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Understanding Developmental Dyslexia: Linking Perceptual and Cognitive Deficits to Reading Processes

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198641 Year: Pages: 309 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-864-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Understanding the mechanisms responsible for developmental dyslexia (DD) is a key challenge for researchers. A large literature, mostly concerned with learning to read in opaque orthographies, emphasizes phono-logical interpretations of the disturbance. Other approaches focused on the visual-per-ceptual aspects of orthographic coding. Recently, this perspective was supported by imaging data showing that individuals with DD have hypo-activation in occipito-temporal areas (a finding common to both transpar-ent and opaque orthographies). Nevertheless, it is difficult to infer causal relationships from activation data. Accommodating these findings within the cognitive architecture of reading processes is still an open issue. This is a general problem, which is present in much of the literature. For example, several studies investigating the perceptual and cognitive abilities that distinguish groups of children with and without DD failed to provide explicit links with the reading process. Thus, several areas of investigation (e.g., acoustic deficits or magnocellular deficiencies) have been plagued by replication failures. Furthermore, much research has neglected the possible contribution of comorbid symptoms. By contrast, it is now well established that developmental disorders present a large spectrum of homotopic and heterotopic co-morbidities that make causal interpretations problematic. This has led to the idea that the etiology of learning difficulties is multifactorial, thus challenging the traditional models of DD. Recent genetic studies provide information on the multiple risk factors that contribute to the genesis of the disturbance. Another critical issue in DD is that much of the research has been conducted in English-speaking individuals. However, English is a highly irregular orthography and doubts have been raised on the appropriateness of automatically extending interpretations based on English to other more regular orthographies. By contrast, important information can be gotten from systematic comparisons across languages. Thus, the distinction between regular and irregular orthographies is another potentially fruitful area of investigation. Overall, in spite of much research current interpretations seem unable to integrate all available findings. Some proposals focus on the cognitive description of the reading profile and explicitly ignore the distal causes of the disturbance. Others propose visual, acoustic or phonological mech-anisms but fail to link them to the pattern of reading impairment present in different children. The present Research Topic brings together studies based on different methodological approaches (i.e., behavioural studies examining cognitive and psycholinguistic factors, eye movement inves-tigations, biological markers, neuroimaging and genetic studies), involving dyslexic groups with and without comorbid symptoms, and in different orthographies (transparent and opaque) to identify the mechanisms underlying DD. The RT does not focus on a single model or theory of dyslexia but rather brings together different approaches and ideas which we feel are fruitful for a deeper understanding developmental dyslexia.

Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Effective Radiotherapy Delivery

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198498 Year: Pages: 111 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-849-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) is a new radiotherapy technology that combines the rapid dose fall off associated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and daily tumor imaging allowing for high precision tumor dose delivery and effective sparing of surrounding normal organs. The new radiation technology requires close collaboration between radiologists, nuclear medicine specialists, and radiation oncologists to avoid marginal miss. Modern diagnostic imaging such as positron emission tomography (PET) scans, positron emission tomography with Computed Tomograpgy (PET-CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows the radiation oncologist to target the positive tumor with high accuracy. As the tumor is well visualized during radiation treatment, the margins required to avoid geographic miss can be safely reduced , thus sparing the normal organs from excessive radiation. When the tumor is located close to critical radiosensitive structures such as the spinal cord, IGRT can deliver a high dose of radiation to the tumor and simultaneously decreasing treatment toxicity, thus potentially improving cure rates and patient quality of life. During radiotherapy, tumor shrinkage and changes of normal tissues/volumes can be detected daily with IGRT. The volume changes in the target volumes and organs at risk often lead to increased radiation dose to the normal tissues and if left uncorrected may result in late complications. Adaptive radiotherapy with re-planning during the course of radiotherapy is therefore another advantage of IGRT over the conventional radiotherapy techniques. This new technology of radiotherapy delivery provides the radiation oncologist an effective tool to improve patient quality of life. In the future, radiation dose-escalation to the residual tumor may potentially improve survival rates. Because the treatment complexity, a great deal of work is required from the dosimetry staff and physicists to ensure quality of care. Preliminary clinical results with IGRT are encouraging but more prospective studies should be performed in the future to assess the effectiveness of IGRT in improving patient quality of life and local control. In this Frontiers Research Topic, we encourage submission of original papers and reviews dealing with imaging for radiotherapy planning, the physics and dosimetry associated with IGRT, as well as the clinical outcomes for cancer treatment with IGRT for all tumor sites.

Exploring Gender and Sex Differences in Behavioral Dyscontrol: from Drug Addiction to Impulse Control Disorders

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198337 Year: Pages: 99 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-833-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychiatry --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Males and females exhibit discrete attitudes and skills, experience dissimilar emotional and psychological needs, and react differently to peer pressure, lack of self-realization, or other personal and social expectations. In addition, they are differently influenced by family history, and diverge in the perception of self-image and health risks. To complicate the matter on gender dichotomy, male testosterone levels markedly vary over the course of the day, while female levels of sex hormones significantly fluctuate depending upon the menstrual cycle, the pre- or post-menopausal age, and the use of oral contraceptives. All of these factors interact with genetic background and sex hormonal fluctuations, and determine the differences observed in their predisposition to develop an addiction. This term is traditionally associated to the abuse of legal and illegal substances. However, a compulsion toward the engagement in a non-drug-related rewarding behavior, usually involving a natural reward, also activates the brain reward system and engenders persistent behavior, thus resulting in a diminished control over it. These latter behaviors are defined as “behavioral addictions”. This definition encompasses any behavior characterized by the followings: i) feeling of tension or arousal before the action; ii) gratification and/or relief at the time of performing the act; iii) inability to resist an urge or drive even against great obstacles or dangers; iv) absence of consideration for the negative consequences that may affect family, friends, and/or work. As such, behavioral addictions include compulsive food intake and sexual activity, pathological gambling and Internet addiction, excessive exercising, compulsive buying and pyromania. These behaviors, which are often classified as "impulse control disorders", result in actions that are harmful to oneself and/or others, share common features (e.g. compulsiveness, impulsivity, impaired decision-making, craving, tolerance, withdrawal, high rates of relapse), and involve dysfunction of several brain circuits. Derangement from functional neurobiological mechanisms underpinning both sensitivity to reward and inhibitory control can also lead to compulsive behaviors. For instance, pathological gambling and other impulse control disorders (e.g., hypersexuality, compulsive painting, eating and buying) are often reported in Parkinson's disease patients. Gender-dependent differences in the rate of initiation and frequency of misuse of addicting drugs have been widely described. Yet, men and women also differ in their propensity to become addicted to other rewarding stimuli (e.g. sex, food) or activities (e.g. gambling, exercising). The goal of the present Research Topic is to explore and summarize current evidence for gender (and sex) differences not only in drug addiction, but also in other forms of addictive behaviors. Thus, it will include studies showing gender-dependent differences in drug addiction, food addiction, compulsive sexual activity, pathological gambling, Internet addiction and physical exercise addiction. Psychiatric comorbidity, potential risk factors and the underlying neural mechanisms will be also examined, with particular emphasis to the role of sex hormones in modulating addictive and compulsive behaviors.

Internet and Mobile Phone Addiction. Health and Educational Effects

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ISBN: 9783038976042 Year: Pages: 328 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-605-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 15:50:41
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Internet use-related addiction problems (e.g., Internet addiction, problem mobile phone use, problem gaming, and social networking) have been defined according to the same core element: the addictive symptomatology presented by individuals who excessively and problematically behave using the technology. Online activity is the most important factor in their lives, causing them the loss of control by stress and difficulties in managing at least one aspect of their daily life, affecting users’ wellbeing and health. In 2018, Gaming Disorder was included as a mental disease in the 11th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases by the World Health Organization. In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association requested additional research on Internet Gaming Disorder. The papers contained in this e-Book provide unique and original perspectives on the concept, development, and early detection of the prevention of these health problems. They are diverse in the nature of the problems they deal with, methodologies, populations, cultures, and contain insights and a clear indication of the impact of individual, social, and environmental factors on Internet use-related addiction problems. The e-Book illustrates recent progress in the evolution of research, with great emphasis on gaming and smartphone problems, signaling areas in which research would be useful, even cross-culturally.

Keywords

commuting --- well-being --- personality --- gender --- stress --- Internet addiction --- Internet gaming disorder --- game device usage pattern --- smartphone --- comorbidity --- Internet gaming disorder --- IGD --- emotional regulation --- cognitive reappraisal --- suppression --- depression --- hostility --- internet gaming disorder --- Dickman Impulsivity Inventory-Short Version (DII) --- Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS) --- Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) --- Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) --- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) --- gambling --- video-game addiction --- screen addiction --- immersion --- problematic Internet use --- comorbidity --- cognitive distortion --- problematic smartphone use --- smartphone addiction --- social media --- approaches to learning --- deep approach to learning --- surface approach to learning --- smartphone --- problematic mobile phone use --- convergent design --- focus group --- survey --- internet gaming disorder --- impulsivity --- depression --- interpersonal relationships --- serial mediation --- Internet addiction --- mobile phone addiction --- online social network --- university students --- technological addictions --- behavioral addictions --- CERI --- CERM --- mobile phone dependence --- mobile phone use --- impulsivity --- China --- Internet addiction --- Internet-use disorder --- Internet literacy --- expectancies --- personality --- cultural differences --- pathological video-game use --- Internet Gaming Disorder --- comorbid psychopathology --- review --- Internet Use Disorder --- prevalence --- epidemiology --- adolescence --- latent profile analysis --- anxiety --- depression --- Internet addiction --- smartphone addiction --- propensity score --- Internet addiction --- coping strategies --- personality traits --- young people --- mobile phone use --- smartphone use --- Problematic Mobile Phone Use --- Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire --- psychometric testing --- measurement invariance --- time --- gaming disorder --- interpersonal relations --- self-efficacy --- self-control --- expectations --- fear of missing out (FOMO) --- social media --- problematic social media use (PSMU) --- phubbing --- teenagers --- adolescents --- addiction --- internet addiction --- mobile phone (or smartphone) use --- young children --- early childhood education --- parenting --- emergent bilinguals --- intergenerational language transmission --- behavioural addictions --- generalised versus specific problem Internet uses --- Internet addiction --- gaming disorder --- social networking --- mixed methods research

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