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Alternative Models of Addiction

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197132 Year: Pages: 173 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-713-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychiatry --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Abstract

For much of the 20th century, theories of addictive behaviour and motivation were polarized between two models. The first model viewed addiction as a moral failure for which addicts are rightly held responsible and judged accordingly. The second model, in contrast, viewed addiction as a specific brain disease caused by neurobiological adaptations occurring in response to chronic drug or alcohol use, and over which addicts have no choice or control. As our capacity to observe neurobiological phenomena improved, the second model became scientific orthodoxy, increasingly dominating addiction research and informing public understandings of addiction. More recently, however, a dissenting view has emerged within addiction research, based partly on new scientific research and partly on progress in philosophical and psychological understandings of relevant mental phenomena. This view does not revert to treating addiction as a moral failure, but nonetheless holds that addictive behaviour is fundamentally motivated by choice and subject to at least a degree of voluntary control. On this alternative model of addiction, addictive behaviour is an instrumental means to ends that are desired by the individual, although much controversy exists with respect to the rationality or irrationality of these ends, the degree and nature of the voluntary control of addictive behaviour and motivation, the explanation of the difference between addictive and non-addictive behaviour and motivation, and, lastly, the extent to which addictive behaviour and motivation is correctly characterised as pathological or diseased. This research topic includes papers in the traditions of neuroscience, psychology, philosophy, law and social science that explore alternative understandings of addiction.

Persecution, Collaboration, Resistance. Music in the ‘Reichskommissariat Norwegen’ (1940–45)

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ISBN: 9783830941309 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.31244/9783830991304 Language: english
Publisher: Waxmann Verlag
Subject: History --- Music
Added to DOAB on : 2021-01-22 09:18:24
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When Germany invaded Norway on 9 April 1940, the long lasting bilateral relations changed fundamentally. Immediately, the administration of the ‘Reichskommissariat Norwegen’ (responsible for culture and therein music together with the Norwegian puppet regime’s department for culture) implemented the adaption to the new, official National Socialist guidelines.The diversity of music in Norway during the occupation is presented in this book by Norwegian and German authors, confronting research on collaboration, persecution, and resistance for the first time as an international endeavour. The different essays illustrate not only examples of exile and persecution and ask for the consequences of Nazi politics on prominent and forgotten fates, but depict how Norwegian artists and their organisations positioned themselves towards collaboration or resistance during and after the war, as well as contrasting it with the impressions of German musicians, both military and civilian, playing in Norway during the occupation. Including Norway into the international discourse on ‘Music and Nazism’, the articles address readers both interested in the German occupation of Norway, and the implications the German administration and its Norwegian counterparts had on the music life.

New Research in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Major Depression

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ISBN: 9783039210909 9783039210916 Year: Pages: 102 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-091-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:07
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Major depression and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) are now recognized among the most frequent psychiatric disorders, affecting 16–17% and 2–3% of the general population, respectively. They are commonly characterized by: i) a high level of psychiatric and somatic comorbidities; ii) a recurrence or chronic profile; and iii) a negative impact on daily functions, thereby leading to a profound impairment of quality of life. Despite significant advances in pharmacological and psychological therapies over the last decades, unsuccessful responses to standard treatment strategies are classically observed in approximately 20–30% of cases. Therefore, there is a significant need for improving the pathophysiological knowledge through a better identification of environmental, clinical, psychological, genetic, anatomical, and biological determinants, specifically implied in the development, the phenotypic expression, and the relapsing course and/or contributing to the therapeutic failure in major depression and OCD. We are convinced that this research approach is particularly relevant providing critical support for the promotion of innovative treatment alternatives potentially useful for the management of resistant forms of major depression and OCD.

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