi-agent system --- active distribution network --- laboratory testbed --- renewable energy sources --- DC link --- centralised control --- interoperability --- smart energy systems --- use cases --- IEC 62559 --- SGAM --- TOGAF --- integration profiles --- IHE --- testing --- gazelle --- connectathon --- Hardware-in-the-Loop --- Software-in-the-Loop --- Power-Hardware-in-the-Loop --- Quasi-Dynamic Power-Hardware-in-the-Loop --- smart grids --- real-time simulation --- validation and testing --- decentralised energy system --- smart grids control strategies --- smart grid --- wind power --- synchronized measurements --- PMU --- data mining --- Architecture --- Development --- Enterprise Architecture Management --- Model-Based Software Engineering --- Smart Grid --- Smart Grid Architecture Model --- System-of-Systems --- Validation --- design, development and implementation methods for smart grid technologies --- modelling and simulation of smart grid systems --- co-simulation-based assessment methods --- validation techniques for innovative smart grid solutions --- real-time simulation and hardware-in-the-loop experiments

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MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (7)


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CC by-nc-nd (7)


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english (6)

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2020 (3)

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