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De samhällsbesvärliga

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ISBN: 9789170617614 Year: Pages: 384 DOI: 10.22188/kriterium.15 Language: Swedish
Publisher: Kriterium
Subject: Psychiatry --- Medicine (General) --- Social Sciences --- History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-14 11:21:03
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"In inter-war Sweden, the psychiatric diagnosis of psychopathy served as a controversial but powerful tool for the management of people who failed to live up to contemporary civic ideals. The diagnosis was based on theories of a broad spectrum of biologically-based disorders in the borderland between normality and actual mental illness. The disturbances were assumed to manifest themselves as, for example, homosexuality, hysterical attacks, emotional coldness, mythomania, or restlessness. Another controversial diagnosis was paranoia querulans or querulous paranoia, a disease that was linked to the emergence of the modern state and its rule of law, and thought to manifest itself mainly in hyperbolic complaints against supposed wrongdoings. Thus, the disorder implicated an excessive use of one's civil rights. A particular dilemma related to this disease was that the kind of behaviour that had usually led to the diagnosis and subsequent psychiatric confinement, namely a ardent manner of writing letters to public authorities, was precisely what was required for discharge. In De samhällsbesvärliga (The Social Troublemakers), historian of science and ideas Annika Berg examines how patients described as psychopaths or querulants could negotiate for discharge with doctors and authorities in 1930s and 40s Sweden. This was a period in time when the system of psychiatric care in Sweden was greatly expanded in answer to a perceived shortage, but was also transformed into a somewhat more open apparatus with possibilities to apply for preliminary discharge and other forms of outpatient solutions. It was also a time when psychiatry was under attack from different quarters, and psychiatrists were accused of using flexible diagnoses such as psychopathy to confine people wrongly. Against this backdrop, how did the management of psychopaths and querulants fit with contemporary ideals of citizenship and democracy? How did the patients view themselves? And how were negotiations in individual cases affected by notions of, for example, class, gender and sexuality?"

Cinema of Confinement

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ISBN: 9780810139220 9780810139213 9780810139237 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Northwestern University Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 103110
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-07 11:21:02
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In this book, Thomas J. Connelly draws on a number of key psychoanalytic concepts from the works of Jacques Lacan, Slavoj Žižek, Joan Copjec, Michel Chion, and Todd McGowan to identify and describe a genre of cinema characterized by spatial confinement. Examining classic films such as Alfred Hitchcock's Rope and Stanley Kubrick's The Shining, as well as current films such as Room, Green Room, and 10 Cloverfield Lane, Connelly shows that the source of enjoyment of confined spaces lies in the viewer's relationship to excess.  Cinema of Confinement offers rich insights into the appeal of constricted filmic spaces at a time when one can easily traverse spatial boundaries within the virtual reality of cyberspace.

Keywords

Arts --- Cinema --- Psychoanalysis --- space --- confinement --- Kubrik --- Hitchcock --- film

Self-Assembly of Polymers

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039285068 / 9783039285075 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-507-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Nowadays, polymer self-assembly has become extremely attractive for both biological (drug delivery, tissue engineering, scaffolds) and non-biological (packaging, semiconductors) applications. In nature, a number of key biological processes are driven by polymer self-assembly, for instance protein folding. Impressive morphologies can be assembled from polymers thanks to a diverse range of interactions involved, e.g., electrostatics, hydrophobic, hots-guest interactions, etc. Both 2D and 3D tailor-made assemblies can be designed through modern powerful techniques and approaches such as the layer-by-layer and the Langmuir-Blodgett deposition, hard and soft templating. This Special Issue highlights contributions (research papers, short communications, review articles) that focus on recent developments in polymer self-assembly for both fundamental understanding the assembly phenomenon and real applications.

Intermittency and Self-Organisation in Turbulence and Statistical Mechanics

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ISBN: 9783039211081 9783039211098 Year: Pages: 298 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-109-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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There is overwhelming evidence, from laboratory experiments, observations, and computational studies, that coherent structures can cause intermittent transport, dramatically enhancing transport. A proper description of this intermittent phenomenon, however, is extremely difficult, requiring a new non-perturbative theory, such as statistical description. Furthermore, multi-scale interactions are responsible for inevitably complex dynamics in strongly non-equilibrium systems, a proper understanding of which remains a main challenge in classical physics. As a remarkable consequence of multi-scale interaction, a quasi-equilibrium state (the so-called self-organisation) can however be maintained. This special issue aims to present different theories of statistical mechanics to understand this challenging multiscale problem in turbulence. The 14 contributions to this Special issue focus on the various aspects of intermittency, coherent structures, self-organisation, bifurcation and nonlocality. Given the ubiquity of turbulence, the contributions cover a broad range of systems covering laboratory fluids (channel flow, the Von Kármán flow), plasmas (magnetic fusion), laser cavity, wind turbine, air flow around a high-speed train, solar wind and industrial application.

Improved Reservoir Models and Production Forecasting Techniques for Multi-Stage Fractured Hydrocarbon Wells

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039218929 9783039218936 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-893-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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The massive increase in energy demand and the related rapid development of unconventional reservoirs has opened up exciting new energy supply opportunities along with new, seemingly intractable engineering and research challenges. The energy industry has primarily depended on a heuristic approach—rather than a systematic approach—to optimize and tackle the various challenges when developing new and improving the performance of existing unconventional reservoirs. Industry needs accurate estimations of well production performance and of the cumulative estimated ultimate reserves, accounting for uncertainty. This Special Issue presents 10 original and high-quality research articles related to the modeling of unconventional reservoirs, which showcase advanced methods for fractured reservoir simulation, and improved production forecasting techniques.

Advancements in Gel Science—A Special Issue in Memory of Toyoichi Tanaka

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ISBN: 9783039213436 9783039213443 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-344-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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A gel is a state of matter that consists of a three-dimensional cross-linked polymer network and a large amount of solvent. Because of their structural characteristics, gels play important roles in science and technology. The science of gels has attracted much attention since the discovery of the volume phase transition by Professor Toyoichi Tanala at MIT in 1978. MDPI planned to publish a Special Issue in Gels to celebrate the 40th anniversary of this discovery, which received submissions of 13 original papers and one review from various areas of science. We believe that readers will find this Special Issue informative as to the recent advancements of gel research and the broad background of gel science.

Keywords

gel --- thermoresponsive property --- monomer sequence --- co-crosslinking --- copolymerization --- acrylamide derivative --- swelling --- volume phase transition --- agarose gel --- compression --- solvent transport --- sucrose --- xylitol --- volume phase transition --- effects of electric charge --- swelling of thermosensitive gels --- sol-gel transition --- site-bond correlated-percolation model for polymer gelation --- gelation temperature --- cloud point temperature --- spinodal temperature --- spinodal decomposition --- janus particle --- anisotropic shape --- phase separation --- wetting --- micrometric confinement --- micropipette aspiration --- PVA gel --- gamma ray sterilization --- artificial hydrogel cartilage --- frictional property --- wear --- xerogel --- Brunauer-Emmett-Teller theory --- Barrett-Joyner-Halenda analysis --- temperature --- solids content --- drying --- solvent exchange --- microgel --- electrophoresis --- light scattering --- paint coating --- wrinkle --- swelling --- buckling --- Sephadex® (crosslinked dextran) --- crosslink density (density of crosslinks) --- ice grain --- ice crystallization during rewarming --- glassy water --- X-ray CT --- XRD --- poly(vinyl alcohol) --- chemical gel --- microcrystallite --- hydrogen bond --- swelling behavior --- hysteresis --- hydrogel --- friction --- fatigue --- wear --- fracture --- crack --- adhesion --- delamination --- poly (acryl amide) gel --- time domain reflectometry (TDR) of dielectric spectroscopy --- pulse field gradient spin echo method of nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR) --- scaling analysis --- fractal analysis --- heterogeneous gelation dynamics --- moving boundary picture --- phase transition dynamics --- kinetic coefficient --- blood coagulation --- n/a

Optoelectronic Nanodevices

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ISBN: 9783039286966 / 9783039286973 Year: Pages: 338 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-697-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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During the last decade, novel graphene related materials (GRMs), perovskites, as well as metal oxides and other metal nanostructures have received the interest of the scientific community. Due to their extraordinary physical, optical, thermal, and electrical properties, which are correlated with their 2D ultrathin atomic layer structure, large interlayer distance, ease of functionalization, and bandgap tunability, these nanomaterials have been applied in the development or the improvement of innovative optoelectronic applications, as well as the expansion of theoretical studies and simulations in the fast-growing fields of energy (photovoltaics, energy storage, fuel cells, hydrogen storage, catalysis, etc.), electronics, photonics, spintronics, and sensing devices. The continuous nanostructure-based applications development has provided the ability to significantly improve existing products and to explore the design of materials and devices with novel functionalities. This book demonstrates some of the most recent trends and advances in the interdisciplinary field of optoelectronics. Most articles focus on light emitting diodes (LEDs) and solar cells (SCs), including organic, inorganic, and hybrid configurations, whereas the rest address photodetectors, transistors, and other well-known dynamic optoelectronic devices. In this context, this exceptional collection of articles is directed at a broad scientific audience of chemists, materials scientists, physicists, and engineers, with the goals of highlighting the potential of innovative optoelectronic applications incorporating nanostructures and inspiring their realization.

Keywords

localized surface plasmon --- green LED --- cathodoluminescence --- FDTD --- NiCo2S4 nanotubes --- Ti porous film --- quantum dot --- solar cells --- counter electrode --- metasurfaces --- orthogonal polarization --- high-efficiency --- polarization analyzer --- green LEDs --- InGaN/GaN superlattice --- V-pits --- external quantum efficiency --- PeLEDs --- OAB --- perovskite --- quantum confinement effect --- transparent electrode --- Ag film --- nucleation layer --- organic solar cell --- graphene oxide --- oxidation --- photodetector --- light-emitting diodes --- quantum dots --- stability --- color-conversion efficiency --- photoluminescence --- p-type InGaN --- graded indium composition --- hole injection --- quantum efficiency --- green LED --- 2D perovskite --- controllable synthesis --- flexible substrate --- photodetector --- photoelectric performance --- photodetector --- organic --- photomultiplication --- tunneling --- external quantum efficiency --- liquid crystals --- metasurfaces --- plasmonics --- actively tunable nanodevices --- solvent --- compact --- smooth --- perovskite solar cells --- indium nanoparticles (In NPs) --- textured silicon solar cells --- antireflective coating (ARC) --- plasmonic forward scattering --- InN/p-GaN heterojunction --- interface --- photovoltaics --- GaN --- LED --- nano-grating --- metamaterials --- mid infrared --- graphene split-ring --- gold split-ring --- electromagnetically induced transparency effect --- transparent conductive electrode --- Ga2O3 --- AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode --- transmittance --- sheet resistance --- electrowetting --- tunable absorbers --- subwavelength metal grating --- plasmon resonance --- field emission --- graphene --- reduced graphene oxide --- polymer composites --- graphene ink --- cold cathode --- Fowler–Nordheim --- CdTe microdots --- Schottky barrier --- photodetector --- piezo-phototronic effect --- UV LEDs --- double-layer ITO --- pinhole pattern --- current spreading --- light output power --- flip-chip mini-LED --- prism-structured sidewall --- waveguide photons --- light extraction --- erbium --- silicon transistor --- photocurrent --- colorimetry --- excitation wavelength --- light-emitting diode --- quantum dots --- ternary organic solar cells --- graphene ink --- functionalization --- air-processed --- cascade effect --- charge transfer --- n/a

Design and Development of Nanostructured Thin Films

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039287383 / 9783039287390 Year: Pages: 386 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-739-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Due to their unique size-dependent physicochemical properties, nanostructured thin films are used in a wide range of applications from smart coating and drug delivery to electrocatalysis and highly-sensitive sensors. Depending on the targeted application and the deposition technique, these materials have been designed and developed by tuning their atomic-molecular 2D- and/or 3D-aggregation, thickness, crystallinity, and porosity, having effects on their optical, mechanical, catalytic, and conductive properties. Several open questions remain about the impact of nanomaterial production and use on environment and health. Many efforts are currently being made not only to prevent nanotechnologies and nanomaterials from contributing to environmental pollution but also to design nanomaterials to support, control, and protect the environment. This Special Issue aims to cover the recent advances in designing nanostructured films focusing on environmental issues related to their fabrication processes (e.g., low power and low cost technologies, the use of environmentally friendly solvents), their precursors (e.g., waste-recycled, bio-based, biodegradable, and natural materials), their applications (e.g., controlled release of chemicals, mimicking of natural processes, and clean energy conversion and storage), and their use in monitoring environment pollution (e.g., sensors optically- or electrically-sensitive to pollutants)

Keywords

InAlN --- nanospiral --- metamaterial --- sputtering --- chirality --- microparticle deposition --- self-assembly --- homogeneity --- monomer synthesis --- mask --- hazardous organic solvents --- photonic nanostructures --- self-assembly --- polymer nanoparticles --- biomimetic solvent sensors --- iridescence --- mesoporous --- Al2O3 --- MgO --- poly(dimethylacrylamide) --- hydrogel --- thin film --- spin coating --- SEM --- FIB --- Kr physisorption --- hydrogenated amorphous carbon films --- metallic nanoparticles --- hybrid deposition system --- nanoscratch --- nanocomposites --- aqueous dispersion --- carbon nanotube --- graphene oxide --- ink --- rod coating --- electrical conductivity --- optical transmittance --- mechanical flexibility --- silk sericin --- agarose --- lysozyme --- composite gel --- wound dressing --- nanofiber --- lamination --- water filtration --- CdTe --- self-catalysed --- wires --- Mg alloy --- LDH --- corrosion --- deposition --- coating --- ReB2/TaN multilayers --- modulation structure --- first-principles calculation --- interfacial model --- adsorption energy --- interfacial energy --- biomaterial --- biomedical --- nanofibers --- scaffolds --- reinforced --- hybrid material --- thermal analysis --- nanofibrous membranes --- light trapping --- silicon thin film --- photovoltaics --- polystyrene sphere assisted lithography --- nanostructured back reflectors --- Raman scattering --- quantum confinement --- electron–phonon coupling --- polar semiconductors --- zinc oxide --- metal-organic framework --- microscopy --- thin films --- powders --- electrodeposition --- platinum --- highly oriented pyrolytic graphite --- 2D growth --- barrier material --- nanocoating of SiOx --- polymeric matrix --- plasma deposition --- PVD --- PA-PVD --- PECVD --- permeation --- CERAMIS® --- SorpTest --- iron oxides --- FeO --- Fe3O4 --- ultrathin films --- epitaxial growth --- platinum --- ruthenium --- symmetry --- LEEM --- LEED --- XPEEM --- electrodeposition --- platinum --- highly oriented pyrolytic graphite --- 2D growth --- thin films --- TiO2NPs --- AuNPs --- photocatalysis --- mercury vapors adsorbing layer --- PAS device --- iron oxides --- ultrathin films --- silver --- epitaxial growth --- structural characterization --- STM --- LEED --- XPS --- DFT --- model system --- Pt thin deposits --- galvanic displacement --- UPD --- SLRR --- electrocatalysis --- nanostructured films --- birefringence --- nanocrystalline cellulose --- Mueller matrix --- vanadium dioxide --- post-treatment --- plasma irradiation --- luminous transmittance --- phase transition performance --- electrospinning deposition --- chemosensor --- nanocomposite conductive polymers --- polyhydroxibutyrate --- polystyrene --- H2TPP --- VOCs selectivity --- mesoporous graphene --- thin film --- nanostructure --- CaxCoO2 --- sputtering --- phase transformation --- Ge surface engineering --- La2O3 passivation layer --- atomic layer deposition --- electrical properties

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