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Dörfer und Deputierte

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ISBN: 9783205788157 Year: Pages: 946 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_453613 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 4312
Added to DOAB on : 2013-09-21 22:37:41
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The manuscript deals with the elections to the Austrian Constituent Diet in June 1848, compared with those to the French National Assembly in April of the same year, with a focus on the dissemination of new concepts and practices of politics – particularly electoral and representative politics – in rural areas. The approach is based on concepts from the debate on the “politicisation” of rural populations which has been conducted in France during the past decades. To facilitate a detailed analysis closely based on primary sources, the study is limited to the province of Lower Austria (excluding Vienna) and the former department of Seine-et-Oise, surrounding Paris. The manuscript is based on a dissertation accepted in 2010, which has been revised in both content and form. Additional archival research in France in January and February 2011 has allowed an augmentation of the primary source basis.After a summary of theoretical and methodical positions regarding the use of international comparison, a brief presentation of the debates on “politicisation” is intended to familiarize the reader both with the concept and with recent criticisms of it (Chapter 2). The resulting approach is based on the idea not of “politicization” versus a prior “apolitical” condition of rural populations, but rather of a complex of interconnected but not identical shifts in rural concepts and practices of politics.In a first section, demographic, economic and social conditions of the two regions are presented and compared (Chapter 3), as are intellectual preconditions regarding mobility, literacy, religious behavior, and prior experiences with political participation (Chapter 4). The revolutions of 1848 are described with particular attention devoted to the forms they took in rural areas (Chapter 5).The legal and normative framework of the elections is compared in detail, as are administrative prepa¬rations and the processes of electoral information (Chapter 6). These are viewed as efforts by which models of electoral politics, proposed by new and old political elites in both countries, were put before the populations using the power and communicative resources at the disposal of the elites. The elections themselves are first closely described under their procedural aspect; then an analysis of voting behaviour is attempted (Chapter 7). These multiple perspectives demonstrate that divergent notions of the meaning and function of elections competed, but also intermixed. This concerns not only rivalry between the elite-proposed models described in Chapter 6, but also their meeting with concepts held by members of the wider population. In Lower Austria, large numbers of rural voters either rejected or, more frequently, reinterpreted and subverted the proposed electoral model on the basis older practices of political articu¬lation predicated on a corporate subdivision of society. In Seine-et-Oise, behaviors pointing to divergent notions of election are comparatively marginal next to a widespread acceptance of the proposed model.Although the two cases studied differ considerably from one another, and both have only quite limited resemblance to late 20th-century ideals of democratic elections, both can be situated within a complex history of the gradual displacement of older concepts of elections specifically and of politics in general by elements of those familiar in the present.

Chapter 8 Categorising What We Study and What We Analyse, and the Exercise of Interpretation (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9783319768618 9783319768618 Year: Pages: 17 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-76861-8_8 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: FP7 Ideas: European Research Council - 283601
Subject: History --- Migration
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-02 11:01:01
License: Springer

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A lot of qualitative researchers have a healthy wariness about straightforward categorisation&#xD;and modelling endeavours undertaken by quantitative researchers. Too&#xD;often, variables and measurements are too rigid in quantitative analysis to take stock&#xD;of all the complexity and context-dependency of human behaviour, attitudes and&#xD;identities. In the worst-case scenario for migration studies, this leads to oversimplification,&#xD;essentialisation and culturalism. In line with King et al. (1994), I would,&#xD;however, in this chapter, like to plead for qualitative researchers to take into account&#xD;that, in terms of challenges of validity and reliability, we have a lot to learn from&#xD;each other. Acknowledging that qualitative research has its distinctive advantages&#xD;(Brady and Collier 2004), I will argue that choices in categorisation, case selection&#xD;and research design are of crucial importance, perhaps even more in qualitative&#xD;studies than in quantitative studies, even if in both methodological traditions we are&#xD;confronted with similar challenges. Being transparent and reflecting on the consequences&#xD;of our choices of categorisation, analysis and interpretation is of crucial&#xD;importance. It is too easy to think that qualitative research would, by definition, be&#xD;better equipped in doing justice to the phenomena we wish to study in the field of&#xD;migration, especially if our research focusses on migrants.&#xD;

Imagining the Future: Young Australians on sex, love and community

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ISBN: 9781922064356 Year: Pages: 300 DOI: 10.1017/9781922064356 Language: English
Publisher: University of Adelaide Press
Subject: Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2012-09-27 02:37:35
License: University of Adelaide Press

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Do young Australians understand and live ‘equality’ and ‘difference’ differently from older generations? Is Australia the gender equal society that many claim it to be? How do we understand and explain growing economic inequality when our dominant ideologies are individualism and neoliberalism? What are or should be the limits of tolerance in our negotiation of cultural difference? Imagining the Future explores our contemporary complex equality narrative through the desires and dreams of 1000 young Australians and 230 of their parents from diverse backgrounds across Australia. This ‘extraordinary’ data set affords analysis of the impact of gender, socio-economic disadvantage, ethnicity, Aboriginality and sexuality on young people’s ‘imagined life stories’, or essays written about their future. An intergenerational comparison assesses how different young people really are from older generations. The book offers a compelling and subtle engagement with the sometimes ‘deeply moving’, sometimes ‘hilarious’ voices of young people to deliver insight into the challenges and complexity of gender and other social relations in early 21st Australian society.

Retirement Timing and Social Stratification. A Comparative Study of Labor Market Exit and Age Norms in Western Europe

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ISBN: 9788376560410 9783110399240 Year: Pages: 329 DOI: 10.2478/9788376560410 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2014-03-05 13:28:39
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The monograph disseminates the very topical issue of retirement and its timing as the key to one of the greatest challenges facing ageing societies. Postponing retirement is now almost universally regarded as indispensable in order to relieve European welfare states from the demography-related financial pressures. This seminal study, derived from a statistical analysis of a large-scale survey data, provides a thorough understanding of the micro- and macro-level determinants of retirement timing in contemporary Western Europe. The book is the first monograph to combine the analysis of the retirement attitudes with the analysis of the retirement behaviour within one research. It tackles the question as to whether early retirement can be explained by “early exit culture”, triangulating life course theory with a social stratification approach. The author used a novel and innovative approach to obtain the results. The methodology includes: tobit models of proscriptive age norms; simulations of the impact of class structure on a country’s average retirement age; competing risks models of different work-exit modalities; duration selection models of retirement timing.

Evidence, ethos, and experiment

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9780857450937 Year: DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_478050 Language: English
Publisher: Berghahn Books Grant: Wellcome Trust - 074772
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Anthropology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-01-28 11:01:09

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Medical research has been central to biomedicine in Africa for over a century, and Africa, along with other tropical areas, has been crucial to the development of medical science. At present, study populations in Africa participate in an increasing number of medical research projects and clinical trials, run by both public institutions and private companies. Global debates about the politics and ethics of this research are growing and local concerns are prompting calls for social studies of the “trial communities” produced by this scientific work. Drawing on rich, ethnographic and historiographic ­­­material, this volume represents the emergent field of anthropological inquiry that links Africanist ethnography to recent concerns with science, the state, and the culture of late capitalism in Africa.

Spectral Line Shapes in Plasmas

ISBN: 9783906980812 9783906980829 Year: Pages: 232 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 07:51:31
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Line-shape analysis is one of the most important tools for diagnostics of both laboratory and space plasmas. Its reliable implementation requires sufficiently accurate calculations, which imply the use of analytic methods and computer codes of varying complexity, and, necessarily, varying limits of applicability and accuracy. However, studies comparing different computational and analytic methods are almost non-existent. The Spectral Line Shapes in Plasma (SLSP) code comparison workshop series [1] was established to fill this gap. Numerous computational cases considered in the two workshops organized to date (in April 2012 and August 2013 in Vienna, Austria) not only serve the purpose of code comparison, but also have applications in research of magnetic fusion, astrophysical, laser-produced plasmas, and so on. Therefore, although the first workshop was briefly reviewed elsewhere [2], and will likely be followed by a review of the second one, it was unanimously decided by the participants that a volume devoted to results of the workshops was desired. It is the main purpose of this special issue.

Methods in World History: A Critical Approach

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ISBN: 9789187675584 9789188168481 Year: Pages: 254 DOI: 10.21525/kriterium.2 Language: English
Publisher: Kriterium
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Law --- Economics --- Archaeology --- History
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-11 11:02:05
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"Interest in world history has never been greater—both among historians and the reading public. Globalization has coaxed historians out of their fixation on all things national, which has characterized historical research since the nineteenth century. But with this new global field of research has come new methodological problems. It is high time that these problems were tackled, if only to develop methods to ensure that world-historical research strives for the same high quality and standards as any other field of historical study. This book addresses all these problems in detail, with a particular emphasis on solutions. The contributors discuss how the progress made in the sciences, which offer unique access to new types of source material, can best be used by the historians of global processes. These are sources that demand an awareness of both their advantages and their drawbacks. The same is true of the secondary sources, which are the basis of most world-historical overviews and syntheses. Primary and secondary sources alike require shrewd handling in a way not seen before. Similarly, the calculations and comparisons essential to world history must be harmonized, and historians have to acknowledge that the information they are working from is often of variable quality and detail. Linguistic and cultural differences must also be analysed systematically whenever historians seek the recurring traits in human history, much as they must be alert to the strong ideological interests that all too often distort scholarly results.&#xD;Solutions to these and the other methodological problems are hammered out in this book. Whether researchers, students, or interested readers, anyone keen to sharpen their critical thinking about world history will find there is much to take away from this book.

Studying Trial Communities: Anthropological and Historical Inquiries into Ethos, Politics and Economy of Medical Research in Africa (Book chapter)

Book title: Evidence, ethos, and experiment

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9780857450920 9780857450937 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Berghahn Books Grant: Wellcome Trust - 074772
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Anthropology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 11:01:05
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Medical research has been central to biomedicine in Africa for over a century, and Africa, along with other tropical areas, has been crucial to the development of medical science. At present, study populations in Africa participate in an increasing number of medical research projects and clinical trials, run by both public institutions and private companies. Global debates about the politics and ethics of this research are growing and local concerns are prompting calls for social studies of the “trial communities” produced by this scientific work. Drawing on rich, ethnographic and historiographic ­­­material, this volume represents the emergent field of anthropological inquiry that links Africanist ethnography to recent concerns with science, the state, and the culture of late capitalism in Africa.

Parasite Lost: Remembering Modern Times with Kenyan Government Medical Scientists (Book chapter)

Book title: Evidence, ethos, and experiment

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9780857450920 9780857450937 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Berghahn Books Grant: Wellcome Trust - 074772
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Anthropology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 11:01:05
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Medical research has been central to biomedicine in Africa for over a century, and Africa, along with other tropical areas, has been crucial to the development of medical science. At present, study populations in Africa participate in an increasing number of medical research projects and clinical trials, run by both public institutions and private companies. Global debates about the politics and ethics of this research are growing and local concerns are prompting calls for social studies of the “trial communities” produced by this scientific work. Drawing on rich, ethnographic and historiographic ­­­material, this volume represents the emergent field of anthropological inquiry that links Africanist ethnography to recent concerns with science, the state, and the culture of late capitalism in Africa.

České stupňování

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Book Series: Specimina philologiae Slavicae ISBN: 9783876903040 Year: Pages: 232 Language: German
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:31:57
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Die 1972 von den Frankfurter Slavisten Olexa Horbatsch und Gerd Freidhof begründete Reihe Specimina philologiae Slavicae wird heute von Holger Kuße (Dresden), Peter Kosta (Potsdam), Beatrix Kreß (Hildesheim), Franz Schindler (Gießen), Barbara Sonnenhauser (Zürich) und Nadine Thielemann (Wien) herausgeben. In der Reihe erscheinen Monographien, Sammelbände und Lehrbücher zu allen Gebieten der Slavistik, der Sprach-, der Literatur- und der Kulturwissenschaft. In der Sprachwissenschaft erscheinen sowohl sprachhistorische als auch innovative Arbeiten zur Pragmatik und Semantik, zu slavischen Kleinsprachen und zur Diskurslinguistik. In der Literatur- und Kulturwissenschaft gehört zu den besonderen Interessensgebieten die Russische Philosophie.

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