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Antimicrobial peptides and Complement - Maximising the inflammatory response

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197378 Year: Pages: 157 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-737-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Antimicrobial peptides and complement are distinct components of the innate immune defence. While antimicrobial peptides, after cleavage of a preproprotein, have the ability to insert directly in non host membranes, complement requires a sequential enzymatic activation in the fluid phase in order to produce a transmembrane membrane attack complex. Its insertion is controlled by membrane bound regulators. Deficiencies are described for both effectors and relate to increased susceptibility of infection. In addition, however, antimicrobial peptides and complement each influence the activity of inflammatory cells as recent data in the respective research areas shows. This series of articles draws together for the entities of antimicrobial peptides and complement a balance of contributions in the areas of evolution, roles, functions and preclinical applications. By comparing and contrasting antimicrobial peptides and complement, greater cross-disciplinary appreciation will be derived for their individual and overlapping spectra of activity, circumstances of activation and their general ability to more completely inform the inflammatory and cellular response.

State-of-the-Art Research on C1q and the Classical Complement Pathway

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450589 Year: Pages: 100 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-058-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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C1q is the target recognition protein of the classical complement pathway and a major connecting link between innate and acquired immunity. As a charge pattern recognition molecule of innate immunity, C1q can engage a broad range of ligands derived from self, non-self and altered self via its heterotrimeric globular (gC1q) domain and thus trigger the classical complement pathway. The trimeric gC1q signature domain has been identified in a variety of non-complement proteins that can be grouped together as a C1q family. C1q circulates in serum as part of the C1 complex, in association with a catalytic tetrameric assembly of two homologous yet distinct serine proteases, C1r and C1s. Binding of C1q to appropriate targets leads to sequential activation of C1r and C1s, the latter being able to cleave complement components C4 and C2 thereby triggering the complement cascade. Activation of the classical pathway plays an important role in innate immune protection against pathogens and damaged elements from self. However, its involvement has been shown in various pathologies including ischemia-reperfusion injury and hereditary angioedema. Unexpected roles for the classical pathway have also been discovered recently, linked to both physiological and pathological aspects of development, including brain and cancer cells. These new perspectives should arouse renewed interest in a search for specific inhibitors of the classical pathway. In addition, C1q has recently been shown to have a number of functions that are independent of the activation of the classical pathway. This research topic is aimed at providing a state-of-the-art overview of the classical pathway, including, but not restricted to emerging functions of C1q and of the C1 complex, as well as pathological consequences of C1 activation or of the presence of anti-C1q autoantibodies . Contributions are included in the areas such as structural basis of C1q ligand recognition, C1q family proteins, inhibitors of the classical pathway identified in pathogens and improved derived inhibitors, structural determinants of the substrate specificities of C1r and C1s, elucidation of the architecture of C1, structural and functional homology of C1 with the initiating complexes of the lectin complement pathway, and novel involvement of C1q in processes such as ageing, cancer, synaptic pruning, and pregnancy.

Interaction of Nanomaterials with the Immune System: Role in Nanosafety and Nanomedicinenanomedicine

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453870 Year: Pages: 177 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-387-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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The immune system has the double role of maintaining tissue integrity and homeostasis and of protecting the organism from possible dangers, from invading pathogens to environmentally-borne dangerous chemicals. New chemicals recognisable by the immune system are engineered nanomaterials/ nanoparticles, new agents in our environment that are becoming common due to their presence in many products, from constructions and building material (e.g., solar cells, pigments and paints, tiles and masonry materials) to daily products (e.g., food packaging, cosmetics, and cigarettes). Human beings can be accidentally exposed to engineered nanomaterials when these are released from products containing them or during production in workplaces. Furthermore, intentional exposure occurs in medicine, as engineered nanoparticles are used as tools for improving delivery of drugs and vaccines, vaccine adjuvants and contrast agents in therapeutic, preventive and diagnostic strategies. Nanoparticles that come in contact with the immune system after unintentional exposure need to be eliminated from the organism as they represent a potential threat. In this case, however, due to their peculiar characteristics of size, shape, surface charge and persistence, nanoparticles may elicit undesirable reactions and have detrimental effects on the immune system, such as cytotoxicity, inflammation, anaphylaxis, immunosuppression. Conversely, nanomedicines need to escape immune recognition/elimination and must persist in the organism long enough for reaching their target and exerting their beneficial effects. Immune cells and molecules at the body surface (airway and digestive mucosae, skin) are the first that come in contact with nanomaterials upon accidental exposure, while immune effectors in blood are those that more easily come in contact with nanomedical products. Thus, evaluating the interaction of the immune system with nanoparticles/nanomaterials is a topic of key importance both in nanotoxicology and in nanomedicine. Immuno-nanosafety studies consider both accidental exposure to nanoparticles, which may occur by skin contact, ingestion or inhalation (at doses and with a frequency that are not known), and medical exposure, which takes place with a defined administration schedule (route, dose, frequency). Many studies focus on the interaction between the immune system and nanoparticles that, for medical purposes, have been specifically modified to stimulate immunity or to avoid immune recognition, as in the case of vaccine carriers/adjuvants or drug delivery systems, respectively. The aims of this Research Topic is to provide an overview of recent strategies: 1.for assessing the immunosafety of engineered nanomaterials/nanoparticles, in particular in terms of activation of inflammatory responses, such as complement activation and allergic reactions, based on the nanomaterial intrinsic characteristics and on the possible carry-over of bioactive contaminants such as LPS. Production of new nanoparticles taking into account their effects on immune responses, in order to avoid undesirable effects on one hand, and to design particles with desirable effects for medical applications on the other hand; 2.for designing more effective nanomedicines by either avoiding or exploiting their interaction with the immune systems, with particular focus on cancer diagnosis and therapy, and vaccination. This collection of articles gives a comprehensive view of the state-of-the-art of the interaction of nanoparticles with the immune system from the two perspectives of safety and medical use, and aims at providing immunologists with the relevant knowledge for designing improved strategies for immunologically safe nanomaterial applications.

Macromolecular Structure Underlying Recognition in Innate Immunity

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455270 Year: Pages: 151 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-527-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Immune molecules have evolved to distinguish “self “molecules from “non-self”, “altered self” and “danger” molecules. Recognition is mediated via interactions between pattern recognition receptor molecules (PPRs) and their ligands, which include hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions between amino acid residues on the PPRs and uncharged or charged groups on amino acid residues, sugar rings or DNA/RNA molecules. Recognition in innate immunity range from cases (C1q, mannin-binding protein etc) where recognition is orchestrated by interaction between many ligands with one receptor molecule, and density of interaction is necessary for strong specific recognition, distinct from weak non-specific binding, and cases such as TLRs and NLRs where recognition involves complexation of single receptor and ligand, followed by oligomerisation of the receptor molecule. The majority of PPR molecules bind and recognise a wide variety of ligands, e.g TLR4 recognises LPS (gram negative bacteria), Lipotechoic acid (gram positive bacteria), heat shock protein hsp60, respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein etc, molecules that are structurally dissimilar to each other. This indicates considerable flexibility in their binding domains (amino acid residue variations) and modes (hydrophobic and charged, direct or mediated via an adaptor molecule). However, in many cases there is a dearth of structural and molecular data available, required to delineate the mechanism of ligand binding underlining recognition in pathogen receptors in innate immunity. Insights into requirements of conformation, charge, surface etc in the recognition and function of innate immunity receptors and their activation pathways, based on current data can suggest valuable avenues for future work.

Molecular Mechanism of Alzheimer's Disease

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ISBN: 9783039214075 9783039214082 Year: Pages: 228 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-408-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age-related neurological disease that affects tens of millions of people, in addition to their carers. Hallmark features of AD include plaques composed of amyloid beta, as well as neurofibrillary tangles of tau protein. However, despite more than a century of study, the cause of Alzheimer’s disease remains unresolved. The roles of amyloid beta and tau are being questioned and other causes of AD are now under consideration. The contributions of researchers, model organisms, and various hypotheses will be examined in this Special Issue.

Keywords

?-secretase --- amyloid beta --- calcium signaling --- drug target discovery --- endoplasmic reticulum --- inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor --- ion channel --- oxidative stress --- ryanodine receptor --- therapy --- amyloid-? oligomer --- protein aggregation --- A?O receptors --- Alzheimer’s disease --- neurodegeneration --- amyloid ? --- Alzheimer’s disease --- cognitive function --- dairy products --- dementia --- inflammation --- microglia --- Alzheimer’s disease --- yeast --- Tau --- amyloid ? --- ubiquitin --- aggregation --- oligomerization --- prion --- CDK5R1 --- lncRNAs --- Alzheimer’s disease --- miR-15/107 --- NEAT1 --- HOTAIR --- MALAT1 --- heat shock response --- heat shock protein --- Alzheimer’s disease --- beta amyloid --- yeast --- Alzheimer’s disease --- complement receptor 1 --- CR1 length polymorphism --- CR1 density --- complement C3b/C4b receptor --- complement --- dementia --- molecular biology --- neurosciences --- genetic risk --- Alzheimer’s disease --- brain glucose metabolism --- neuronal differentiation --- neuronal degeneration --- Prolyl isomerases --- Pin1 --- type 2 diabetes --- type 3 diabetes --- miR-34c --- dendritic spine --- Alzheimer’s disease --- Alzheimer’s disease --- positron emission tomography (PET) --- magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) --- Alzheimer’s disease --- cystathionine-?-lyase CTH gene --- DNA methylation --- epigenetics --- epigenome-wide association study --- methylome --- methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase MTHFR gene --- nutrition --- S-adenosylmethionine --- vitamin B complex --- Alzheimer’s disease --- sleep disturbance --- sleep fragmentation --- slow-wave sleep --- amyloid beta --- tau --- proteostasis --- default-mode network --- cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia --- APOE gene --- apolipoprotein E --- DNA methylation --- mild cognitive impairment --- Hispanics

Marine Glycobiology, Glycomics and Lectins

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ISBN: 9783039218202 9783039218219 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-821-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:39:37
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Glycans (carbohydrate chains) of marine creatures are rich and diverse in polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids. The chains that are metabolized by glycan-related enzymes (glycosyltransferases and glycosidases) are recognized by glycan-binding proteins (lectins) which regulate cellular processes such as growth, differentiation, and death. Marine glycomics that involves the genome and transcriptome accelerates our understanding of the evolution of glycans, glycan-related enzymes, and lectins. From 2017 to 2019, the Special Issue “Marine Glycobiology, Glycomics and Lectins” of the journal Marine Drugs published scientific articles and reviews, on the background of “glycobiology”—that is, glycan-based biosciences. The aim was to promote the discovery of novel biomolecules that contribute to drug development and clinical studies. This has great potential for establishing connections between the fields of both human health and marine life sciences.This book contains 11 scientific papers representing current topics in comprehensive glycosciences related to therapeutic agents from marine natural products, as outlined.

Venom and Toxin as Targeted Therapy

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ISBN: 9783039211890 9783039211906 Year: Pages: 180 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-190-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Targeted therapy has developed significantly in the last one and half decades, prescribing specific medications for treatment of particular diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. One of the most exciting recent developments in targeted therapies was the isolation of disease-specific molecules from natural resources, such as animal venoms and plant metabolites/toxins, for use as templates for new drug motif designs. In addition, the study of venom proteins/peptides and toxins naturally targeted mammalian receptors and demonstrated high specificity and selectivity towards defined ion channels of cell membranes. Research has also focsed intensely on receptors. The focus of this Special Issue of Toxins addressed the most recent advances using animal venoms, such as frog secretions, bee/ant venoms and plant/fungi toxins, as medicinal therapy. Recent advances in venom/toxin/immunotoxins for targeted cancer therapy and immunotherapy, along with using novel disease-specific venom-based protein/peptide/toxin and currently available FDA-approved drugs for combinationtreatments will be discussed. Finally, we included an overview of select promising toad/snake venom-based peptides/toxins potentially able to address the forthcoming challenges in this field. Both research and review articles proposing novelties or overviews, respectively, were published in this Special Issue after rigorous evaluation and revision by expert peer reviewers.

Keywords

disintegrin --- blood vessel formation --- VEGF --- antioxidant enzymes --- oxidative stress biomarkers --- bicarinalin --- antimicrobial peptide --- Helicobacter pylori --- gastric cells --- bacterial adhesion --- SEM --- atopic dermatitis (AD) --- house dust mite extract (DFE) --- 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) --- bee venom phospholipase A2 (bvPLA2) --- skin inflammation --- CD206 --- mannose receptor --- immunotoxin --- Moxetumomab pasudotox --- targeted therapy --- CD22 --- B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma --- acute lymphoblastic leukemia --- mantle cell lymphoma --- ribosome-inactivating protein --- BLF1 --- eIF4A --- MYCN --- cancer --- neuroblastoma --- apoptosis --- antimicrobial peptide (AMP) --- dermaseptin --- anuran skin secretion --- drug design --- antimicrobial activity --- anticancer activity --- antiviral activity --- Bougainvillea --- bouganin --- cancer therapy --- immunotherapy --- immunotoxins --- ribosome-inactivating proteins --- rRNA N-glycosylase activity --- VB6-845 --- orellanine --- clearance --- fungal toxin --- half-life --- toad toxins --- Chansu --- Huachansu --- cane toad --- bufadienolides --- indolealkylamines --- inflammation --- cancer --- obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) --- snake venom --- cancer --- target therapy --- snake venom --- Malaysian cobras --- N. kaouthia --- N. sumatrana --- O. hannah --- anticancer --- Apis mellifera syriaca --- bee venom --- melittin --- LC-ESI-MS --- solid phase extraction --- in vitro effects --- frog --- mass spectrometry --- molecular cloning --- bombesin-related peptide --- smooth muscle --- Bee venom --- complement system --- decay accelerating factor --- atopic dermatitis --- complement dependent cytotoxicity --- membrane attack complex --- n/a

MERS-CoV

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ISBN: 9783039218509 9783039218516 Year: Pages: 274 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-851-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging zoonotic coronavirus. First identified in 2012, MERS-CoV has caused over 2460 infections and a fatality rate of about 35% in humans. Similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), MERS-CoV likely originated from bats; however, different from SARS-CoV, which potentially utilized palm civets as its intermediate hosts, MERS-CoV likely transmits to humans through dromedary camels. Animal models, such as humanized mice and nonhuman primates, have been developed for studying MERS-CoV infection. Currently, there are no vaccines and therapeutics approved for the prevention and treatment of MERS-CoV infection, although a number of them have been developed preclinically or tested clinically. This book covers one editorial and 16 articles (including seven review articles and nine original research papers) written by researchers working in the field of MERS-CoV. It describes the following three main aspects: (1) MERS-CoV epidemiology, transmission, and pathogenesis; (2) current progress on MERS-CoV animal models, vaccines, and therapeutics; and (3) challenges and future prospects for MERS-CoV research. Overall, this book will help researchers in the MERS-CoV field to further advance their work on the virus. It also has important implications for other coronaviruses as well as viruses outside the coronavirus family with pandemic potentials.

Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs)

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ISBN: 9783039282562 9783039282579 Year: Pages: 390 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-257-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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The cytoplasm of Gram-negative bacteria is bound by three layers: an inner membrane, a layer of peptidoglycan, and an outer membrane. The outer membrane is an asymmetric lipidic bilayer, with phospholipids on its inner surface and lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) on the outside, with the latter being the major component of the outer leaflet and covering nearly three-quarters of the total outer cell surface. All LPSs possess the same general chemical architecture independently of bacterial activity (pathogenic, symbiotic, commensal), ecological niche (human, animal, soil, plant, water), or growth conditions. Endotoxins are large amphiphilic molecules consisting of a hydrophilic polysaccharide component and a covalently bound hydrophobic and highly conserved lipid component, termed lipid A (the endotoxin subunit). The polysaccharide component can be divided into two subdomains: the internal and conserved core region as well as the more external and highly variable O-specific chain, also referred to as the O-antigen due to its immunogenic properties. LPSs are endotoxins, one of the most potent class of activators of the mammalian immune system; they can be released from cell surfaces of bacteria during multiplication, lysis, and death. LPS can act through its biological center (lipid A component) on various cell types, of which macrophages and monocytes are the most important.

Keywords

aspirin --- hepcidin --- P65 (nuclear factor-?B) --- IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 pathway --- lipopolysaccharide (LPS) --- nitric oxide (NO) --- iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1) --- Megalobrama amblycephala --- lipopolysaccharide induced TNF? factor --- lipopolysaccharide stimulation --- innate immune --- Aeromonas --- genomics --- inner core oligosaccharide --- outer core oligosaccharide --- lipopolysaccharide --- lipopolysaccharide --- Erwinia amylovora --- NMR --- ESI FT-ICR --- structural determination --- Bordetellae --- Bordetella holmesii --- endotoxin --- lipid A --- structure --- mass spectrometry --- genomic --- Edwardsiella tarda --- core oligosaccharide --- MALDI-TOF MS --- ESI MSn --- NMR --- genomic --- LPS tolerance --- hypothalamic inflammation --- insulin resistance --- pJNK --- fibroblast --- keratocyte --- cornea --- lipopolysaccharide --- bacteria --- chemokine --- adhesion molecule --- collagen --- tear fluid --- serum resistance --- complement --- Salmonella --- lipopolysaccharide --- sialic acid --- reptile-associated salmonellosis --- sepsis --- time response --- inflammation --- oxidative stress --- endotoxaemia --- mouse --- rat --- lipopolysaccharide --- double-stranded RNA --- epithelial cell --- dendritic cell --- allergic respiratory disorder --- hygiene hypothesis --- rhinovirus --- respiratory syncytial virus --- toll-like receptor --- LPS --- lipopolysaccharide --- heptosyltransferase --- protein dynamics --- glycosyltransferase --- GT-B --- inhibitor design --- lipopolysaccharide --- Coxiella burnetii --- Q fever --- phagosome --- virenose --- Plesiomonas shigelloides --- O-antigen --- lipopolysaccharide --- O-acetylation --- d-galactan I --- HR-MAS --- NMR spectroscopy --- endotoxin --- lipopolysaccharide --- Low Endotoxin Recovery --- phase transitions --- polysorbate --- LPS aggregates --- Small Angle X-ray Scattering --- MAT --- LAL and LER --- anti-conjugate serum --- core oligosaccharide --- lipopolysaccharide --- NMR spectroscopy --- ESI MS --- Proteus penneri

Marine Bioactive Peptides: Structure, Function, and Therapeutic Potential

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ISBN: 9783039215324 9783039215331 Year: Pages: 442 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-533-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This Special Issue Book, “Marine Bioactive Peptides: Structure, Function, andTherapeutic Potential"" includes up-to-date information regarding bioactivepeptides isolated from marine organisms. Marine peptides have been found invarious phyla, and their numbers have grown in recent years. These peptidesare diverse in structure and possess broad-spectrum activities that have greatpotential for medical applications. Various marine peptides are evolutionaryancient molecular factors of innate immunity that play a key role in host defense.A plethora of biological activities, including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral,anticancer, anticoagulant, endotoxin-binding, immune-modulating, etc., makemarine peptides an attractive molecular basis for drug design. This Special IssueBook presents new results in the isolation, structural elucidation, functionalcharacterization, and therapeutic potential evaluation of peptides found inmarine organisms. Chemical synthesis and biotechnological production of marinepeptides and their mimetics is also a focus of this Special Issue Book.

Keywords

sea cucumber --- ACE-inhibitory peptide --- molecular docking --- structure-activity relationship --- plastein reaction --- Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis --- ACE-inhibitory activity --- peptide --- molecular docking --- SHRs --- prostate cancer --- Anthopleura anjunae oligopeptide --- DU-145 cells --- PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway --- cod skin --- NA-inhibitory peptide --- influenza virus --- neuraminidase --- molecular docking --- adsorption --- host defense peptide --- antimicrobial peptide --- anti-LPS factor --- host?microbe relationship --- functional diversity --- invertebrate immunity --- crustacean --- antimicrobial activity --- antimicrobial peptide --- polychaeta --- innate immunity --- BRICHOS domain --- recombinant peptide --- ?-helix --- Rana-box --- nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) --- antimicrobial peptide --- cytotoxicity --- ?-hairpin --- polyphemusins --- tachyplesins --- cell death --- signaling pathways --- Neptunea arthritica cumingii --- multi-functional peptides --- antioxidant activity --- ACE-inhibitory activity --- anti-diabetic activity --- Arenicola marina --- antimicrobial peptides --- arenicin --- complement --- C3a --- acid-sensing ion channel --- animal models --- pain relief --- toxin --- Ugr 9-1 --- APETx2 --- hairtail (Trichiurus japonicas) --- muscle --- peptide --- antioxidant activity --- half-fin anchovy hydrolysates --- Maillard reaction products --- antibacterial peptide --- identification --- self-production of hydrogen peroxide --- membrane damage --- Perinereis aibuhitensis --- decapeptide --- lung cancer --- cell proliferation --- apoptosis --- conotoxins --- conopeptides --- computational studies --- molecular dynamics --- machine learning --- docking --- review --- drug design --- ion channels --- Conus --- conotoxin --- transcriptome sequencing --- phylogeny --- venom duct --- abalone --- peptide --- vasculogenic mimicry --- metastasis --- MMPs --- HIF-1? --- dexamethasone --- myotube atrophy --- protein synthesis --- proteolytic system --- Pyropia yezoensis peptide --- PYP15 --- QAGLSPVR --- antihypertensive effect --- Caco-2 cell monolayer --- transport routes --- oyster zinc-binding peptide --- peptide-zinc complex --- caco-2 cells --- intestinal absorption --- zinc bioavailability --- Chlorella pyrenoidosa protein hydrolysate (CPPH) --- Chlorella pyrenoidosa protein hydrolysate-calcium chelate (CPPH-Ca) --- calcium absorption --- gene expression --- gut microbiota --- cone snails --- conotoxins --- ion channels --- function --- structure --- marine peptides --- arenicin-1 --- molecular symmetry --- structure–activity relationship --- antibacterial --- cytotoxic --- chemical synthesis --- molecular dynamics --- tilapia --- HUVEC --- angiotensin II --- NF-?B --- Nrf2 --- endothelial dysfunction --- conotoxin --- cone snail --- Conus --- Conus ateralbus --- Kalloconus --- n/a

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