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H5 Consequences of Anthropogenic Changes in the Sensory Landscape of Marine Animals (Book chapter)

Book title: Oceanography and Marine Biology

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Oceanography and Marine Biology : An Annual Review ISBN: 9780367134150 9780429026379 Year: Pages: 38 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-09-14 11:21:15
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Abstract

Human activities are altering a wide range of key marine cues at local and global scales, and it is important to know how animals may respond. Species survival and performance depend on the ability of individuals to successfully extract and interpret information from their environment about preferred abiotic conditions and the presence of prey, predators, competitors, mates and suitable habitats. Such information is made available via a wide range of abiotic and biotic cues that can be detected by organisms through various sensory modalities. Global anthropogenic changes, however, are rapidly altering the sensory landscape (‘cuescape’) and behaviour of animals by modifying the production, transmission and interpretation of critical natural cues, as well as introducing novel anthropogenic cues. To date, most studies have focussed on how animals respond to such changes rather than investigating how the cues themselves are changing. Because the responses that individuals show ultimately depend on factors affecting both the generation and reception of cues, better integration is needed to understand how these factors ultimately affect individual performance. This review provides a holistic assessment of how multiple cues (e.g. sounds, visual cues, chemicals, salinity, temperature and electromagnetism) are being altered at different spatial and temporal scales in marine habitats. Natural cuescapes are being modified by humans and novel anthropogenic cues are being introduced into the ocean, both of which can directly and indirectly alter the diversity and strength of natural cues. Examples are provided of how species might respond to such changes, focussing on what coping and adaptation mechanisms are available for species to persist in a future ocean. While ‘sensory generalist’ species may prevail in marine environments with diminishing or masked natural cues, some ‘sensory specialists’ might sustain themselves via sensory compensation, behavioural plasticity or avoidance of detrimental cues in the short term, or via genetic adaptation in the longer term. Due to the rapid loss of natural cuescapes, alternative research agendas are needed to monitor and measure multicue changes throughout the oceans. Together with mechanistic and field studies of animal responses, such research can inform management by identifying the species most at risk and the areas that may be suitable for cuescape preservation.

Chapter 9 EU External Action, Intention and Explanation (Book chapter)

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9780367346492 Year: Pages: 10 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-13 11:21:03
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"“Unintended consequences” is an umbrella concept. It comprises
phenomena that differ in crucial respects and consequently, without
refinement, it remains a rather blunt instrument for policy
analysis. The contributions in this volume, however, show that
disentangling unintended consequences by making clear distinctions
between various types, makes the concept much more useful
for policy analysis. Assessing the impact of EU foreign policies as
studied in this volume, we show that “bonuses”, “windfalls”, “accidents”,
and “trade-offs” – all unintended – are very different when
it comes to the explanation of policy outcomes, or to allocating
responsibility for them."

Le séisme de Yalova-İzmit-İstanbul

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ISBN: 9782906053526 9782362450150 Year: Language: French
Publisher: Institut français d’études anatoliennes
Added to DOAB on : 2017-05-17 15:07:11
License: OpenEdition licence for Books

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Les tremblements de terre sont de terribles révélateurs des dysfonctionnements de l’urbanisme et, au-delà, de ceux de la gestion des espaces urbains et de leur croissance. Celui du 17 août 1999 n’échappe pas à cette règle implacable. En effet, bien qu’attendu et presqu’annoncé, il a révélé de façon fracassante les faiblesses accumulées des modalités du développement urbain en Turquie. Au-delà, la catastrophe a eu pour effet de faire resurgir et de mettre sur le devant de la scène et en débat...

Chapter 3 Horizontal and Vertical Diversity (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9780367346492 Year: Pages: 15 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-13 11:21:03
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"Unintended consequences arising from EU external migration policy
are a result of the multi-actor nature of this policy and of policy
interactions. In addition, scholars face serious methodological challenges
in establishing what the EU’s ‘intent’ is in external migration
policy and, therefore, in determining which consequences are
intended and which are unintended. The literature on the implementation
and evaluation of EU external migration policy is in its infancy,
and future work should take into account all policy outcomes – both
those that were intended and those that were not."

Chapter 1 Unintended Consequences of EU External Action (Book chapter)

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9780367346492 Year: Pages: 16 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-13 11:21:03
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"There is a gap in IR and EU scholarship concerning unintended
consequences in an international context, leaving this important
phenomenon understudied. To fill this gap, a conceptualisation of
unintended consequences is offered, and a set of common
research questions are presented, highlighting the nature (what),
the causes (why) and the modes of management (how) of unintended
consequences of EU external action. The Special Issue
contributes to the study of the EU as an international actor by
broadening the notion of the EU’s impact abroad to include the
unintended consequences of EU (in)actions and by shedding new
light on the conceptual paradigms that explain EU external action."

Turquie : l’après-séismes

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ISBN: 9782906053656 9782362450211 Year: Language: French
Publisher: Institut français d’études anatoliennes
Added to DOAB on : 2017-05-17 15:07:11
License: OpenEdition licence for Books

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Un an après les terribles tremblements de terre d’août et novembre 1999, le besoin s’est fait sentir de dresser un nouveau bilan, avec un peu de recul. En effet, le problème des tremblements de terre n’est pas résolu, la question, multiforme, reste entière : les plaies les plus directes et visibles sont loin d’être vraiment pansées et les symptômes des traumatismes endurés restent omniprésents. En d’autres termes, lapsychose sismique sévit toujours, tantôt latente, tantôt pleinement perceptib...

Chapter 7 Unintended Consequences of State-building Projects in Contested States (Book chapter)

Author:
ISBN: 9780367346492 Year: Pages: 17 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-13 11:21:03
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The existing literature on state-building has focused mainly on
post-conflict cases and ‘conventional’ examples of statehood,
without taking into consideration the particularities of states that
remain internally and/or externally contested. The EU’s engagement
in Palestinian state-building through the deployment of
EUPOL COPPS and EUBAM Rafah has generated various types of
unintended consequences: anticipated and unanticipated, positive
and negative, desirable and undesirable, some of which fulfill and
some of which frustrate the initial intention. These have important
reverberations for the EU’s conflict resolution strategies in Israel
and Palestine, the most important being the strengthening of
power imbalances and the enforcement of the status quo.

Infants’ Understanding and Production of Goal-Directed Actions in the Context of Social and Object-Related Interactions

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452552 Year: Pages: 121 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-255-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Since the discovery of mirror neurons, the study of human infant goal-directed actions and object manipulation has burgeoned into new and exciting research directions. A number of infant studies have begun emphasizing the social context of action to understand what infants can infer when looking at others performing goal-directed actions or manipulating objects. Others have begun addressing how looking at actions in a social context, or even simply looking at objects in the immediate environment influence the way infants learn to direct their own actions on objects. Researchers have even begun investigating what aspects of goal-directed actions and object manipulation infants imitate when such actions are being modeled by a social partner, or they have been asking which cues infants use to predict others' actions. A growing understanding of how infants learn to reach, perceive information for reaching, and attend social cues for action has become central to many recent studies. These new lines of investigation and others have benefited from the use of a broad range of new investigative techniques. Eye-tracking, brains imaging techniques and new methodologies have been used to scrutinize how infants look, process, and use information to act themselves on objects and/or the social world, and to infer, predict, and recognize goal-directed actions outcomes from others. This Frontiers Research topic brings together empirical reports, literature reviews, and theory and hypothesis papers that tap into some of these exciting developmental questions about how infants perceive, understand, and perform goal-directed actions broadly defined. The papers included either stress the neural, motor, or perceptual aspects of infants’ behavior, or any combination of those dimensions as related to the development of early cognitive understanding and performance of goal-directed actions.

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