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Mineral Matter and Trace Elements in Coal

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ISBN: 9783038426226 9783038426233 Year: Pages: 382 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-10 12:56:06
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Minerals are very significant components of coal from both academic and practical perspectives. Minerals may react when the coal is burned, either forming an ash residue, or, in many cases, releasing volatile components, or being needed to be removed as slag from the blast furnace during metallurgical processing. Minerals in coal can also be a source of unwanted abrasion, stickiness, corrosion, or pollution associated with coal handling and use. Minerals in coal, in some cases, are major carriers of valuable metals, such as Ga, Al, and rare earth elements, and these coals with highly-evaluated valuable metals have the potential to be raw sources for industry use. From the genetic point of view, the minerals in coal are products of the processes associated with peat accumulation and rank advance, as well as other aspects of epigenetic processes, and, thus, the minerals in coal can provide information on the depositional conditions and geologic history of individual coal beds, coal-bearing sequences, and regional tectonic evolution. This Special Issue, “Minerals in Coal”, focuses on providing an up-to-date series of papers, covering research and technological developments in the nature, origin, and significance of the minerals in coal, and productions derived from combustion and gasification.

Optics and Spectroscopy for Fluid Characterization

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ISBN: 9783038970217 9783038970224 Year: Pages: VIII, 120 Language: Englisch
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-21 15:51:54
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All over the world, there is a huge and ever-increasing interest in the development and application of optical and spectroscopic techniques to characterize fluids in engineering and science. The large number of review articles that are frequently published in these areas is evidence of this. Recent examples have focused on applications of optical diagnostics to gas phase environments, liquids, and multiphase systems. A key feature of such light-based methods is that they are usually non-intrusive, and hence they do not notably affect the system under investigation. As a consequence, optical techniques have been developed for many decades and represent the gold standard in many fields. The list of individual techniques utilizing absorption, refraction, diffraction and scattering effects is long and so is the list of the parameters that can be determined. The latter includes macroscopic properties such as temperature, chemical composition, thermophysical quantities, and flow velocity, but molecular information, e.g., about isomerism and intermolecular interactions, can also be obtained. This Special Issue entitled “Optics and Spectroscopy for Fluid Characterization” aims to demonstrate the breadth of the field in terms of methodology, as well as applications.

Verbrennungskontrollierte Erwärmung des Brennraums zur Emissionsreduktion während des Kaltstarts - Untersuchungen zu Emissionen und zur Flammenausbreitung

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ISBN: 9783731508236 Year: Pages: XII, 121 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000084432 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:02
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This work describes the influence of catalytic converter heating strategies on the emissions during heating operation, as well as during the subsequent load demand at different engine start temperatures. A novel strategy is presented, that provides heating of the combustion chamber, without decreasing the catalyst converter heating significantly. The studies were carried out on a gasoline engine. Emissions were examined in detail. In addition, the flame propagation is evaluated experimentally.

Simulation of Turbulent Flows with and without Combustion with Emphasis on the Impact of Coherent Structures on the Turbulent Mixing

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ISBN: 9783731504085 Year: Pages: XXXI, 215 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000047969 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:02
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The analysis of turbulent mixing in complex turbulent flows is a challenging task. The effective mixing of entrained fluids to a molecular level is a vital part of the dynamics of turbulent flows, especially when combustion is involved. The work has shown the limitations of the steady-state simulations and acknowledged the need of applying high-fidelity unsteady methods for the calculation of flows with pronounced unsteadiness promoted by large-scale coherent structures or other sources.

Atmospheric Composition Observations

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ISBN: 9783038422846 9783038422853 Year: Pages: XIV, 322 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-285-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-11-04 11:24:05
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The composition of the atmosphere is a critical factor in understanding the nature and magnitude of processes associated with the planet’s energy balance, clouds and precipitation, biogeochemical cycling of nutrients, and public health and welfare. A detailed understanding of trace gases, aerosol particles, and hydrometeors is challenging due to the combination of their physicochemical complexity, variable lifetimes, and spatial inhomogeneity. Recent advances in instrumentation have resulted in improved measurements and an increased understanding of atmospheric composition. Laboratory and field in-situ measurement studies have benefited from such improvements, including improved spatial and temporal resolution, the ability to sample in challenging conditions (e.g., on airborne platforms, in clouds, at widely ranging pressure and temperature conditions), and the ability to measure a wider range of chemical species, and, in the case of aerosol particles, to detect smaller sizes. Remote sensing capabilities have increased in recent years, thus offering new views of atmospheric composition across broad spatiotemporal ranges. Manuscripts related to all aspects of atmospheric observations are included in this Special Issue, including advances in observational techniques and scientific insights into atmospheric composition.

Turbulence: Numerical Analysis, Modelling and Simulation

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ISBN: 9783038428091 9783038428107 Year: Pages: VI, 222 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-04 10:38:08
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The problem of accurate and reliable simulation of turbulent flows is a central and intractable challenge that crosses disciplinary boundaries. As the needs for accuracy increase and the applications expand beyond flows where extensive data is available for calibration, the importance of a sound mathematical foundation that addresses the needs of practical computing increases. This Special Issue is directed at this crossroads of rigorous numerical analysis, the physics of turbulence and the practical needs of turbulent flow simulations. It seeks papers providing a broad understanding of the status of the problem considered and open problems that comprise further steps.

Numerische Simulation wirbeldynamischen Instabilitätsverhaltens turbulenter Vormischflammen

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ISBN: 9783731502661 Year: Pages: xxx, 317 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000043130 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:57
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This work contributes to an improved understanding of the driving mechanisms of the upstream propagation of turbulent premixed flames in enclosed vortex tubes within stationary gas turbine combustion systems. For this purpose, a Flamelet approach based on coupling a transport equation of the flame surface density with the description of laminar Flamelets to turbulent conditions is developed. This coupled approach enables the deduction of an explanation of this flashback phenomenon.

Sustainability of Fossil Fuels

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ISBN: 9783039212194 / 9783039212200 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-220-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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The energy and fuel industries represent an extensive field for the development and implementation of solutions aimed at improving the technological, environmental, and economic performance of technological cycles. In recent years, the issues of ecology and energy security have become especially important. Energy is firmly connected with all spheres of human economic life but, unfortunately, it also has an extremely negative (often fatal) effect on the environment and public health. Depletion of energy resources, the complexity of their extraction, and transportation are also problems of a global scale. Therefore, it is especially important nowadays to try to take care of nature and think about the resources that are necessary for future generations. For scientific teams in different countries, the development of sustainable and safe technologies for the use of fuels in the energy sector will be a challenge in the coming decades

Keywords

coal --- slurry fuel --- combustion --- forest fuels --- biomass --- anthropogenic emission concentration --- municipal solid waste --- coal processing waste --- oil refining waste --- waste management --- composite fuel --- energy production --- fuel activation --- waste-derived fuel --- coal-water slurry --- laser pulse --- syngas --- aerosol --- two-component droplet --- heating --- evaporation --- explosive breakup --- disintegration --- droplet holder material --- hydraulic fracturing --- water retention in shale --- anionic surfactant --- shale gas --- supercritical CO2 --- tectonic coal --- pore structure --- methane desorption --- embedded discrete fracture model --- fractured reservoir simulation --- matrix-fracture transmissibility --- combustion --- methane hydrate --- hydrate dissociation --- PTV method --- transport of tracers --- linear drift effect --- convection–diffusion equation --- enhanced oil recovery --- closed-form analytical solution --- methane --- combustion mechanism --- mechanism reduction --- skeletal mechanism --- Bunsen burner --- covert fault zone --- genetic mechanism --- Qikou Sag --- structure evolution --- oil-controlling mode --- Riedel shear --- Mohr–Coulomb theory --- slurry fuel --- ignition --- combustion --- combustion chamber --- soaring of fuel droplets --- trajectories of fuel droplets --- decorated polyacrylamide --- physical properties --- displacement mechanism --- flow behavior --- enhanced recovery --- injection mode --- coal consumption forecasting --- support vector machine --- improved gravitational search algorithm --- grey relational analysis --- dual string completion --- gas lift --- gas lift rate --- split factor --- gas robbing --- gas lift optimization

Applications of Computational Intelligence to Power Systems

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ISBN: 9783039217601/9783039217618 Year: Pages: 116 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:31:56
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Electric power systems around the world are changing in terms of structure, operation, management and ownership due to technical, financial, and ideological reasons. Power systems keep on expanding in terms of geographical areas, asset additions, and the penetration of new technologies in generation, transmission, and distribution. The conventional methods for solving the power system design, planning, operation, and control problems have been extensively used for different applications, but these methods suffer from several difficulties, thus providing suboptimal solutions. Computationally intelligent methods can offer better solutions for several conditions and are being widely applied in electrical engineering applications. This Special Issue represents a thorough treatment of computational intelligence from an electrical power system engineer’s perspective. Thorough, well-organised, and up-to-date, it examines in detail some of the important aspects of this very exciting and rapidly emerging technology, including machine learning, particle swarm optimization, genetic algorithms, and deep learning systems. Written in a concise and flowing manner by experts in the area of electrical power systems who have experience in the application of computational intelligence for solving many complex and difficult power system problems, this Special Issue is ideal for professional engineers and postgraduate students entering this exciting field.

Food Packaging. Materials and Technologies

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038977667 9783038977674 Year: Pages: 216 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-767-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Because of the increasing pressure on both food safety and packaging/food waste, the topic is important both for academics, applied research, industry and also for environment protection. Different materials, such as glass, metals, paper and paperboards, and non-degradable and degradable polymers, with versatile properties, are attractive for potential uses in food packaging. Food packaging is the largest area of application within the food sector. Only the nanotechnology-enabled products in the food sector account for ~50% of the market value, with and the annual growth rate is 11.65%. Technological developments are also of great interest. In the food sector, nanotechnology is involved in packaging materials with extremely high gas barriers, antimicrobial properties, and also in nanoencapsulants for the delivery of nutrients, flavors, or aromas, antimicrobial, and antioxidant compounds. Applications of materials, including nanomaterials in packaging and food safety, are in forms of: edible films, polymer nanocomposites, as high barrier packaging materials, nanocoatings, surface biocides, silver nanoparticles as potent antimicrobial agents, nutrition and neutraceuticals, active/bioactive packaging, intelligent packaging, nanosensors and nanomaterial-based assays for the detection of food relevant analytes (gasses, small organic molecules and food-borne pathogens) and bioplastics.

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